During the Isu Era, the First Civilization built at least three sites near the future location of Rome. The Isu Jupiter, Minerva and Juno were remembered as the Capitoline Triad and assimilated to gods.
Kingdom of Rome编辑
Archaeological evidence supports that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on Colle Palatino, the future site of the Roman Forum, upon which there are several caves. According to legends, the city of Rome was founded in 753 BCE by the King Romulus, son of the god Mars bred by a she-wolf on the Palatine Hill, which became the place of the royal palace.
Republic of Rome编辑
In 179 BCE, the Pons Aemilius connecting the west bank of the Tiber to Rome was rebuilt in stone. Between 144 and 140 BCE, the Praetor Quintus Marcius Rex built the longest aqueduct of the city, running on 91 miles. In 62 BCE, Lucius Fabricius built a bridge connecting the Tiber Island to Rome.
In 90 BCE, Tivoli received official Roman citizenship and became a resort destination for the Roman elite who travelled there for its beauty and superb water.
After Caesar's death, the Republic was led by Marcus Antonius, Lepidus and Octavianus, Caesar's adoptive son. As Antonius committed suicide after being defeated by Octavianus in 30 BCE, Rome became an Empire in 27 BCE with Octavianus as his first Emperor known as Augustus. Under his reign, he constructed many monuments. He finished the Basilica Julia in honor of his adoptive father using it as a court of civil law as well as for sessions of the Centumviri who presided over matters of inheritance. He ordered the construction of the Pantheon to celebrate the victory of Agrippa over Antonius, and the Mausoleum of Augustus where he was buried with other important persons.
In the year 41 CE, the Hidden Ones Leonius assassinated the Emperor and Templar puppet Caligula in Rome, whom he stabbed with a dagger. His successor Claudius finished the construction of his aqueduct in 52 CE.
Between 54 and 68 CE, Rome was ruled by the Emperor Nero, who was known for his tyranny and extravagance. In 64 CE, a Great Fire occurred in Rome. Some accused Nero of intentionally started the fire to make room for his golden palace on Esquiline Hill. It was also likely that Nero used the aqueducts to build his palace because they did not give water to civilians anymore for a time. As Nero accused the Christians to have started the Fire. The Apostle and Jesus' disciple Peter was crucified in the Circus of Nero circa 68 CE where he was buried. As Peter was the wielder of a Staff of Eden, a Piece of Eden, all the leaders of Christian community and later the Popes kept the artifact.
Under the Flavian dynasty, many monuments were constructed by the Emperors. Between 72 and 80 CE, the Colosseum was built as a place of entertainment. The Temple of Vespasian and the Arch of Titus honored the two first Emperor of the dynasty. Domitian ordered the construction of a stadium in Rome.
During the 2nd century CE, the Roman Empire knew a Golden Age under the Nerva-Antonine. The Emperor Trajan and his architect Apollodorus of Damascus constructed three monuments to the glory of the Emperor: a market, a column and public baths on the ruins of Nero's Golden Palace. Trajan's successor, Hadrian ordered the construction of a mausoleum bigger than Augustus' one and restored the Pantheon. In 140 CE, a part of the Circus Maximus collapsed, killing 1,112 spectators. The same year, the Empress Faustina the Elder died. Her husband Antoninus Pius erected a temple in her honor on the Roman Forum. 20 years later, the Emperor died and the temple was also dedicated to him. During this century, the Catacombs of Rome were constructed and served as a buried place for the Christians who hid in the city.
At the end of the 2nd century, the Severian dynasty ruled over Rome. To celebrate his victory over the Parthians, the Emperor Septimius Severus constructed an arch near the Colosseum. His sons Geta and Caracalla succeeded to him but in 211 CE, Caracalla killed Geta and destroyed all records of Geta's existence, as his representations on the arch. Caracalla ordered the construction of public baths with the Acqua Antoniniana and restored the Porta Tiburtina.
In 271 CE, the Emperor Aurelian began the construction of walls around the city, connecting numerous arches and gates. His successor Probus completed his work in 275 CE. In 283 CE, the Temple of Saturn was restored.
At the end of the 3rd century, the Emperor Diocletian constructed public baths on the Viminal Hill. In 308 CE, the Emperor Maxentius began the construction of a basilica in the Roman Forum. After being defeated by Constantine I, the basilica was finished by his Maxentius' rival, who constructed an arch to remember his victory. Constantine also destroyed the barracks in the Castra Praetoria as the Praetorian Guard sided with Maxentius during the war, disbanding it in the process. The Emperor also built his lavish private baths on the Quirinal hill.
As Constantine authorized the Christian religion, in 326 CE the St. Peter's Basilica was constructed on the site of Peter's death. The Lateran Palace became the principal residence of the Pope.
In 401 CE, Hadrian's Mausoleum was changed into a military fortress. In 410 CE, the King of the Visigoths Alaric I entered in Rome by the Porta Salaria with his army and began to sack the city. The Basilica Aemilia was destroyed during the attack and the urns and ashes of Hadian's Mausoleum were scattered by looters. In 476 CE, the Western Roman Empire fell, ending the rule of the Romans on the city.
During the 6th century, Rome was disputed between the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Romans. In 536 CE, the Roman general Belisarius entered in the city by the Porta Asinaria and took back Rome. A year later, the Ostrogoths besieged the city, cutting the water supply and attacking the Hadrian's Mausoleum. During the Gothic Wars in 545 CE, much of Aurelian Walls were destroyed by the army of the Ostrogoth King Totila. In 546 CE, a traitor opened the Porta Asinaria to the Ostrogoths who sacked the city. In 549 CE, the treason of the Isaurian garrison permitted to the Ostrogoths to enter by the Porta Ostiense and sacked another time the city.
During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church increased their influence in Rome. Around 550s CE, Pelagius I ordered the construction of the Church of the Twelve Holy Apostles to celebrate the victory of the Roman General Narses over the Ostrogoths. At the end of the 6th century, Gregory I built the church Santa Maria in Vallicella. In 609 CE, Boniface IV converted the Pantheon into a church.
Beginning of the Papal State编辑
In 852 CE, after a sack from Muslim raiders, the Vatican was enclosed by the Leonine Walls, composed by the Porta Viridaria and the Porta Cavalleggeri. During the 11th Century, the Church to convert the Ruins of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina into the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda.
During the 12th century, the House of Colonna occupied the area around the Mausoleum of Augustus, which was fortified and converted into part of the Castel Sant'Angelo. At this period, a Commune of Rome was established but eventually failed in 1167 and the Colonna family was disgraced, banished from the city and their fortification was dismantled.
During the 13th and the 14th century, the Capitoline Hill became the siege of the communal power with the construction of the Palazzo dei Conservatori as the seat of the Roman magistrates and the Palazzo Senatorio for the judges. On the ruins of the Temple of Juno was constructed the church Santa Maria in Aracoeli.
In 1400 was built the Rosa in Fiore, one of the most popular brothel Rome, also known for its preferential treatment for members of the Vatican. In 1417, the Pope Martin V from the Colonna family ordered the restoration of the Church of the Twelve Holy Apostles.
The Jubilee of 1450 was particularly deadly for the pilgrims. The balustrades of the Ponte Sant'Angelo buckled due to a surging mob of pilgrims making their way to the Basilica San Pietro, leading to a mass drowning. Several hundred pilgrims were also trampled to death moving between churches in 1450. The populace was so traumatized by the insanity of the events unfolding, that performers stayed in the city for several years afterward to help ease Jubilee withdrawal.
In 1461, Pope Pius II built the Rocca Pia in an attempt to control the population of Tivoli which often rioted. The fortress stood as a symbol of the omnipotence of the papal temporal power. During the Renaissance, Tivoli had open several open-air travertine mines, excavating stone for the palazzos and courtyards of Rome.
在位期间，西克斯特四世在1473年到1479年间修成了西斯托桥，用以连接中央区与梵蒂冈区。.1483年，西斯廷礼拜堂破土动工，作为圣伯多禄大殿旁的教皇礼拜堂。Artists as Pietro Perugino, Sandro Botticelli and Domenico Ghirlandaio worked on the painting of the chapel.礼拜堂建在梵蒂冈密室之上。1484年教皇去世，一群暴徒洗劫了罗马。弗利统治者、教皇侄子吉罗拉莫·利拉奥的妻子卡特琳娜·斯福尔扎利用士兵与加农炮组织起了梵蒂冈的防御。
The Assassin Brotherhood also intervened in Rome in the 1490's. Around 1493, the condottiero and Assassin Bartolomeo d'Alviano arrived in the city with his companies installing in a barrack in Rome. His guild controlled the fighting club in the city and recruited the champion Corvo Antonelli in the Brotherhood. In 1496, Bartolomeo allied with the House of Orsini to fight Cesare.
In 1497, the Assassin Perotto Calderon was sent undercover in the Borgia court as a courier but he compromised the Brotherhood when he had an affair with Rodrigo's daughter Lucrezia which resulted to the birth of Giovanni Borgia and the death of Perotto in 1498. The Assassin and Florentine thief La Volpe arrived in Rome and established a guild to fight the Cento Occhi. The Assassin Niccolò Machiavelli served as a diplomate in the Papal court.
In 1500, Cesare Borgia led the Papal Army to Monteriggioni, the headquarters of the Assassins. During the siege, Cesare took the Apple of Eden, captured Caterina Sforza and killed the leader of the Assassin Mario Auditore, Ezio's uncle. Escaping from the city with the population, Ezio returned to Rome to exact his revenge. At the time, the city had fallen far behind those of Florence and Venice, and had grown stagnant in terms of development, due to the influence of the Borgia.
Allying with Machiavelli, Ezio decided to increase their network in the city. In order to free Rome of the Borgia influence, Ezio killed the overlords of the towers and burned the structures themselves to the ground, taking them over for the Assassin Order afterwards and renovating the districts. Claudia Auditore da Firenze, Ezio's sister, took control of the Rosa in Fiore, having information from the men of the Vatican. Ezio helped Bartolomeo in his fight with the French. With la Volpe, Ezio founded La Volpe Addormentata, a tavern that served as the headquarters of the Roman thieves. Ezio also accomplished some assassination contract for Machiavelli and also tracked the Followers of Romulus to exposed their ties with the Borgia.
In 1501, the ancient speaking statue of Pasquino was unearthed at Piazza Navona. The citizens used it as a sign post for social parodies and anonymous derogatory comments, which were attached to it for all to read.
In August 1503, Ezio killed Juan Borgia the Elder, cutting the funds of Cesare. Octavian de Valois knew the same fate. After the death of their general, the French troops flew Rome. Ezio saved the actor Pietro Rossi from Micheletto Corella to obtain the key of the Castel Sant'Angelo. As the new Mentor of the Assassins, Ezio infiltrated the Papal residence and witnessed the assassination of Rodrigo by Cesare as he refused to give him the Apple of Eden. The Assassin and the Templar ran out for the artifact and Ezio recovered it in the place of St Peter's. During the following months, the Assassins and the Templars fought for the control of the city. Ezio used the power of the Apple to defeat the Borgia. In December, after a fight between the two factions on the Piazza del Popolo, the Pope Julius II had Cesare arrested, finishing the Templar influence on the city.
In 1506, the Hermeticists led by Ercole Massimo kidnapped Leonardo da Vinci to open the Temple of Pythagoras hid in Roman Underground. Ezio recovered the paintings of his friend in to find the hidden clues leading to the Temple. After killing all the Hermeticists and saving Leonardo, the duo decided to enter in the Pythagorean Vault inside the Temple, which gave the coordinates for the Grand Temple in North America.
During the beginning of the 16th century, two members of the House of Medici became Pope. In 1518, Leo X initiated an architectural completion for a new church to be built in place of the old Saint Pantaleo. The winning architect went by the name of Sansovino but there were complications, the construction slowly ground to a halt and many different individuals tried to finish the church tower for over two centuries. In 1527, Rome was sacked by the imperial troops. Clement VII who was imprisoned in the Castel Sant'Angelo, escaped from the fortress disguised as a tradesman.
During his papacy, the Pope Paul III commissioned Michelangelo to improve the Capitol Hill to impress the Emperor Charles V. The artist re-designed the facade of the Palazzo dei Conservatori, adding gigantic Corinthian pilaster strips on high pedestals to make it a little less ostentatious. He also designed a double-flighted staircase in front of the Palazzo Senatorio.
In 1542, Paul III established the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, a system of tribunals for prosecuting anyone with alternate religious beliefs.
In 1575, construction of the cathedral Santa Maria in Vallicella got underway, which was eventually finished and consecrated in 1599.
During his papacy, the Pope Sixtus V wished to make use of the remaining shell of the Colosseo to convert the structure into a giant wool factory to provide employment for Rome's prostitutes. However, he died before his plan could become reality.
In 1598, a flood swept away the eastern arch of the Pons Aemilius, the oldest bridge of Rome. City officials deemed it too expensive to fix, as all money was heading into Pope Clement VIII's execution fund.
Between 1594 and 1600, the Dominican Friar and Hermeticists Giordano Bruno was held prisoner in the Castel Sant'Angelo for heresy. In 1600, he was burnt at stake in the small interior courtyard of the Castel
In 1638, a massive face lift was begun on Sant'Antonio dei Portoghesi at the hands of Martino Longhi the Younger, converting it to the national church of the Portuguese people.
In 1650, San Andrea della Valle was completed and celebrated the world over for its stunning interior.
In 1734, San Giovanni dei Fiorentini was finnaly completed.
In 1960, the spot where the Caserma di Alviano was standing was marked for a memorial, but no one was quite sure where the barracks were actually located, so the idea was scrapped in favour of a park, which was, in turn, scrapped in favor of a fast food restaurant.
In 2007, a construction accident that halted temporarily the flow of the Acqua Vergine, the source providing water to the Trevi Fountain, the Villa Borghese, the north and south fountains of the Piazza Navona and the fountains of Piazza del Popolo.
- In an interview, developers mentioned Rome to be four times bigger than Venice, despite in reality being only three times bigger.
- 《刺客信条 III》