刺客信条维基
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Terry:“Confeda-what-now?”
Godfrey:“Confederation, ya tony. It's a group. An alliance. Lotsa different kinds of people all united.”
―Godfrey attempting to enlighten Terry on the difference between the Iroquois and its Nations, 1769.[来源]-[记忆]

易洛魁酋长在约翰镇开会

The Iroquois, also known as the Rotinonhsión:ni[1] or Haudenosaunee ("People of the Longhouse"), are the peoples indigenous to the northeastern United States and Canada.[2] They are synonymous with the Iroquois League, or the "League of Peace and Power", which consisted of six nations by the time of the American Revolutionary War.[3]

Members[]

Council members
  • Kanien'kehá:ka: The "People of the Flint", and the eastern-most nation. The Kanien'kehá:ka sided with the British Army during the Revolutionary War, though at least one village remained neutral.[4]
  • Onondaga: The "People of the Hills", they were at the center of the League. The Onondaga favored no sides during the Revolutionary War, until General John Sullivan attacked them in 1779.[5]
  • Seneca: The "People of the Big Hill", the Seneca were located on the western side of the League and sided with the British.[6]
  • Cayuga: "The People of the Swamp", the Cayuga and the Oneida are considered the Younger Brothers in the Haudenosaunee Grand Council.[7]
  • Oneida: Known as the "People of the Standing Stone", the Oneida sided with the Continental Army.[8]
  • Tuscarora: The "Hemp Gatherers" who migrated from North Carolina and joined the League in 1722. They also sided with the Continental Army.[9]

Other Iroquoian-speaking peoples who were not part of the League include:

Culture[]

Iroquois surnames are matrilineal, where clan names are passed from mother to child. Iroquois clan names include Turtle, Wolf, Beaver, Hawk, Eel, Deer, and Bear. Clan Mothers, or Iakotiiá:ner–like Oiá:ner–lead the clans, while selecting a male Chief (Roiá:ner) to represent them in the 50-strong Haudenosaunee Grand Council.[10]

To deliberate decisions, the first party, made up of Seneca and Kanien'kehá:ka Chiefs, present an issue to the second party (consisting of Oneida, Cayuga and Tuscarora Chiefs), who reach a resolution for the first party to consider. On reaching a consensus, the Onondaga Chiefs will either approve the decision or offer a counter-proposal.[11]

A longhouse

Iroquois families from a single clan lived together in longhouses, with opposite families sharing a hearth.[12] Canoes were stored in the rafters of the longhouses.[13]

Their economic system was based around cultivating the "Three Sisters" of corn, beans and squash, and were supplemented by hunting and fishing.[14] Beads made from shells known as wampum were popular symbolic decorations.[15] When going to war, the Iroquois used tomahawks, clubs and bows.[16]

History[]

In the late 9th century, the Viking shieldmaiden Eivor Varinsdottir of the Raven Clan sailed to Vinland in pursuit of Gorm Kjotvesson, her sworn enemy and also a Maegester of the Wardens of War sect of the Order of the Ancients. On arriving in Vinland, she met the Iroquois people living in Karonhiakèn:iate' and explored the surrounding areas of Kahrhakén:rat, Okonhsà:ke, and Tionontaté:ken.[17]

Around 1000 CE, the original five nations were at war until the man known as the Great Peacemaker called for an end to the conflict.[2] In place of violence, he conceived a path of unity and strength for the Iroquois known as Kaianere'kó:wa–the Great Law of Peace, providing the foundations of a stable, if complex democracy.[18] He encouraged the peoples to see themselves as members of a single longhouse, with the Kanien'kehá:ka as Keepers of the Eastern Door,[4] the Seneca as Keepers of the Western Door,[6] and the Onondaga as the Firekeepers.[5]

The Iroquois sided with the British during the French and Indian War.[19] After their victory in 1763, King George III rewarded them by establishing a boundary line against colonists who would settle on their land. But five years later, disputes continued and the Iroquois met with Sir William Johnson to establish a new boundary line. The controversial Treaty of Fort Stanwix left the British with even more land than before,[20] even causing the Board of Trade to ask Johnson to reconsider, but he refused.

Ratonhnhaké:ton burying a hatchet in the Davenport manor's post as a sign of his war on the Templars

The Kanien'kehá:ka village of Kanatahséton remained neutral due to their duties of protecting a sacred site of theirs,[21] but having been attacked by the British,[22] Ratonhnhaké:ton was sent to join the Colonial Assassins to protect them.[21] When Johnson, a Templar, attempted to buy his village's land, Connor assassinated him, but this ironically deprived the natives of someone who would protect their interests during the American Revolutionary War.[23]

The Iroquois primarily sided with the British, while Ratonhnhaké:ton sided with the Patriots, hoping the Loyalists would come to realize they were victims. Kanatahséton remained neutral until Kanen'tó:kon grew restless and was convinced by Charles Lee that his friend had turned on them, and so he and his fellow warriors dragged the village into the war.[19]

In 1779, George Washington ordered John Sullivan to lead a counterattack on Iroquois forces led by Joseph Brant, who had massacred civilians as well as soldiers. The Sullivan Expedition responded by burning 40 villages and salting their land, earning Washington the title of Ranatakáriias, or "Town Destroyer". The Expedition failed to stop Iroquois raids, which continued throughout the war.[14]

Trivia[]

画廊[]

登场作品[]

参考与来源[]

  1. Assassin's Creed: ValhallaDatabase: Rotinonhsión:ni
  2. 2.0 2.1 Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Haudenosaunee
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Iroquois
  4. 4.0 4.1 Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Kanien'kehá:ka
  5. 5.0 5.1 Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Onondaga Nation
  6. 6.0 6.1 Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Seneca Nation
  7. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Cayuga Nation
  8. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Oneida Nation
  9. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Tuscarora Nation
  10. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Haudenosaunee Clan System
  11. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Haudenosaunee Grand Council of Chiefs
  12. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Longhouses
  13. Assassin's Creed III
  14. 14.0 14.1 Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Haudenosaunee Economy
  15. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Wampum
  16. Assassin's Creed IIIThe Braddock Expedition
  17. Assassin's Creed: ValhallaIn a Strange Land
  18. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Great Law of Peace
  19. 19.0 19.1 Assassin's Creed IIIBroken Trust
  20. Assassin's Creed IIIDatabase: Treaty of Fort Stanwix
  21. 21.0 21.1 Assassin's Creed IIISomething to Remember
  22. Assassin's Creed IIIHide and Seek
  23. Assassin's Creed IIIHostile Negotiations

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