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撒拉森人是一个被基督教欧洲人使用的词,其含义在其使用的几个世纪的中不断发生变化,在中世纪主要是指代穆斯林阿拉伯人。最主要的是用来描述在十字军东征期间攻打的伊斯兰军人。在第三次十字军东征期间,他们由埃及和叙利亚的苏丹,阿尤布王朝萨拉丁率领,保卫圣地耶路撒冷不被基督教军队夺回。

历史编辑

1176年,在萨拉丁征服黎凡特的中途,其麾下的撒拉森人在

安萨里亚岭安营扎寨,希望剿灭此前曾两次试图暗杀萨拉丁的刺客头目阿尔莫林。不过针对马斯亚夫的第一次行动只持续了很短的时间,刺客阿泰尔在夜里潜入了萨拉丁的营帐并留下了一封警告信,这迫使萨拉丁签署了和平协议,只得退兵。[1]

1187年,萨拉丁的撒拉森人军队在哈丁战役中重创了耶路撒冷王国和圣殿骑士团。以此为契机,撒拉森人很快从基督教徒手中完全夺回了圣地,包括双方教派的圣城,耶路撒冷的首都。到了1189年,还在基督教徒手中的主要城市只剩下成功抵御了大规模撒拉森人进攻的提尔城。

不久之后,1189年,基督教欧洲人发动了第三次十字军东征希望夺回耶路撒冷。在经过一次决定战局的漫长围城之后,十字军成功占领了港口城市亚克。不过,萨拉丁的撒拉森人依托大马士革和耶路撒冷依然控制着黎凡特的大部分地区。虽然他们可能在阿尔苏夫之战和贾法之战中遭到了英格兰的理查一世的决定性的失败,战争的终结之处耶路撒冷,十字军的主要目标,仍在他们手中。

士兵编辑

True to the multi-ethnic demographics of the Ayyubid Sultanate, the soldiers of the Saracen armies were drawn from a diverse pool of peoples, including, but not limited to, Arabs, Turks, Egyptians, Armenians, and Nubians serving as either infantry or cavalry. The slave military caste known as the Mamluks fought among their ranks, generally as cavalry.[1]

The cavalry generally wielded sabers, maces, lances, and longswords, but prominent among them were also the horse archers, typical of Western and Central Asian militaries of the era. For field battles, the infantry were equipped with spears and javelins alongside divisions of archers.[1] Standard equipment of the infantry garrisoned as a city's defense force chiefly consisted of swords instead, or for rooftop guards, bows.[2]

Regardless, Saracens soldiers most commonly donned lamellar armour, in contrast to their Christian adversaries who favored chain mail, plate armour, and great helms.[2] Despite this, leather armour and chain mail were also used by some Saracens in large-scale warfare.[1]

The common Saracen soldier of the lowest rank were often not trained to perform grappling maneuvers or counter-attacks in swordsmanship. Due to their inexperience, they were often easily felled in a single counterattack by Assassins such as Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad, and as such, they lacked the stouter morale of their superiors and were the most prone to fleeing from battle in fright.[2]

High-ranking soldiers of the Saracen army were provided with greater armor and better equipment. In contrast to their lesser comrades, these soldiers generally harbored the skill to grapple, counter, and outmaneuver even Assassins. Their expertise allowed them even to stave off the swift counter-attacks of Master Assassins such as Altaïr. Nevertheless, they were not adapted to combat against the iconic Hidden Blade of the Assassins, whose surprise employment could bypass all their defenses and kill them instantly.[2]

服饰编辑

During the Third Crusade, Saracens in the city of Damascus generally wore green tunics under their lamellar armour. However, guards who harassed civilians wore grey armour instead. In contrast, the uniform of the Jerusalem garrison were dark red.[2]

琐闻编辑

  • 在刺客信条中,玩家可以扮演阿泰尔在大马士革收集100枚撒拉森旗帜。[2]

画廊编辑

Appearances编辑

参考与来源编辑

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