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寡妇计划》(Project Widow)是一个《刺客信条:团结》的宣传网站。该网站以巴黎的街景地图为主要内容,还有关于《刺客信条:团结》的艺术品和其他各种资产、关于法国大革命的条目,以及地图周围游戏的其他功能。

描述[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

该网站由安迪·塞尔基斯(Andy Serkis)讲述,允许用户在街道一级探索现代巴黎的某些部分。这多少让人想起谷歌地图。“娶了个寡妇”,即被绞死;“寡妇计划”这个名字是断头台的黑话。《刺客信条:团结》的艺术品和其他各种资源在网站上星罗棋布,其中还有法国大革命的细节,以及游戏是如何将这些事件融入的。[1]


史实[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

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法国大革命是普通百姓反抗被称为“Ancien Régime(旧政权)下享有特权的人”的起义。 在国王路易十六的统治下的君主政体存在三个社会阶级:神职人员(一等阶级)、贵族(二等阶级)及平民(三等阶级)。罗马天主教的神职人员是免于缴税的,因为他们“只承担对上帝的责任”;贵族同样不需要缴税,他们的财富要投资于保护法兰西帝国

赋税的重担压在了三等阶级身上,流民、乞丐、面包师、商人和农民,其中还有三分之一是农场主。纳税的这部分人,占总人口的96%及以上。由于雄心勃勃的海外军事行动的失败,这个国家陷入了更深的财政困境,让老百姓们的负担越来越重。改革是不可避免的,法国举行了近代首次民意调查,要求法国——不是国王,而是允许法国作为一个民族——满足他们现在面临的迫切需要。因此,革命平静地开始了,后来就是我们所知的历史上发生的。

PW Taxing the porr.jpg
国王对中产阶级和农民征收了越来越多的税,罗马天主教的神职人员与上帝有着直接的联系,他们因此可以免征税款,就像那些掌握法国大部分财富的贵族一样。国王在奢华却难以让他得到满足的凡尔赛宫享乐无度,但他的人民却为了缴税而挨饿受冻。不出所料,仇恨和愤怒开始在下层阶级蔓延。

PW Taking our bread.jpg
在法国2600万人口中,2200万是农民,他们大多只拥有很少的微薄土地,几乎不能养家糊口。十年期的歉收,给他们本就糟糕的处境雪上加霜。当英国和其他欧洲国家的人们把马铃薯作为主要食物时,法国人怀疑这种外来蔬菜。他们称其为"魔鬼的食物",只想要面包。在革命开始之前,绝望的农民为了寻求工作和食物纷纷涌入城市,城市的生活水平(就业机会、薪资水平)因人口的急剧增长而进一步恶化。

PW Olympe de Gouges.jpg
在法国大革命期间,女性出现在许多著名的遭遇战的前线,然而在政治上,她们与男子仍然不平等;在1789年正式确立的,具有里程碑意义的、崇高原则的《人权宣言》("Déclaration des droits del'homme et du Citoyen")中所提议的平等,并没有延伸到妇女。接下来的150年间的法国,妇女的政治权利仍旧处于被剥夺的状态,一直持续到1944年,她们才终于获得选举权。

少数妇女在这次革命中徒劳地从事着政治活动。

女演员奥林佩·德·古格斯,于1791年发表了自己的《女权宣言》("Déclaration des droits de la femme et de la citoyenne")。她指出:“妇女生而自由,在权利上与男子平等。” 显然,这是一种戏仿,但戏言寓真理。

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攻占巴士底狱的人被称为忿激派(Les Enragés)或换一种描述性的说法——无套裤党,因为当时只有富人才穿套裤。 他们来源于三等阶层,包括商人和农民,基本不是神职人员或者贵族。尽管他们很穷,国家财政的重担却统统在他们肩上,他们强烈要求被听见……

PW Twist in the tale.jpg
如果不是1789年7月14日那令人始料不及的转折的帮助,人们以原有的武器与军需品引发的骚乱,可能最多不会超过聚众闹事程度。那天,起义法军与制帽匠、锁匠联手,有组织地发动了一场全副武装的攻占。与贵族领袖相比,他们不太高贵的出身,使他们与无套裤党有更多的共同点。

PW The poster guy.jpg
在巴士底狱的风暴中,没有一个被释放的囚犯值得营救。正因如此,法国媒体虚构了一个完美的“被攻击的代表”,名为“洛赫斯伯爵”的人物——其干瘪外貌基于老雅克·弗朗索瓦·泽维尔·德怀特,然后加上奥古斯特·塔弗尼埃(一个真正的反保皇党的人)的名声。 报纸刊登了一幅“德·洛赫斯”获救的版画,其中一位作者声称见过“洛赫斯伯爵”本尊。

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如果你真的必须要知道德·萨德侯爵是如何赢得这份名声的,以下是一些有趣的事实,可以在晚餐时间分享。作为殴打一位法国王子的惩罚,德·萨德从小被送到叔叔家里生活,在很小的时候初次接触了色情文学的领域。虽然德·萨德后来结了婚,还生了三个孩子,但是这并不妨碍他与嫂子发生外遇,以及沉迷当地妓女。他没有逃脱惩罚;他的岳母确保他因不道德行为入狱。

德·萨德获释后,消费了更多妓女,还包括一个男孩。他沉溺于实验性的狂欢中,并激发了《所多玛120天》一书的灵感。德萨德声称这本书能够“腐蚀魔鬼”。至于他的孩子们,大儿子参,为拿破仑而死;最小的孩子受到毁损,程度比他父亲要小;女儿成了终身修女,而这真的可以被理解……

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巴黎最贫穷的地区:巴黎之腹,靠近被污染的比弗尔河,为自己赢得了“奇迹之殿”的绰号。这里是社会边缘人群所居住的地方,他们中的大多数人不工作,靠着乞讨生活——看上去都尽可能的可怜。当他们收工回家,跛足和失明的人都会奇迹般地康复。这就是为什么这些地区被称为奇迹之殿。

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推动革命的关键之一,是平民生活成本的显著增加,特别是面包的价格。在《法国大革命简史》一文中,研究人员西尔维亚·尼利指出,一条面包的价值是普通工人工资的88%。这导致了面包师商店周围的骚乱、以及对军队仓库里的军需和军粮的洗劫。

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Dubbed "vast antechamber of death" by one surviving inmate, the Conciergerie was a medieval palace turned prison with a frightful reputation. Almost 3000 detainees awaited their date with the guillotine, the wealthiest of whom were charged for the comfort of a bed. Marie-Antoinette was resident here, along with her seven-year-old son Louis-Charles. The guards locked up Louis-Charles on the floor below his mother so that she could hear him crying.

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At the height of the Revolution, during "The Terror" in which countless heads rolled, traitors destined for the guillotine were so many that prisons could not accommodate them. The unlikeliest of Parisian monuments were claimed as detention centres, the Palais de Luxembourg among them. Historians have wondered if this might've been more symbolic than practical, as the palace had been given as a gift from Louis XVI to his brother.

PW No Swimming.jpg
Le Bièvre (the beaver) river, which in modern times is almost completely covered over, was a festering open wound during the time of the French Revolution. Tanneries and dyeing shops, such as those in the Saint-Marcel suburb of Paris, would dump waste into the river, making the area even more despicable to live in. Unsurprisingly the downtrodden, filth sodden inhabitants of such places were among the most active revolutionaries.

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With Roman Catholic leaders heading for the guillotine, and Christianity itself under scrutiny, a new belief stepped in to unite the French revolutionaries: philosophy. However, even during this pursuit of truth and liberty, people desired a congregation and a good old sing-song. One such occasion was the Festival of Reason that was held at Saint-Jean Cathedral, during which the words of an ex-priest were sung as a kind of anti-hymn.

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The greatest atrocities of the Revolution took place from 2-7 September, 1792 across France though principally in Paris. Over 1400 prisoners were killed in cold blood by revolutionaries, starting with a group of priests outside the gates of the prison de l'Abbaye at the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Other victims, so-called enemies of liberty, included aristocrats, Swiss Guards and royalist writers. 162 prisoners were murdered at Bicêtre, the youngest just 12-years-old.

PW Our Lady.jpg
随着法国解除基督教化的官方政策,巴黎最著名的罗马天主教建筑成为变革的焦点。巴黎圣母院失去了国王雕像,这座建筑本身被宣布为理性殿堂。新任命的国民警卫队在这里受祝福时正式成立,具有标志性的蓝色,白色和红色。后来,巴黎圣母院成为部队的临时存储设施。

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Somewhat less grounded in reality than the Cult of Reason though no less inspiring was Maximilien Robespierre's Cult of the Supreme Being. The Supreme Being in question was nature itself, capable of uniting people with "pure and feeling hearts". There was a political edge to this of course with Robespierre nominating himself president of a festival in its name during which the Hymn of the Supreme Being would be sung.

PW Poetic justice.jpg
The Palais-Royal is sometimes called the birthplace of the French Revolution, owing to the free-thinking writers and orators that made it their home. Among them was Jean-Paul Marat whose incendiary placards littered around Paris were among those that provoked the horrific September Massacres. Ironically, it was at the Palais-Royal that the assassin Charlotte Corday, appalled by revolutionary extremism, bought the knife with which she stabbed Marat through the heart.

PW Flash point.jpg
Weekend crowds were guaranteed at the fashionable Palais-Royal; the wealthy mingled with society's lower echelons, the former enjoying the shops and cafés while the latter sold their services (and themselves). At Café Foy on Sunday 12 July, 1789, the young writer Camille Desmoulins gave a speech, crying "to arms, to arms" in response to the dismissed Third-Estate champion Jacques Necker. This incited the revolutionary mob that marched on the Bastille.

PW Thinking man's cafe.jpg
The Café de la Régence in the Palais-Royal was a meeting place for the sharpest of minds in all of Paris. Maximilien Robespierre was among its clients, philosophising over games of chess, rubbing shoulders with great thinkers of the enlightenment: Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire. The American President and chess fanatic Ben Franklin also paid a visit, so too did another future leader Napoleon. The coffee must've been awesome.

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Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans, despite noble heritage, supported the Revolution. He adopted the name Philippe Égalité to prove it. He was the mastermind behind the Palais-Royal's transformation from gardens bordering the Louvre into a public area of cafés and theatres, which became a hotbed for Jacobin politicians inspired by the Enlightenment thinkers. Unfortunately for Philippe his eldest son's failed treacherous exploits in 1793 led to his imprisonment and the guillotine.

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Among the most evocative paintings of the 18th century is "The Death of Marat" by Jacques-Louis David. It shows the flame-fanning journalist slumped in the bathtub in which he was murdered, still writing down his thoughts for the safety of the country. Marat was originally a medical theorist but after his ideas were not taken seriously he reinvented himself as the "voice of the people", becoming the world’s first investigative reporter.

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In modern day Paris you can easily forget that parts of the city became battlegrounds for the Revolutionary versus Royalist forces. However the Church of Saint-Roch bears the scars of many such quarrels, most notably Napoleon Bonaparte's tactical defeat of a Royalist insurrection. On a happier note, the one and only marriage of the Marquis de Sade took place here, to noble lady Renée-Pélagie de Montreuil with the King's blessing.

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It was at Tuileries that Robespierre's lavish counter argument to dechristianisation took place on 8 June, 1794. Robespierre’s painter friend Jacques-Louis David collaborated with opera composer François-Joseph Gossec and dramatist Marie-Joseph Chenier to make this an unforgettable occasion with a chorus of 2400. Dissatisfied by Chenier's lyrics, Robiespierre brought in Théodore Désorgues as a replacement. Years later Désorgues was imprisoned for rhyming "Napoleon" with "chameleon" in one of his poems.

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On October 5, 1789 the women of Paris decided to march on Versailles to protest about, among other things, the price of bread, and to insist that the royal family accompany them back to Paris. 6000 women set out with violent intention, arriving at the Palace gates around midnight carrying pitch forks, muskets and scythes. Having been prevented access, the mob breached the walls at 6am, rushing the palace guards and beheading those they defeated.

They paraded around the palace grounds waving guards' heads on pikes, which proved to be quite the convincing argument. Thus humiliated and returned to Tuileries Palace, the King was metaphorically and physically put in his rightful place, opening up the possibility for France to become a constitutional monarchy.

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The Jacobin politician Maximilien Robespierre was among the most famous and charismatic leaders of the Revolution. He was the architect of the guillotine killing-spree known as The Terror, executing people from all walks of life on often spurious charges such as "Crimes against the Revolution". Robespierre was fond of saying that he would gladly die for the Revolution... and when the paranoia reached fever pitch the mob turned its gaze on him and granted his wish. He was spectacularly guillotined after a failed suicide attempt, a victim of his own draconian policies that had escalated out of control.

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Madame Marie Tussaud's mother was a housekeeper to Dr. Philippe Curtis, a physician skilled in modelling body parts in wax. From him she learned the art, excelling at it. She modelled likenesses of many famous people including Ben Franklin who was then the US Ambassador to France. During the bloody days of the Revolution she continued to model the famous and the infamous, retrieving their severed heads at the guillotine and creating death masks. These proved very popular amongst the angry Revolutionary crowds who paraded them around the streets of Paris.

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Under charges of being decadent, morally corrupt, a deviant and a traitor to France, the controversial Queen was sentenced to death on the eve of her 38th birthday. Marie-Antoinette had tied up her hair and put on plum-coloured shoes in readiness for her procession to meet Madame Guillotine. However her executioner, Henri Sanson, attempted to humiliate her by hacking off her carefully dressed locks. Dignified to the last, radical journalist Jacques Hébert claimed only to see the Queen’s legs fail at the moment she was tipped forward.

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Maximilien François Isidore de Robespierre was the provincial lawyer turned Revolution leader for whom power went to his head, which was eventually chopped off. As a politician Robespierre was among the first to voice concerns about failing military campaigns in Austria and Prussia – speaking as a Jacobin to disparage his Girondin adversaries in government. He collaborated with the painter Jacques-Louis David to use culture as a political device, promoting the Cult of the Supreme Being to further endear the Jacobins, but mainly himself, to the French in the absence of Roman Catholicism. The Supreme Being no longer referred to God, but "Nature itself".

By 1794 Robespierre had become the dominant voice on the Committee of Public Safety, established in 1793 to come down hard on anyone suspected of counter-revolutionary activity. A staggering 16594 Parisians were guillotined during the period known as The Terror. Jacobism became associated with extremism, and Robespierre started to look suspicious in obvious pursuit of his own political gain. He was outlawed by the National Convention, alongside his deputies, and sentenced to death by the dread tool of his own making. He took shelter in the Hôtel de Ville where he was captured by Convention guards. An apparent suicide attempt resulted in a gunshot wound that shattered his jaw, hastily bandaged with paper. Before the blade fell, the executioner tore off the bandage causing Robespierre to scream loudly before silence.

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Gruesome though it does seem to modern sensibilities, the guillotine – aka "the machine", "the national razor", "the hot hand", and "The Widow" – was originally proposed as a way to exercise the death penalty. It takes its name from the Deputy of the National Assembly Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin who proposed a reform of capital punishment. However the device itself was engineered by a German piano maker named Tobias Schmidt. Its first victim was a violent thief, Nicolas Pelletier.

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Battered though the exterior may be, step inside the Church of Saint-Roch and you find yourself blessed by the company of three famous Enlightenment thinkers: Denis Diderot, Paul-Henri Thiry (Baron d'Holbach) and Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin are all entombed here. So too is the prolific landscape architect André Le Nôtre, whose genius gave us the park of Palace of Versailles, Champs-Élysées avenue and the gardens of St Germain among others.

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Among the most diabolical encounters of the French Revolution was the slaughter of the Swiss Guard at Tuileries Palace. Essentially the King was voted unfit to run the country, and the use of force was deemed necessary to overthrow the crown. The royal family fled to safety while the National Guard descended, vastly outnumbering the 900 Swiss Guards in residence. The few that escaped were chopped down in the streets.

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According to Archibald Alison in his History of Europe from the Commencement of the French Revolution there were so many people put to the guillotine during the Reign of Terror that an immense aqueduct was built to drain away the gore. It stretched from Place de la Concorde to Porte St Antoine. Four men were employed to empty the blood of victims into this reservoir each day.

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From September 1793 until July 1794, terror became a principle of government in France; all counter-revolutionaries were to fear for their lives. Hastily appointed officers of the "revolutionary army" were to arrest aristocrats, priests or any other such traitors and send them to the guillotine. Almost 17,000 people were sliced not necessarily for what they had done, but for what they represented, with preposterously contrived trials to seal their fate.

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With executions and mob attacks being liberally doled out to "counter revolutionaries", fear spread through all three estates. The bright red Liberty Cap, the uniform of a true revolutionary, became an extremely popular way to display the wearers loyalty. As you may well imagine, these were in high demand among the guillotine's crowd. Therefore, to pass the time, Parisian "knitting ladies" ("Tricoteuse") sat nonchalantly in the front row of The Widow watching the show as they knitted hundreds of Liberty Caps.

Characters[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

PW Arno Dorian.jpg
Historical Character: NO
Date of Birth: 1768
Personality: Brash, forceful, independent and smart
Skills: Acrobatics, fencing, manipulation
Profession: Assassin
Affiliation: Assassins
Background: Arno, the son of a murdered Assassin, is adopted at a young age by François De La Serre, a minor nobleman. He grows up in Versailles alongside De La Serre's daughter, Élise. Arno and Élise are fast friends throughout childhood before Élise leaves to further her education in Paris. When Arno is framed for De La Serre's murder, he learns of his true heritage, joins the Assassins, and fights to save Paris from sinister Templar machinations.

PW Pierre Bellec.jpg
Historical Character: NO
Date of Birth: 1741
Personality: Grizzled and cantankerous, doesn't take any crap. More radical than the others, he has Jacobin sympathies. Has an earthy sense of humor. Believes in the Brotherhood with a soldier's passion, but has a simplistic, fanatical view of their philosophy.
Skills: Combat & Tactics
Profession: Retired soldier
Affiliation: Assassins
Background: Took part in the Seven Years' War as a corporal and discovered his Assassin lineage at that time. Took care not to rise in the ranks, as he was more valuable as a nondescript soldier.

PW Mirabeau.jpg
Historical Character: YES
Date of Birth: 1749
Personality: Charming. Despite his ugliness, a great seducer of women. His impetuosity got him in trouble repeatedly. A compelling and influential orator, but capable of violent eruptions. Speaks in a booming baritone. A man of high taste in litterature, worldly and knowledgable. Ambitious and vain and unafraid of attacking powerful figures. Genuinely believed in the virtue of his goals - but was not above taking money from the Royal Family to help pay off his enormous debts.
Skills: Charm, seduction, oration
Profession: Marquis. Later Representative at the National Assembly
Affiliation: Assassins
Background: Grew up in an aristocratic family (he was a marquis) near Marseilles. Often imprisoned (by his father! - a common disciplinary tactic among the upper-crust in those days) for his indiscrete sexual affairs. Wrote famously indecent love-letters to Sophie, a married woman whom he seduced and who followed him to exile in Switzerland. He was subsequently caught and jailed in Vincennes for rape (despite Sophie's devotion to him). A gifted orator, he argued and won an order that all charges against him would be dropped. He went to Holland and started up with a Dutch woman, then went to England where he hung out with various Barons and Baronets. Returned to France and became a member of the Estates General and advanced to the Assembly. Mirabeau cultivated connections to the Queen and the court. Suspicions that he was secretly working for the royalist cause or at a minimum bribed by the Crown dogged him (the Crown did pay some of his debts). In any case, he was a voice of moderation in the Assembly and seemed to advocate a sort of constitutional monarchy (he admired the British constitutional monarchy that he had seen first-hand).

PW Marquis de Sade.jpg
Historical Character: YES
Date of Birth: 1740
Personality: Intense concentration, witty, free-thinking individual. Sexual, but not a mincing caricature.
Skills: Networking
Profession: Writer, Noble
Affiliation: None
Background: The pampered child of nobility, the Marquis was raised surrounded by the influential and the powerful. After an expert education from his uncle, the Abbe de Sade, he fought in the Seven Years' War as a Colonel. Returning from battle to his castle in Lacoste, he began the life of a libertine, committed to sensuality, excess and above all else, freedom.

External links[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

References[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  1. Karmali, Luke (26-09-2014). Ubisoft Launches Assassin's Creed Unity's Project Widow. IGN. Retrieved on 5月 16, 2020.

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