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管理即支配,支配即统治。这就是问题的本质。

——1789年,米拉波在一场皇室会议之后如此斥责国民议会。[来源]

奥诺雷·加百列·里克蒂,米拉波伯爵Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau,1749 – 1791),一般被简称为米拉波,是法国政治家、作家,也是法国大革命早期领导人之一。在监狱内外度过的岁月里,他成为了一名实力强劲的演说家,以批判法国独断的司法系统而出名。

1789年,他被选为三级会议当中第三阶级的代表之一,并成为了国民议会的领军人物,为宪法的编写提供了帮助。随着革命爆发,米拉波决心要让革命和平发展下去,希望最终能建立起与英国相似的君主立宪制度。他成为了路易十六的秘密顾问,并在密谋确保君主制不会遭到颠覆的同时偿还清了几笔旧债。

历史学家所不知道的是,米拉波同时还是巴黎刺客兄弟会的导师,他与圣殿骑士组织巴黎分册及其最高大师弗朗索瓦·德·拉塞尔在法国大革命的早期建立起了和平关系。随着圣殿骑士组织内部发生政变,他被迫中止了刺客与圣殿骑士之间的休战协定,直到前最高大师之女埃莉斯·德·拉塞尔在1791年提出要与刺客合作。米拉波与刺客议会的大多数成员不同,很愿意接受这项合作提议。因此,将米拉波视为兄弟会叛徒的议会成员皮耶尔·贝莱克下毒杀死了他。

在米拉波死后,他与国王所进行的交易遭到了曝光,舆论观点转而批判他,导致他的遗体被移出了万神殿。因为米拉波是一个难以轻易理解的复杂人物,历史学家就米拉波究竟是一个阻止了雅各宾派恐怖统治的伟大领导人,一个投机取巧、煽动人心的政客还是一个革命的背叛者这一身份问题莫衷一是。

生平经历编辑

早年编辑

德·拉塞尔:“米拉波是个好人,一个诚实的人。
拉法叶:“米拉波只是一个膨胀的自我陶醉者罢了。
——1789年,弗朗索瓦·德·拉塞尔与克雷蒂安·拉法叶对于米拉波其人的讨论。[来源]

米拉波出生在一个勒比尼翁富裕的贵族家庭,是经济学家维克多·德·里克蒂,米拉波侯爵与玛丽-吉纳维芙·德·瓦桑夫妻活下来的最年长的儿子。[1]他出生的时候,就有一只脚扭了,舌头畸形,还有两颗已经长好了的牙齿。当他被抱给自己的父亲时,他的父亲听到抱着他的人的第一句话据说是“别被吓到了”。米拉波在马赛周边长大,在三岁那年得了天花,脸上因此布满了痘痕。[2]尽管军队并不是一个年轻人的好去处,他的父亲还是给他拿到了一份进入法军骑兵部队的志愿书。他后来又被发现和自己长官——一位上校的妻子有绯闻。他的父亲拿到了一纸密信 ,然后让他被关进了雷岛要塞,那时这是一种常见的惩罚措施。[1]

米拉波接下来在监狱内外进进出出,过了好几年,一边躲避着自己的债主,一边四处沾花惹草。1776年被囚禁在茹乌城堡内期间,他勾引了狱卒的妻子索菲。[1]他给她写了好几封下流的信,随后两人私奔去了瑞士[3] 后来在阿姆斯特丹定居下来之后,米拉波开始与各种秘密结社来往,[1]也就在这个时候加入了刺客组织。他成为了刺客同伴夏尔·多里安的可靠熟人。[2]

1777年,米拉波因被控强暴索菲——尽管双方实际上你情我愿——再次被捕入狱,被关进了万森城堡[1] [3]被判死刑之后,他和另一位犯人萨德侯爵成为了熟人,但后来两人却变得极其讨厌彼此。在这期间,米拉波写了大量文章,批判法国司法系统的专断无理,其中就有著名的《拘票与国家监狱》——用实际经历批判了只要国王一纸拘票就可以将一个人在不经过任何审判的情况下在监狱中长时间囚禁的不合理现象。[2]他还写出了《情色圣经》,一本本质上是黄色文学的作品。[1]逐渐成长为出色演说家的米拉波已经能够排除一切反对他的指控。1782年出狱之后,他又回到了荷兰共和国,在那里遇到了受过教育的奈哈夫人。[3]

步入政坛编辑

在荷兰共和国停留一段时间之后,米拉波去了英国。他关于国王拘捕令的文章在英国十分流行。[2]他和几个辉格党政客成为了朋友[3]并且结识了美国革命家本杰明·富兰克林托马斯·杰斐逊。身为亲英派的他受到了英国君主立宪制度的启发,随后产生了为法国建立一套相似体制的想法。[2]

他的人生随着他与一群遭到放逐的日内瓦革命家在纳沙泰尔的相遇而改变了,金融家艾蒂安·克拉维耶也是这些革命家的其中一员。这些遭到放逐的革命家对于米拉波团体与政治论断的建立起了十分关键的作用,还用他的名字写了一些文章。[1] 在为了还清自己的巨额债务而受雇写作小册子和时事檄文之后,米拉波在自己的作品里对很多事情发起了攻击,从经济上的投机倒把到普鲁士王朝的本质,无所不包。[2]有些时候,他还为了报答为他提供资金的银行家而撰文攻击另一家银行。[1]

米拉波由于批评了法国财政大臣夏尔·亚历山大·德·卡洛讷,他又收到了另一张拘票,并被驱逐到了普鲁士。他逐渐相信“中产阶级只有加入更低阶级的力量才能获得自由”。这一革命性的立场很快就使他同贵族阶级分离了开来。 [1]数个圈子里的人都因为米拉波屡次获刑入狱、不计其数的流言蜚语和与见证他多次入狱的父亲之间糟糕得出名的关系而看不起米拉波。尽管如此,百姓大众却逐渐开始敬仰他。他对底层阶级群众展现出了真挚的善意与考虑。 [2]在迁到巴黎之后,他以个人名义,请管家到巴黎来为他工作。他对待管家十分善良,支付管家两倍的薪水。 米拉波还在管家的女儿发瘟热时,替管家支付了医药费。[1]

在这个时期,米拉波成为了刺客兄弟会巴黎根据地的一名导师,并成为了刺客议会的一员。他还和法国皇室建立起了联系,成为了圣殿骑士最高大师弗朗索瓦·德·拉塞尔的知己。米拉波与德·拉塞尔两人开始商议刺客与圣殿骑士之间和平共处一事,[1]两位领导人一致认为,为了法兰西的未来他们是处在同一立场上的。[4]

1789年法国三级会议编辑

即使你被下了将我们从大厅里驱逐出去的命令,你也必须有动用蛮力的权力,我们无论如何都不会屈服的,除非刺刀刺进我们的身体!

——1789年,米拉波在三级会议上说道。[来源]

1789年,国王路易十六召开了三级会议,希望以此解决法国所面临的经济危机。[1]已经在政客之间很受欢迎的米拉波试图参与贵族——第二阶级的选举。但是他被拒绝了。取而代之的是,他以第三阶级的代表这一身份顺利地参与了选举,试图通过普鲁士皇室赐给他的书来博取父亲的支持。[2]尽管米拉波是贵族出身,他革命性的言行让他和底层阶级与中产阶级站在了同一战线上,[1]这两个阶级将米拉波接纳为了自己的一分子。而凭借自己的名声和严谨合理的理念,他成为了一个举足轻重的人物。[2]

The Estates General 10

与最高大师德·拉塞尔会面的米拉波

在会议召开的5月5日当天,米拉波与最高大师德·拉塞尔进行了会面。当谈及法国未来的事宜时,两人同意让刺客与圣殿骑士两大组织暂时休战。当天稍晚时,德·拉塞尔在凡尔赛宫外因圣殿骑士内部的政变而遭到谋杀。尽管如此,米拉波还是认为圣殿骑士将会保持休战的状态。[1]

因为三级会议上没有得到任何解决方案,米拉波和第三阶级在6月17日建立了国民议会,并邀请另外两个阶级加入进来。作为回应,路易十六下令关闭国民议会大厅,第三阶级转而在一片网球场上集会。在集会中,他们许诺,在宪法编写完成之前他们都不会分裂。[1]

当得知路易十六6月23日在皇家会议上的不满情绪之后,国民议会拒绝离开大厅,米拉波宣称他们“无论如何都不会屈服,除非刺刀刺进我们的身体”。被米拉波的演说所打动的卫兵弗雷德里克·鲁耶想要和米拉波握手。米拉波无视了他,而鲁耶不久之后加入了圣殿骑士组织。[1]

尽管米拉波继续在三级会议当中施展自己的演说能力,他主要的想法和文字都来自于他的朋友们,他只是他们的发言人。虽说如此,当第三阶级决心要反抗路易十六之时,法国大革命爆发了。[1]

革命早期编辑

贝莱克:“他是个政客,自视为伟大的和平缔造者。他以为自己可以终结刺客与圣殿骑士之间的战争,为这场革命带来一个美好圆满的结局,说服老死不相往来的双方和和气气地共存下去。
亚诺:“那样子……不好吗?
贝莱克:“这只不过是个自卖自夸的白日梦而已。自从雅克·德·莫莱被处以火刑之来,现在的圣殿骑士正处在最为虚弱的时候,可我们还在四处追踪那些第二阶级的走私犯!这都是因为米拉波想要保住自己的功绩罢了。
——1791年,皮耶尔·贝莱克与亚诺·多里安讨论米拉波时说道。[来源]

1789年7月14日,巴士底狱遭到了武装抗议者的攻打。刺客大师皮耶尔·贝莱克和夏尔之子、最高大师德·拉塞尔的养子亚诺·多里安一起趁机逃出了监狱。贝莱克随后邀请亚诺和父亲一样加入刺客兄弟会。[1]

Rebirth 29

在亚诺入会仪式上的米拉波

亚诺发现,刺客巴黎根据地的总部位于圣礼拜堂的地下,早在米拉波与刺客议会之前就已经为刺客所有。亚诺表示,他想为自己没能救下德·拉塞尔一事而为自己寻求救赎,而米拉波则要求他在自己的入会仪式上喝下高脚酒杯里的液体。在亚诺经历了一系列人生挫折所构成的幻觉之后,他在米拉波等议会成员的面前醒来。在一起背诵了信条之后,米拉波正式接纳亚诺加入了兄弟会。[1]

In August 1789, he helped draft the constitution, which was named the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Defending the King's power of veto against the Assembly, he argued that the continued protests should end.[4] He also advocated the abolition of slavery. On the tensions between the slaves and colonists of Saint-Domingue, Mirabeau commented that "the whites of Saint-Domingue [slept] at the foot of Vesuvius".[5] He also rose to become president of the Jacobin Club, which later became known for its radical views, and took note of one of its prominent members, Maximilien de Robespierre. Mirabeau said of him, "He will go far. He believes everything he says".[2]

In October 1789, Mirabeau began negotiating with King Louis and Marie Antoinette. In return for receiving funds to pay off his debts, Mirabeau advised the king on how to manage the revolution and remain on the throne, as the count personally wanted to ensure that the revolution remained peaceful. Still wishing the king to be under the power of the Constituent Assembly, Mirabeau sent Arno and a team of Assassins to protect the Women's March on Versailles, which compelled Louis to return to Paris.[1]

革命派政客与调查圣殿骑士编辑

亚诺: "你看起来很不好。"
米拉波: "数个月来,我在兄弟会、国民议会还有国王之间进行着永无休止的争论。合在一起,他们的政治才干也不过只有愚蠢的农村议会的程度而已。我想那就是我现在看起来很糟糕的原因了,年轻人。"
亚诺: "我无意冒犯您,导师。我只是……有点关心。"
米拉波: "不用在意我,亚诺。把你担忧的泪水与叹息留给法兰西吧。"
—1791年,亚诺与米拉波。[来源]

In January 1791, Mirabeau sent Bellec and Arno to assassinate the Templar smuggler Arpinon at the Conciergerie, and retrieve a ledger from him. Returning to the Assassin headquarters, Bellec voiced his dislike of Mirabeau to Arno, believing that the Mentor was naive in seeking peace with the Templars and keeping the revolution peaceful.[1]

ACU Graduation 13

米拉波派亚诺前去刺杀西韦特

The ledger revealed that Arpinon had been extorting money from imprisoned nobles. Arno also reported that Grand Master de la Serre's killer, Charles Gabriel Sivert, had met with Arpinon, and requested that he be allowed to assassinate him. The council reminded Mirabeau that the new Templar Order was not likely to seek peace with the Assassins. Thus, Mirabeau relented and charged Arno with going to the Notre-Dame, gathering intelligence from Sivert and killing him.[1]

Returning successful from his mission, Arno informed Mirabeau that Sivert had an accomplice, the Roi des Thunes, leader of the Cour des Miracles. Issuing Arno with a new weapon, the Phantom Blade, Mirabeau sent him to kill the Roi des Thunes.[1]

On 30 January, Mirabeau was elected president of the National Constituent Assembly, having earned the respect of all sides and proving a promising leader. When the assembly convened, he spoke at great length, rarely yielding the floor for other politicians. When Arno returned successfully from his mission, he met an exhausted Mirabeau, who explained that his health had been affected by constant discussions and dealings with the Assassin Council, the National Constituent Assembly and King Louis. He claimed that, taken together, they had the "political acumen of an especially stupid village council".[1]

ACU The Silversmith 2

亚诺向米拉波报告乞丐之王一事

Arno reported that Sivert and the Roi des Thunes were hired to kill de la Serre, and had killed the Grand Master with a pin fashioned by the silversmith François-Thomas Germain. Mirabeau then sent Arno to find Germain and learn what he knew. As he returned, he found Mirabeau arguing with the Council about the Day of Daggers, where four hundred armed noblemen had entered the Tuileries Palace and supposedly attempted to help the King escape Paris, only to be arrested by the Marquis de Lafayette.[1]

Arno reported that Germain had been commissioned to produce the pin by a man named Chrétien Lafrenière. Surprised that the supposedly loyal Lafrenière had ordered the murder of de la Serre, Mirabeau nonetheless instructed Arno to kill him. However, Arno revealed that he had already done so. The Council strongly reprimanded him, but Mirabeau hushed them and calmly reminded Arno not to act without the Council's approval.[1]

ACU The Jacobin Club 1

亚诺向刺客议会报告日耳曼的情况

Arno explained that Lafrenière seemingly prepared to strike at the Brotherhood, forcing him to act immediately. However, after seeing his memories, Arno became uncertain of Lafenière's true motives, with the attack directed at the Hôtel de Beauvais, not an Assassin safehouse. Arno then requested permission to investigate further. With the attack imminent, Mirabeau granted Arno's request, while reminding him not to act rashly.[1]

与埃莉斯·德·拉塞尔结盟编辑

奎马:“我们就非得再次重复这场争论吗?
米拉波:“我们必须再次辩论,而且我们以后也会的,奎马大师。要是你无法看到弗朗索瓦·德·拉塞尔的女儿欠我们一个人情对我们有什么好处的话,我真的为我们的未来感到担忧。
——1791年,赫尔维·奎马与米拉波争论道。 [来源]
ACU A Cautious Alliance 2

刺客议会面前的埃莉斯

Through his investigation, Arno learned of an ambush by the new Templar faction on Élise de la Serre, daughter of the late Grand Master and a personal lover. He persuaded her to meet with the Assassins and negotiate an alliance with them to bring down the new faction of the Templar Order.[1]

Arno brought Élise before the Council, and she proposed an alliance. Bellec and the Council strongly objected, but Mirabeau insisted that they continue the discussion in private. While Arno and Élise were away, they learned that Germain was in fact the Grand Master of the new faction of the Templar Order.[1]

去世编辑

亚诺:“你下毒谋杀了米拉波!
贝莱克:“是他毒害了我们!和圣殿骑士和平共处根本就是天方夜谭!
——1791年,亚诺在贝莱克谋杀米拉波之后与贝莱克对质道。[来源]
Mirabeau On Deathbed

米拉波的遗体

Around this time, Mirabeau's last speech was delivered by 夏尔·莫里斯·德塔列朗-佩里戈尔, although the speech had actually been written in Mirabeau's name by the Genevese pastor Étienne Salonion Reybaz.[1]

With Mirabeau insisting on accepting Élise's offer, Bellec resolved to kill him, regarding him a traitor to the Assassins. Meeting with the Mentor at the latter's estate, Bellec gave him a chance to change his mind. Realizing he could not convince him, Bellec snuck aconite into Mirabeau's wine. Once Mirabeau drank the poisoned wine, Bellec paid him his final rites. He then placed Mirabeau on his bed with a Templar pin underneath his pillow, wishing to frame Élise.[1]

Shortly after, Élise and Arno came to inform Mirabeau of their findings, only to discover his body. After an investigation, Arno discovered Bellec to be the culprit, and that the latter planned to poison the rest of the council. Although Bellec tried to justify the poisoning, the two entered a fight, with Arno being forced to kill him.[1]

影响编辑

Following Mirabeau's death, he was cremated in accordance with Assassin tradition. By then, he had become a French national hero, which led to a desire to honor leaders of the revolution. Thus, the Church of Sainte-Geneviève was transformed to the Panthéon. The Brotherhood therefore buried Mirabeau's remains in an Assassin crypt underneath the building along with a set of Assassin relics.[1]

Mirabeau's Funeral

米拉波的刺客葬礼

During the funeral procession, Templars attempted to strike at the vulnerable Assassins. However, a team of Assassins blended with the crowd and dispatched the attackers non-lethally, in order to avoid creating a scene. Mirabeau's sarcophagus was put under guard, although one of the guards was attacked by a thief named Pierre Thibault. He also broke into the sarcophagus and looted it. After identifying him, a team of Assassins were dispatched to eliminate Thibault.[6]

While sorting Mirabeau's personal dealings, the council discovered his correspondence with King Louis. Knowing that the Templars could use it to expose and eliminate Assassins across France, they tasked Arno with infiltrating the Tuileries Palace and destroying the correspondence.[1]

Despite Arno's efforts, the iron cabinet containing correspondence and a list of payments was eventually discovered. Robespierre, secretly a Templar, subsequently exposed this evidence, and Mirabeau was publicly disgraced. The Templars had articles and posters printed revealing Mirabeau's relations with the royal house, while also making false claims about a supposed affair with Marie Antoinette. Arno later tore down the posters and destroyed the press printing them and the articles.[1]

Mirabeau's friends also attempted to rescue Marie Antoinette from execution in 1793, however this attempt was foiled by the Templar Jean Gilbert. Gilbert knew of Mirabeau's involvement, for which he was killed by Arno on the orders of the Council.[1]

While many wanted his remains removed from the Panthéon, the Templars also sought to claim Mirabeau's relics. With the Brotherhood's secrecy at risk, Arno and a team of Assassins infiltrated the Panthéon in May 1794 and claimed the relics for safekeeping before anyone could find them. However, Mirabeau's remains were eventually moved to another grave.[1]

With the retrieval of the relics, the Assassins hid them in an unknown location where the Templars could never find them. In historical records, Mirabeau's death would be attributed to pericarditis, caused by the excessive drinking and womanizing throughout his life.[1]

性格与特点编辑

没有什么能比伟大灵魂的沉着冷静更能阻碍邪恶之人的阴谋诡计了。

——米拉波[来源]

Throughout his life, Mirabeau led a frivolous lifestyle. Despite his facial disfigurement, he managed to charm a lot of women. However, his impetuosity would repeatedly get him in trouble. Mirabeau was also a heavy drinker, receiving large weekly deliveries of wine at his estate. These traits led many to question his integrity.[1]

In spite of his carefree way of life, Mirabeau was genuinely concerned with the well-being of both his country and Brotherhood. He demonstrated a wealth of knowledge, and was famed for being a highly charismatic speaker, even if others wrote his speeches for him. Believing strongly in the virtue of his goals, Mirabeau was unafraid of attacking powerful figures, such as the monarchy. When the National Constituent Assembly convened, he would rarely yield the floor for other politicians to speak.[1] Abstergo Entertainment employee Robert Fraser claimed that, "Despite human weaknesses, he grasps the potential of human greatness."[2]

At times, however, he could also be ambitious and vain, erupting into angry outbursts when others questioned his sincerity. Mirabeau would frequently argue with the Assassin Council, as well as King Louis and the National Constituent Assembly, believing their intelligence below his while remaining highly confident in his own skills as a politician and negotiator. Among the Council, he was one of the few who held faith in Arno Dorian. While the other members scolded Arno for assassinating Chrétien Lafrenière without consulting them, Mirabeau calmly and constructively criticized the young Assassin for his actions. This welcoming and friendly demeanor also earned him the trust of many, including his fellow Assassin Charles Dorian[2] and even the Templar Grand Master François de la Serre.[1] Upon meeting Mirabeau, de la Serre's daughter, Élise, noted that "he had kind trustworthy eyes and I liked him at once".[4]

In regards to both politics and the Brotherhood, Mirabeau was a shrewd and pragmatic moderate. A confidante of Grand Master de la Serre, he sought peace between the two Orders, and was reluctant to act aggressively against the Templars. He also made secret deals with King Louis in order to repay his own debts and ensure that the revolution would not become violent, and gladly accepted Élise de la Serre's offer to cooperate. This approach was met with some skepticism from the Council, Pierre Bellec in particular. Bellec regarded Mirabeau as a traitor to the Assassins for negotiating with the Templars and prioritizing the outcome of the revolution above the destruction of the Brotherhood's age-old enemies.[1]

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