塞缪尔·亚当斯（Samuel Adams）（1722年9月27日 - 1803年10月2日）是一名美国政治家、政治哲学家，以及美国开国元勋之一。
Adams was the son of the merchant Samuel Adams, Sr., and was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Adams, Jr. graduated from Harvard University, but was unable to go into business for himself and took a job in the family malthouse. At some point in Adams' life, he befriended the Assassin Achilles Davenport.
Following the French and Indian War, Adams was elected to the Massachusetts Legislature, and argued for the rights of the colonists over issues of taxation by the British Parliament. He disliked some of the more violent tactics of the Patriots, though he expressed approval of a mob that forced Boston's stamp collector to resign during protests against the stamp tax.
Adams married twice – during his second wedding to Elizabeth Wells, he was given a slave, Surry, as a present, which horrified him. He accepted her on the condition that she be freed, and Surry stayed as a servant at the Adams household for nearly fifty years.
- “Over here! You're Achilles' boy. Connor, was it? I saw what happened at the Town House. A fine mess, that.”
- ―Samuel Adams to Connor after the massacre.[来源]
In 1770, Achilles asked Adams to help his apprentice Connor after he had been framed for causing the Boston Massacre. Samuel taught Connor how to reduce his notoriety, waving away the boy's worries by explaining propaganda, and also introduced him to the Freemasons' tunnels beneath the city, before chartering Connor a ship back to the Davenport Homestead. He even introduced the boy to the idea of a handshake. After the massacre, Adams succeeded in campaigning for the removal of the Regulars as the city's guards.
Boston Tea Party编辑
- “First, we make our way to Nathaniel Bradlee's house to fetch the rest of our little group. Then it's on to Griffin's Wharf, where we board the ships and dump the tea. Simple as that.”
- ―Samuel Adams explaining his plan to Connor.[来源]
Three years later, Connor returned to Boston to request Adams's aid in finding William Johnson, a Templar who sought to purchase the land his people lived on. At William Molineux and Stephane Chapheau's tavern, Adams suggested that the revenue Johnson was generating from smuggled tea was financing the purchase. While Connor followed his advice to destroy the tea, Adams went to a debate at the Old South Meeting House.
Upon declaring "This meeting can do no further to save the country!", Adams left the meeting house and found Connor, Molineux, and Chapheau outside. There, he explained his plan to destroy the latest tea shipment. Together with Paul Revere, they staged the Boston Tea Party, in which Adams and the others dumped the cargo of tea crates into the water, protesting against the Tea Act while depriving Johnson of his funds.
Igniting the Revolution编辑
- “Connor, allow me to introduce you to our newly appointed Commander-in-Chief, George Washington.”
- ―Samuel Adams introducing Connor to George Washington.[来源]
Adams became infamous enough that he had to leave Boston for the town of Lexington in 1775. The British major John Pitcairn was ordered to arrest him and to seize Patriot weapons supplies near Boston: Connor became involved as Pitcairn was a Templar. He and Revere rode to warn citizens of Pitcairn's advance and eventually met Adams and John Hancock in Lexington. Connor informed them of his belief that Pitcairn intended to kill them, and they left before the assault on the town. When the Siege of Boston commenced, governor Thomas Gage offered to pardon any rebels who would surrender - except Adams and Hancock.
Two months later, Adams and Connor attended the induction of George Washington as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in Philadelphia. While there, Connor nearly caused a scene with Charles Lee, who was passed up for the Commander-in-Chief position, before Adams restrained him and distracted the Assassin by formally introducing him to Washington. As Washington excused himself to attend to Lee, Connor asked Adams if he had news of Pitcairn. Adams replied that Pitcairn had barricaded himself in Boston with his army, and passed Connor a letter to give to Israel Putnam to secure his aid. Though Connor also wanted to assassinate Lee, Adams said they'd have to wait for another opportunity. After finding and assassinating Pitcairn, Connor learned he had only wanted to arrest and negotiate with Adams and Hancock.
Adams signed the Declaration of Independence the following year with Hancock and Benjamin Franklin. He also thanked Connor, who was attending, for preventing Thomas Hickey's assassination attempt on Washington.
In 1781, Adams left the Continental Congress and returned home, becoming the President of the Massachusetts Senate. In 1789, Adams was elected as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts under John Hancock, and became Acting Governor following Hancock's death in 1793. He was elected as Governor of Massachusetts the subsequent year and served until the conclusion of his term in 1797, after which he retired from politics. Following his death in 1803, Adams was interred at Boston's Granary Burying Ground, alongside Hancock, Paul Revere, and the victims of the Boston Massacre.
In an alternate timeline where George Washington crowned himself king of the United States with an Apple of Eden, Adams led the rebellion in Boston. The rebellion was faltering, and Adams intended to leave to rendezvous with Thomas Jefferson's rebels in New York City.
Adams's Kanien'kehá:ka ally Kanen'tó:kon introduced him to his friend Ratonhnhaké:ton, whose actions against King Washington earned him the moniker of the "man with the wolf hood." Ratonhnhaké:ton sought the city's governor, Benjamin Franklin, which Adams agreed to as it would distract the guards from the rebels as they freed some of their men. After securing Franklin from the Apple's control, Ratonhnhaké:ton brought him to Adams' hideout, much to his anger: Adams was bitter over how Franklin oversaw the execution of his cousin John, and the burning of the Old North Church, though Ratonhnhaké:ton convinced Adams to spare Franklin due to the information he would provide.
While Franklin and Ratonhnhaké:ton worked to construct a key to breach Washington's fortress, Adams dismissed it as a fool's errand. He left the city with Kanen'tó:kon, after the latter had learned the captain stationed at Southgate Fort was sympathetic to the rebels. However, this turned out to be a ruse created by Israel Putnam to trap Adams' men. After the slaughter of the rebels, Putnam pistol-whipped Adams to death. After discovering this, Franklin and Ratonhnhaké:ton departed the city by sea.
Personality and characteristics编辑
- Samuel: "I was much the same at your age. You'll grow out of it in time."
- Connor: "And if I do not? If I refuse?"
- Samuel: "Then you'll likely wind up dead."
- —Adams and Connor.[来源]
Like Achilles, Adams was a mentor to Connor who taught him to compromise politically, having been an idealistic youth as well. He was a shrewd man who understood the power of propaganda in rallying his cause, particularly in spreading reports that the Loyalists fired first at Lexington to generate sympathy for the Patriots. Connor was uncomfortable with lying to attract followers or bribing town criers or printers to draw attention away from himself, but Adams believed an imperfect world meant imperfect solutions.
While Adams was against slavery, he did not force the issue as he did not want to cause division in the colonies. He opined that once the colonists were free of British tyranny, they could turn their attention to the slaves. Connor disliked the idea of people becoming equal in turns, but Adams warned against trying to solve all of society's problems simultaneously.
- The name Samuel is a male given name and a surname of Hebrew origin meaning either "name of God" or "God has heard". Adams is a common surname of English, Scottish and Jewish origin, meaning "son of Adam" (in the sense of descendant).
- Shaun Hastings quipped that despite his role in the Revolution, the Samuel Adams brand of beer, named in honor of Adams' job as a maltser, may be the only reason most Americans have even heard of him.
- Adams was a second cousin to John Adams, second President of the United States, and to his son, John Quincy Adams, the sixth President.