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(小编辑,未翻译)
(补充信息,未翻译)
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====Wine====
 
====Wine====
 
'''Visit the island of [[Thasos]], and learn about ancient winemaking techniques.'''
 
'''Visit the island of [[Thasos]], and learn about ancient winemaking techniques.'''
  +
 
<tabber>
 
<tabber>
 
|-|Opening Remarks=
 
|-|Opening Remarks=
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====The Life of a Greek Woman====
 
====The Life of a Greek Woman====
 
'''Learn what daily life was like for Ancient Greek women.'''
 
'''Learn what daily life was like for Ancient Greek women.'''
  +
 
<tabber>
 
<tabber>
 
|-|Opening Remarks=
 
|-|Opening Remarks=
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====Bronze in Argos====
 
====Bronze in Argos====
 
 
<tabber>
 
<tabber>
 
|-|Opening Remarks=
 
|-|Opening Remarks=
第508行: 第509行:
   
 
====Perfume====
 
====Perfume====
 
 
<tabber>
 
<tabber>
 
|-|Opening Remarks=
 
|-|Opening Remarks=
第679行: 第679行:
   
 
===Politics and Philosophy===
 
===Politics and Philosophy===
====Sparta Social Classes====
+
<tabber>
*Spartan Society
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Helots
+
("Who are you?")
*Fear and Revolts
+
*Helot Soldiers
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Perioikoi
+
  +
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|Spartan Society=
  +
|-|Helots=
  +
|-|Fear and Revolts=
  +
|-|Helot Soldiers=
  +
|-|Perioikoi=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Spartan Politics====
 
====Spartan Politics====
*Two Kings
+
<tabber>
*Responsibilities
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Kings and Religion
+
("Who are you?")
*Ephors and Law
+
*The Gerousia
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*The Spartan Assembly
+
  +
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|Two Kings=
  +
|-|Responsibilities=
  +
|-|Kings and Religion=
  +
|-|Ephors and Law=
  +
|-|The Gerousia=
  +
|-|The Spartan Assembly=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Democracy in Athens====
 
====Democracy in Athens====
*The Pnyx
+
<tabber>
*The Democratic Process
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Magistrates
+
("Who are you?")
*Participation
+
*Democracy as Heritage
+
("What do you think of this place?")
  +
  +
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|The Pnyx=
  +
|-|The Democratic Process=
  +
|-|Magistrates=
  +
|-|Participation=
  +
|-|Democracy as Heritage=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====School of Greece - Philosophy====
 
====School of Greece - Philosophy====
*Philosophy and Greece
+
<tabber>
*Kynosarges
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Teaching Values
+
("Who are you?")
*Importance of Philosophy
+
*Sokrates and the Sophists
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Classical Philosophers
+
  +
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|Philosophy and Greece=
  +
|-|Kynosarges=
  +
|-|Teaching Values=
  +
|-|Importance of Philosophy=
  +
|-|Sokrates and the Sophists=
  +
|-|Classical Philosophers=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
===Art, Religion, and Myths===
 
===Art, Religion, and Myths===
 
====The Olympic Games====
 
====The Olympic Games====
*Day One
+
<tabber>
*Day Two
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Singing Praises
+
("Who are you?")
*Pentathlon
+
*Day Three
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Day Four
+
*Hellanodikai
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
*Cheaters' Stella
+
|-|Day One=
*Prytaneion
+
|-|Day Two=
  +
|-|Singing Praises=
  +
|-|Pentathlon=
  +
|-|Day Three=
  +
|-|Day Four=
  +
|-|Hellanodikai=
  +
|-|Cheaters' Stella=
  +
|-|Prytaneion=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====School of Greece - Music====
 
====School of Greece - Music====
*Music
+
<tabber>
*Musical Contest
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*The Odeon of Perikles
+
("Who are you?")
*Musical Genres
+
  +
("What do you think of this place?")
  +
  +
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|Music=
  +
|-|Musical Contest=
  +
|-|The Odeon of Perikles=
  +
|-|Musical Genres=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Knossos====
 
====Knossos====
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====School of Greece - Theater====
 
====School of Greece - Theater====
*The Greek Theater
+
<tabber>
*Sanctuary of Dionysos
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Festivals
+
("Who are you?")
*Dionysia and Drama Competitions
+
*Actors
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*The Orchestra
+
*The Theatron
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|The Greek Theater=
  +
|-|Sanctuary of Dionysos=
  +
|-|Festivals=
  +
|-|Dionysia and Drama Competitions=
  +
|-|Actors=
  +
|-|The Orchestra=
  +
|-|The Theatron=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Gods and Love====
 
====Gods and Love====
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===Battles and Wars===
 
===Battles and Wars===
 
====Spartan Education====
 
====Spartan Education====
*Sparta
+
<tabber>
*The Importance of Education
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Statue of Leonidas
+
("Who are you?")
*The First Stage of Education
+
*Barracks
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Syssition
+
  +
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|Sparta=
  +
|-|The Importance of Education=
  +
|-|Statue of Leonidas=
  +
|-|The First Stage of Education=
  +
|-|Barracks=
  +
|-|Syssition=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Battle of Marathon====
 
====Battle of Marathon====
*Battle Overview
+
<tabber>
*Causes of the Conflict
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*The Greek Reaction
+
("Who are you?")
*Arrival of the Persians
+
*The Athenian Strategy
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Combat
+
*Heroic Exploits
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
*The Aftermath
+
|-|Battle Overview=
*Consequences
+
|-|Causes of the Conflict=
  +
|-|The Greek Reaction=
  +
|-|Arrival of the Persians=
  +
|-|The Athenian Strategy=
  +
|-|Combat=
  +
|-|Heroic Exploits=
  +
|-|The Aftermath=
  +
|-|Consequences=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Thermopylai====
 
====Thermopylai====
*The Battle of Thermopylai
+
<tabber>
*The Persians Arrive
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*First Encounters
+
("Who are you?")
*Treachery
+
*The Greek Army's Retreat
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Final Moments
+
*The Legacy of Thermopylai
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
*The Glory of Sparta
+
|-|The Battle of Thermopylai=
  +
|-|The Persians Arrive=
  +
|-|First Encounters=
  +
|-|Treachery=
  +
|-|The Greek Army's Retreat=
  +
|-|Final Moments=
  +
|-|The Legacy of Thermopylai=
  +
|-|The Glory of Sparta=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Battle of Amphipolis====
 
====Battle of Amphipolis====
*Amphipolis
+
<tabber>
*The Triumph of Brasidas
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*The Shame of Thucydides
+
("Who are you?")
*Eion Port
+
*Kleon's Strategy
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Brasidas' Defense
+
*Kleon's Retreat
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
*Unexpected Attack
+
|-|Amphipolis=
*The Fifty-Year Peace
+
|-|The Triumph of Brasidas=
  +
|-|The Shame of Thucydides=
  +
|-|Eion Port=
  +
|-|Kleon's Strategy=
  +
|-|Brasidas' Defense=
  +
|-|Kleon's Retreat=
  +
|-|Unexpected Attack=
  +
|-|The Fifty-Year Peace=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====The Battles of Pylos and Sphakteria====
 
====The Battles of Pylos and Sphakteria====
*Context
+
<tabber>
*Athenians Trapped
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*The Athenian Fleet Arrives
+
("Who are you?")
*Spartans Trapped
+
*Negotiations
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Attack on Sphakteria
+
*Consequences
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|Context=
  +
|-|Athenians Trapped=
  +
|-|The Athenian Fleet Arrives=
  +
|-|Spartans Trapped=
  +
|-|Negotiations=
  +
|-|Attack on Sphakteria=
  +
|-|Consequences=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
===Famous Cities===
 
===Famous Cities===
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====Mycenae====
 
====Mycenae====
*Mycenaean Civilization
+
<tabber>
*The Lion Gate
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Grave Circle
+
("Who are you?")
*Habitations
+
*Megaron Palace
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*King Agamemnon
+
  +
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|Mycenaean Civilization=
  +
|-|The Lion Gate=
  +
|-|Grave Circle=
  +
|-|Habitations=
  +
|-|Megaron Palace=
  +
|-|King Agamemnon=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Gods of Olympia====
 
====Gods of Olympia====
*Workshop of Phidias
+
<tabber>
*Olive Tree of Zeus
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Pelops, the Legendary Founder
+
("Who are you?")
*Heraion
+
*Hera
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Hekatomb
+
*Temple of Zeus
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
*Zeus
+
|-|Workshop of Phidias=
*Chryselephantine Statue of Zeus
+
|-|Olive Tree of Zeus=
  +
|-|Pelops, the Legendary Founder=
  +
|-|Heraion=
  +
|-|Hera=
  +
|-|Hekatomb=
  +
|-|Temple of Zeus=
  +
|-|Zeus=
  +
|-|Chryselephantine Statue of Zeus=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====The Agora of Athens====
 
====The Agora of Athens====
*The Agora of Athens
+
<tabber>
*Painted Stoa
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Trade
+
("Who are you?")
*Apollo Patroos
+
*The Hephaisteion
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Bouleuterion
+
*Prytaneion
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
*Heliaia
+
|-|The Agora of Athens=
*Market
+
|-|Painted Stoa=
*Judicial Court
+
|-|Trade=
*Mint
+
|-|Apollo Patroos=
  +
|-|The Hephaisteion=
  +
|-|Bouleuterion=
  +
|-|Prytaneion=
  +
|-|Heliaia=
  +
|-|Market=
  +
|-|Judicial Court=
  +
|-|Mint=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====The Oracle of Delphi====
 
====The Oracle of Delphi====
*The Secret Way
+
<tabber>
*Dedication of the Knidians
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Athenian Portico
+
("Who are you?")
*Offerings and Sacrifices
+
*Temple of Apollo
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Pythian Oracle
+
*Foundation of the Oracle
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|The Secret Way=
  +
|-|Dedication of the Knidians=
  +
|-|Athenian Portico=
  +
|-|Offerings and Sacrifices=
  +
|-|Temple of Apollo=
  +
|-|Pythian Oracle=
  +
|-|Foundation of the Oracle=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Piraeus====
 
====Piraeus====
*Piraeus Overview
+
<tabber>
*Population
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Economic District
+
("Who are you?")
*The Emporion
+
*The Deigma
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*Running the Piraeus
+
*Pentekostologoi
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
*Grain Import
+
|-|Piraeus Overview=
*Credits and Loans
+
|-|Population=
  +
|-|Economic District=
  +
|-|The Emporion=
  +
|-|The Deigma=
  +
|-|Running the Piraeus=
  +
|-|Pentekostologoi=
  +
|-|Grain Import=
  +
|-|Credits and Loans=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
====Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros====
 
====Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros====
*Sanctuary Entrance
+
<tabber>
*Medical Stele
+
|-|Opening Remarks=
*Sacrifices and Prayers
+
("Who are you?")
*Temple of Asklepios
+
*Priest Houses
+
("What do you think of this place?")
*The Abaton
+
*Incubation
+
("Let's begin the tour.")
  +
|-|Sanctuary Entrance=
  +
|-|Medical Stele=
  +
|-|Sacrifices and Prayers=
  +
|-|Temple of Asklepios=
  +
|-|Priest Houses=
  +
|-|The Abaton=
  +
|-|Incubation=
  +
|-|Closing Remarks=
  +
("I'm ready for the quiz.")
  +
  +
("Take on the next suggested tour.")
  +
  +
("Take me on a random tour.")
  +
  +
([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")
  +
</tabber>
   
 
==Discovery Sites==
 
==Discovery Sites==

2020年5月30日 (星期六) 15:34的版本

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这篇文章是关于the Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece的。也许你要找的是Discovery Tour: Ancient Egypt
ACOD Discovery Tour Promo Image

Promotional Image

Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece is an educational mode for Assassin's Creed: Odyssey. Released on 10 September 2019, the mode was available as a free update for players who own the game, and also as a standalone purchase on Uplay. It includes 30 tours covering 5 different themes (Philosophy, Architecture, Daily Life, War, and Mythology) lead by 5 different tour guides (Aspasia, Barnabas, Markos, Herodotos and Leonidas I of Sparta). The tours can be experienced using 36 unique avatars and 15 mounts, accessible by progressing through Discovery Tour objectives, and each one has a interactive quiz at its end.[1]

Tours

Daily Life

The Urban Household

Explore a typical Athenian home.

  • Aspasia: Greetings, wanderer. It is my pleasure to introduce you to a unique tour – One that won't take you to impressive landmarks or famous battle sites, but through a typical Athenian home.

("Who are you?")

  • Aspasia: My name is Aspasia. Though I am not original from Athens, I have climbed to the top of its social ladder using my wit and intellect. I've even earned the love of Perikles, one of the most powerful men in the city. The mind truly is a beautiful thing.

("What do you think of this place?")

  • Aspasia: If Olympos is Zeus' sanctuary, then my house is my own. It is a place where I can shelter myself from the noise and stress of city life.

("I would like to begin the tour.")

  • Aspasia: For an outgoing people like the Greeks, the house was a refuge of privacy. Inside, they could escape from the constant demands of civic life to enjoy the simple pleasures of family life. Look for me when you are done, and we can discuss the things you've seen. Farewell for now.

Narration: The house, or oikos, was a residence for Greek families and their slaves. Contrary to modern houses, which look outward, the Greek household was built to look inward on a courtyard.
The courtyard was the house's central fixture. It was the building's main source of daylight, and also the location of religious altars dedicated to worship.
The building itself was made up of familiar accommodations, including bedrooms, storage rooms, a kitchen, and a living room.
Women were generally in charge of tending to the home, which in Greece was called
oikonomia – a term that inspired the modern word "economy".

ACOD DT - Greek House - Learn More

Scene of women in the house from a red-figure pyxis

Learn more: Certain rooms in Greek households were reserved for exclusively for women and female slaves. These rooms were known as gynaikonitis, or gynaikon. The gynaikon were entirely separated from the men's section of the home – the andron – by a strong door, and were frequently situated in the house's upper stories.

Men often held drinking parties called symposia in their section of the house. Women, meanwhile, kept to their section to pursue activities like tending to their appearance, looking after children, spinning and weaving, and playing musical instruments.

Narration: A pasta was a corridor that connected a house's courtyard to its residential section. Archaeological evidence from the city of Olynthos reveals that pastas were added to Greek home design in the 5th century BCE.

ACOD DT - Pastas - Learn More

Floor plan of the hill-house in Delos (2nd cent. BCE)

Learn more: Greek houses were built on foundations of stone with mud bricks and woodwork. Their floors were packed mud – with the exception of the andron, which had a tiled floor – and their roofs were compiled of tiles.

In cities, houses were positioned next to one another, and usually had a room or shop that opened up onto the street. Windows were normally only found on the first floor, but rooms were arranged so that air could circulate through them from the open courtyard.

The houses were heated with braziers of charcoal, which also helped light surrounding rooms. Furniture, meanwhile, was very simple, and consisted of couches, chairs, folding stools, tables, blankets, and cushions. Archaeological evidence also suggests that many other tools and objects were also kept in the home, including vases, sieves, cauldrons, and basins.

Legend: 1. Living Room 2. Pastas 3. Court 4. Entrance 5. Kitchen 6. Stairs

Narration: Greeks had no qualms about combining their work and their private lives, and many of them worked from home.
Artisans like blacksmiths, sculptors, and potters often had workshops in their houses. Some even operated small stores to sell their work. Similarly, doctors were known to treat patients in special offices located in their homes.
Women also worked in the house, and were responsible for making textiles, as well as producing clothes and supervising weaving, which was carried out by slaves.
If a household was wealthy enough, they could even produce a surplus of textiles to sell in times of financial difficulty.

ACOD DT - Work at Home - Learn more

Blacksmith working in his workshop, scene from a red-figured cup

Learn more: Athenians supported themselves by carrying out a wide array of commercial and industrial activities. Most of the time, there was no distinction between where people worked and where they lived.

For example, in Aristophanes' comedy "Lysistrata", the character of the tavern keeper is shown serving wine in his own residence. Similarly, according to Demosthenes, the general Konon ran an entire business in his house.

Teachers could even have schools inside their homes, such as the father of Aischines, who taught an elementary school in his house.

Narration: The inner courtyard was the nexus of the house. Functionally, it allowed air to circulate, and also provided access to most of the rooms.
It also sometimes housed a well or a cistern that collected rainwater.
In the center of the courtyard was an altar to Zeus Herkeios, who served as the protector of the household.
Women would often use the space to sew and cook, while children used it as a play area. Furthermore, if the family had pets or animals, the courtyard was where they were allowed to run free.

ACOD DT - Inner Courtyard - learn more

Young boys playing knucklebones, scene from an Athenian red-figure oinochoe

Learn more: Based on scenes of household life depicted on ancient vases, Greek children had many different ways to entertainment themselves. Artistic representations show them doing everything from spinning tops, to riding seesaw, to playing knucklebones.

Children also played with small figurines, animals, wheeled horses, carts, and dolls. Terracotta or plaster copies of birds and other animals were also common toys.

Numerous dolls, such as a tiny figurine of a woman, have survived to this day. The dolls were designed with articulated joints in their arms and legs, which allowed children to manipulate them into a variety of positions.

Narration: The bathroom was located in the back of the house. Much like today, it was used for cleansing and washing, although the Greeks used chamber pots instead of toilets.
Most bathrooms had a
louterion that could be filled with water for washing.
Mirrors, razors,
strigils, and sponges could also be found in the bathroom, along with small vases called aryballoi which were usually filled with perfume or oil.

ACOD DT - Bathroom - learn more

Young woman in a bathroom scene, from a red-figure kylix

Learn more: The Greeks viewed hair as a symbol of life and strength. Originally, hair loss signified old age of disease, and the shortening or shaving of hair symbolized a loss of freedom. During the Archaic period, men who had long hair were associated with the aristocracy.

In the 5th century BCE, however, it became fashionable men to wear their hair short, usually in curls or short strands. Women, meanwhile, had long hair held together by nets, pins, or bands.

The Classic period saw the appearance of even more looks, like the lampadion hairstyle, which involved bounding hair upward in a way that was reminiscent of a burning flame. Similarly there was also the "melon style" bun, in which hair was tightened to form a braided crown, and a Greek bun with a high knot.

Narration: Greek homes had kitchens where the family's meals were prepared. The Greeks did not often eat meat, except during special occasions like banquets or after sacrifices.
They had a mainly grain-based diet, eating staples such as bread, porridge, or a barley cake called
maza.
They also occasionally ate poultry, fish, and other sea food, as well as fruits, vegetables, goat milk and cheese, and olive oil.
Food was cooked on a tripod, or sometimes in a
klibanos, which was a sort of mobile oven.
Other cooking implements included braziers, mortars and pestles, a spit to hold food over a fire, platters, and frying pans.
The family also used the kitchen to store food in containers called
pithoi.

ACOD DT - Kitchen - learn more

Terracotta figurine of cooking scene with butcher and cook. From Tanagra in Boeotia.

Learn more: According to Hippokrates, some Greeks ate only one meal a day, while others ate two. The main meal was called the deipnon, and was eaten in the evening, while the second possible meal was called ariston, and was normally eaten around noon.

The deipnon was made up of three parts: a cereal staple called sitos, a main dish called opson, and potos – otherwise known as wine. The opson usually consisted of meat or fish, while the wine was served with desserts like dried fruits, nuts, and cakes.

The Greek diet was on the Mediterranean triad: grains, grapes, and olives.

Narration: Symposia were major social institutions in Greece. They were drinking parties held exclusively for men.
The party took place in the men's section of the house, the
andron, where residents and guests reclined on special couches called klinai.
Food was served on low tables set in front of the couches, while wine was placed in a
krater in the center of the room.
During a symposium, men drank, sang, had philosophical discussions, and played games like
kottabos.
Musicians, dancers, and even courtesans were often welcomed to attend as well. However, wives and daughters were always excluded.

Learn more: The most popular game at symposia was the kottabos. The game consisted of flicking an almost-empty wine cup to project the remainder of the wine at a specific target. The target was generally a terracotta vessel either floating in a bowl of water or balanced on a stand, and the objective of the game was to use the wine dregs to sink the vessel or knock it down.

Another popular symposium game involved the singing of skolia. Skolia were drinking songs sung by symposiasts in turns. Participants would pass around a sprig of laurel or myrtle. Whoever held the sprig would start singing, then pass it suddenly to another person, who would do their best to continue the song.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: Red-figure cup with a scene of a symposium

Narration: The pyrgos, or upper storeys, was the women's quarter of the house, where they could pursue their activities and observe the city without been seen themselves.
The rooftops were also used in a special rite called the Adonia, a private celebration held in honor of Adonis, which was reserved for women.
At the beginning of spring, women filled terracotta pots with soil and lettuce seeds, then climbed a ladder to place the pots on the rooftop.
These pots served as the women's very own "Gardens of Adonis".

ACOD DT - Rooftops - learn more

Fragment of red-figure lebes with scene depicting women celebrating the Adonia festival

Learn more: The Adonia festival was linked closely to the myth of Adonis, a mortal who was beloved by the goddess Aprodite. After incurring Artemis' wrath, Adonis was killed by a boar, and from his spilled blood bloomed flowers.

The commemoration of Adonis' tragic death was central to the Adonia celebration. The participating women danced, sang, and ritually mourned Adonis by setting pots of plants on their rooftops that quickly germinated and withered. Because of this, the phrase "Gardens of Adonis" was often used proverbally by Greeks to describle something trivial and wasteful.

After the rooftop ceremony, the women descended into the streets for a funeral procession. When the procession was over, they buried small statues of the gods, then celebrated by drinking wine and playing games.

  • Aspasia: I hope now you have a better understanding of the routines and home life of the Greek people. What would you like to do next?

("I'm ready for a quiz.")

  • Aspasia: Then let's start with a simple question. Which group of people celebrated the Adonia?

  • Aspasia: Correct! The Adonia was celebrated by women of all stations. Let's move on to the next question.

  • Aspasia: Which of the following was known as the "protector of the household"?

  • Aspasia: Yes! Zeus Herkeios protected the household, and an altar to the god usually stood in the center of the house's courtyard. On to the final question.

  • Aspasia: Which of the following was not located in the bathroom?

  • Aspasia: The louterion was a water basin that was located in the bathroom. Try a different answer.

  • Aspasia: Correct! The klibanos was a mobile oven usually found in the kitchen.

  • Aspasia: I'm afraid mirrors were quite common in bathrooms. Keep trying.

  • Aspasia: It seems you really know your way around Greek homes. Well done, wanderer.

("Take me to the next suggested tour.")

  • Aspasia: As you wish. Come with me.

("Take me to a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

  • Aspasia: Farewell, wanderer, and thank you for visiting my city.

Wine

Visit the island of Thasos, and learn about ancient winemaking techniques.

  • Markos: Ah, my friend! How fortuitous to run into you in this most intoxicating place. I'd offer you a drink, but for some reason the workers won't let me borrow any of their wine. Cheapskates.

("Who are you?")

  • Markos: Why, I'm Markos, of course! Only one of the most successful merchants in all of Greece. You really haven't heard of me?
    My name is known from Kephallonia to Kos! If you've ever paid money for something, I probably received a percentage. But enough about me. Let's go back to what you're doing here.

("What do you think of this place?")

  • Markos: You know, I once started my own wine business on Kos. It hit a bit of a snag when my investors, three brothers calling themselves "The Cerberos", suddenly lost faith in me. But after they had a tragic run-in with a bloodthirsty misthios, I was able to land on my feet. From then on, the streets of Kos overflowed with wine, and my purse overflowed with drachmae! Very sad about the Cerberos, though. Couldn't have happened to nicer people.

("Let's begin the tour.")

  • Markos: As you can probably tell by all the grapes, this is one of Greece's many vineyards. Wine was an essential part of Greek culture, and this tour will take you through how it was made. In addition to being delicious, not to mention lucrative, wine was an important part of Greek economy. I promise I'll meet you at the end of your visit, my friend. See you soon!

Narration: Winemaking dates back to the 4th or 3rd millennium BCE. It became widespread in Greece during the Bronze Age, and within centuries the Greeks had refined it further.
The first step in the process was always harvesting, where grapes grown on rows of vines were collected by vineyard workers.
According to Homer, harvesting was often accompanied by music to give it a more festive atmosphere.
Ancient Greek wine mainly came in three different varieties:
austeros, glukazon and autokratos. It could be flavoured with spices, herbs, resin, and even perfume.
It was also much stronger than modern wine, with an alcohol percentage of approximately sixteen percent. Because of this, the drink was mixed with water to make it more palatable.

ACOD DT - Harvest - learn more

Grape harvesting scene from black-figure amphora

Learn more: The god Dionysos was believed to have introduced wine to mortals. As a result, there were many celebrations and festivals dedicated to Dionysos, including the Anthesteria, an Athenian festival that marked the broaching of new wine from the previous autumn.

The Athesteria took place over 3 days. The first day was called Pithoigia ("jar opening"). As its name implied, it was dedicated to opening new wine jars and offering libations to Dionysos.

The second day, Choes (jugs), included jovial events like drinking contests, but also a solemn ceremony where the wife of the archon would be wedded to Dionysos.

The third day was called Chytroi (pots), in reference to the pots that contained the day's meal.

The Anthesteria was mostly lighthearted, but it had a dark side as well. The Choes in particular was viewed as a day of ill omen, where ghosts from the underworld would appear to haunt the living. On this day, people allegedly chewed leaves of whitethorn and smeared tar on their doors to protect themselves from the wrath of the dead.

Narration: Grapes were dried to maximize the wine's sweetness and prevent it from turning into vinegar.
In most vineyards, the dying process involved laying the grapes out on the ground under the heat of the sun – then covering them at night to prevent them from accumulating dew.
According to Hesiod's poem
Work and Days, the ideal time to dry grapes was "ten days and ten nights".
When they were finally completely dry, the grapes were collected in jars, just as they are today.

ACOD DT - Drying the grapes - learn more

Satyrs harvesting grapes

Learn more: The Greeks used different types of grapes to produce different kinds of wine. According to Julius Pollux in his Onomastikon, there were 28 varieties of grapes, and they were often named after their place of origin or the method of their production.

The Byblia variety of grapes produced a wine called the Byblinos. The Byblinos enjoyed a great reputation among wine lovers, and even appears in Euripides' tragedy Ion during a scene set a luxurious symposium.

The dark-colored Pramnia grape variety, meanwhile, was used for the Pramnios wine, an appreciated black vintage produced in Icaria and Smyrna. The Pramnios was prestigious enough to have been drunk by the heroes of The Iliad and The Odyssey.

On the other end of the spectrum were the Psythias or Psythia, white grapes from Ionia that produced a very sweet wine known today as Liasto.

Narration: The Greeks had many methods for crushing the harvested grapes. The most common technique was to use a lenos, a large "treading vat" where workers stomped on grapes with their feet.
Alternatively, the Greeks sometimes crushed the grapes by hand using a strainer, mashed them with a mortar and pestle, or squeezed them using a tool called a sack press.

Learn more: Wine had many uses in Greek culture.

The liquid was very important for symposia, communal drinking parties reserved exclusively for men. During a symposium, a krater (mixing bowl) at the center of the room was used to mix water and wine together. Once diluted, it was shared amongst the party's guests, who drank it from individual cups.

Wine played a part in libations to the gods and at funerals. Furthermore, it could be mixed with certain aphrodisiac or hypnotic properties to induce feelings like arousal or sleepiness.

Surprisingly, wine was also used as a medical treatment for the sick, and women suffering gynecological problems were sometimes prescribed the drink. Dioskorides even described two types of wine that could supposedly abort fetuses.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: Trapetum from a farm in Argilos

Narration: After the grapes were pressed, the resulting juice was poured into large containers called pithoi, where it fermented. Once fully fermented, the wine was filtered through an ethmos or sack, which separated it from the residual yeast called "lees".
The wine was then placed in a special storage room. The room was dry, and the wine pithoi within were half-buried in the ground to ensure they maintained a consistent of fifteen degrees Celsius.
These measures ensured the wine wouldn't lose any of its quality before being shipped to market.

ACOD DT - Fermentation and Conservation - learn more

Rhodian terracotta transport amphora with stamps on the upper part of the handles that give the maker's name and the date of manufacture

Learn more: Wine from Thasos was considered to be one of the highest quality Greek wines, and was consequently produced a large scale to be exported to foreign markets. The Hippokratic treatise On Disease even listed Thasian wine among refreshing beverages that aided patients from hot flushes.

In Athens and the rest of Greece, Thasian wine was at the high end of the quality spectrum. Archeological evidence of Thasian amphoras has turned up in places like Athens, Amphipolis, Pella, Egypt, and other areas around the Black Sea. Many of these amphoras were labeled with the name of the people involved in the production of the container, such as potters, workshop owners, or inspectors dedicated to ensuring the quality of the jars. These stamps also helped authenticate the origin of the wine.


Narration: When the wine was ready to ship, it was poured into storage containers called amphoras. These were smaller than pithoi, which made them easier to ship and display in crowded marketplaces.
However, that doesn't mean transporting wine was always a safe endeavor. Sometimes, ships carrying
amphoras as cargo would be wrecked before making it to their destination, losing hundreds of bottles of wine to the sea.

Learn more: Athens was home to many taverns, and the establishments' managers were often mocked by Aristophanes the Comic poet. The taverns were called kapeleion or taverna, and sold wine, vinegar, and sometimes sweets and bar snacks.

After a wine amphora was opened, the liquid was poured into a krater (mixing bowl) to decant. It could also be cooled by pouring it into a wine-cooler called a psykter first, then placing the psykter into a krater filled with cold water. When it was ready to be served, the wine was transferred to jugs called oenochoai, and was drunk in individual cups like kylikes or kantharoi.

In Athens, taverns flourished in the southeast corner of the agora, according to the numerous amphoras, drinking cups, mixing bowls, and cookware that have been found in the area. Similar archeological evidence has also been found in the south corner of Korinths agora, suggesting there were taverns there as well.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: Wine stall scene from a black-figure pelike

  • Markos: Ah, my friend! Are you drunk with knowledge? I hope you enjoyed yourself, learning about all the picking, stomping, and bottling that goes into making Greece's favorite beverage. Maybe if my customers understood how hard winemaking was, they'd agree more with my perfectly reasonable prices. But let's talk about something else, yes? What else can I do for you?

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

  • Markos: You want you intelligence tested? Well let me tell you, friend, no one is more qualified for the task than me. Let's get started.
    What container was used to ship wine to market?

  • Markos: No, pithoi were big containers where the juice fermented into wine. But I'm fond of second, third, even fourth chances, so try another answer!

  • Markos: Yes! Wine was stored in amphoras during its long journey to market. Here's another question!

  • Markos: An ethmos was actually a strainer, not a container. Although both words end in "ainer", so I understand the confusion. Try again.

  • Markos: The lenos was the vat where workers pressed the grapes. Keep trying, though!

  • Markos: What container was used to ship wine to market?

  • Markos: Which of the following wasn't a type of wine variety?

  • Markos: No, austeros was a dry kind of wine. Try again.

  • Markos: No, autokratos was wine of the medium-sweet variety. But don't give up yet!

  • Markos: Correct! Thasos was an island famous for its vineyards, not a specific type of wine. Just one more question to go, my friend.

  • Markos: Glukazon was the sweetest type of wine, and my personal favorite, but it is not the correct answer. Try another one.

  • Markos: Which of the following wasn't a type of wine variety?

  • Markos: Which part of the winemaking process created the grape juice necessary for wine?

  • Markos:

  • Markos: That's the one! The harvested grapes were pressed in a lenos, often by the feet of vineyard workers! Just try not to think about that last part whenever you have a cup of wine.

  • Markos:

  • Markos:

  • Markos: Which part of the winemaking process created the grape juice necessary for wine?

  • Markos: You really know your wine! You're as good with the facts as I am with money, and that's really saying something.

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

  • Markos: If you say so, my friend! I hope we see each other again soon.

The Life of a Greek Woman

Learn what daily life was like for Ancient Greek women.

  • Aspasia: Welcome to Korinth, wanderer. I have a special visit planned for you today. It's an intimate, informative look into the lives of Greek women.

("Who are you?")

  • Aspasia: My name is Aspasia. Though I am not originally from Athens, I have climbed to the top of its social ladder using my wit and intellect. I've even earned the love of Perikles, one of the most powerful men in the city. The mind truly is a beautiful thing.

("What do you think of this place?")

  • Aspasia: It's amazing what women could accomplish while men spent all day trying to out-debate each other at assembly meetings. Their work should be far more appreciated on the whole, but we're going to acknowledge that now.

("Let's begin the tour.")

  • Aspasia: Korinth was one of the largest cities in Ancient Greece. it had had estimated population of 90,000 in my times, and much of that population was made up of women. This tour will shine a light on those women, and look at how they lived on a day-to-day basis. Look for me when you're done with your visit, and we can discuss things further.

Narration: Young girls growing up in Ancient Greece cities were usually raised by a nurse.

They mostly stayed in the women's quarters of the house, the gynaikon, where they spent their time spinning threads and weaving.

While there is not much historical evidence of young girls at play, especially compared to boys, it was still known to happen.

For example, an ancient terracotta group depicts two girls playing ephedrismos.

This was a competition to see who could strike an upright rock from afar using a pebble or ball.

The game's loser had to close their eyes and carry the victor until they managed to touch the same rock with their hands.

ACOD DT - Life - learn more

Red-figure lebes gamikos (used in marriage ceremonies) with scene showing preparations for a wedding

Learn more: It's estimated that the area that would eventually be known as Korinth was inhabited as early as the Neolithic period, around 6500 BCE.

During the Classical period, Korinth was a rival to both Athens and Thebes because of its control of the Isthmus of Korinth. However, under Alexander the Great and his successors, Korinth, along with many other Greek cities, lost its autonomy.

In 146 BCE, Romans under the command of Lucius Mummius besieged Korinth. Mummius killed all the male inhabitants and sold the women and children into slavery, then burned the city down.

The Romans built a new city in Korinth's place in 44 BCE, which they later made the provincial capital of Greece.

Narration: For a young Greek woman, marriage was the culmination of their induction into society.

The average life expectancy from women was about forty years, so most marriages took place when the bride was fourteen or fifteen years old.

The marriage did not require her consent, either. Instead, she was passed on from the protection of her father to that of her husband.

Married women were not technically citizens at the time, and lacked the rights that came with official citizenship.

However, they did receive a dowry that only they were allowed to spend, but in the event of a failed marriage, to dowry was returned to the bride's father.

After the marriage was consummated, the woman's status changed from being a maiden to a bride.

She remained a bride until the birth of her first child, wherein she officially became a woman.

Learn more: A male citizen's parents usually lived in his house along with his wife and children. However, ancient households in Athens and Korinth were normally not composed of extensive families.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: Red-figure neck-amphora depicting a father, mother, and their child

Narration: Women living in Ancient Greek cities were essentially forbidden from participating in political life and most aspects of their lives were controlled by men.

Their most important responsibilities were running the household and giving birth to children, preferably boys.

Most of the time, women's excursions outside of the house were limited to visiting other female neighbors, as per custom.

The few exceptions to this strict rule were weddings, funerals, and religious festivals involving women in prominent public roles.

Learn more: Ancient Greek men dedicated most of their time to public life, but Greek home life was dominated by women.

An Athenian or Korinthian wife was in charge of the household, and divided her tome between spinning, weaving, and sewing family garments. Meanwhile, duties like food preparation and child-rearing were usually performing by women slaves. However, if a family was too poor to afford many slaves, the wife took on these responsibilities.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: Woman and possibly her daughter doing the laundry, from a red-figure pelike

Narration: Making textiles was the main occupation for most Greek women. It was a woman's responsibility to manufacture clothing for each of her family members, as well as to weave other household textiles.

Women with exceptional weaving skills were believed to make excellent wives and weaving in general was seen as a very attractive quality.

For example, Homer describes Odysseus' devoted wife Penelope as spending most of her days weaving at the loom.

Similarly, many Greek vases depicting women weaving were combined with images of a woman holding a veil, which was seen as the symbol of a bride.

ACOD DT - Weaving - learn more

Women working at a loom, scene from a black-figure lekythos

Learn more: Some evidence of ancient weaving activities comes from an Archaic black-figure terracotta lekythos (vessel). The vessel depicts women weighing wool, spinning, working on an upright loom, and folding finished garments.

Besides weaving, another daily activity in Ancient Greece was fetching water from the local fountain house. The activity gave women the opportunity to socialize outside of their homes.

Women were also responsible for visiting the tombs of family members. Typically, the brought offerings and tied sashes around the grave steles.

Women could attend public speeches and visit certain sanctuaries, but only if they were accompanied by men.

Narration: Ancient Greek women cooked in their house's kitchen area. However, since their cooking equipment was small and portable, they also sometimes prepared meals in the central courtyard.

This was also where women performed other domestic activities. These activities were rarely seen by visiting men or passers-by, because the architecture of Classical Greek houses facilitated the social norm that women should never be seen at work.

Learn more:

Narration: The historian Strabo relays that the Temple of Aphrodite was one of Korinth's most famous landmarks. This was largely due to the temple's female patrons.

These hetaerae, as they were called, were donated to the the goddess by both men and women. According to Strabo, the Temple of Aphrodite contributed greatly to Korinth's wealth.

The hetaerae were the temple's main attraction, and many visitors came to Korinth in search of their company, for which they spent frequently and frivolously.

Learn more:

  • Aspasia: Hello again, wanderer. I Hope your visit was an interesting one. Greek women lived restricted lives compared to men, but throughout it all, they held on to their strength and dignity.

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

  • Aspasia: Feeling up for a test? Excellent. Let's begin with an easier question.
    What was the name of the woman's quarters in a Greek home?

  • Aspasia: Correct! The gynaikon was where young girls spent their days weaving and spinning threads. On to the next question...

  • Aspasia: What was the name of the woman's quarters in a Greek home?

  • Aspasia: The Korinthian temple said to employ the hetaerae was dedicated to which god?

  • Aspasia: Correct! Aphrodite was the goddess of love and passion, so it's only fitting her temple served such an... amorous purpose. We're almost done. Just one more question.

  • Aspasia: No, the temple was not dedicated to Athena. Try a different answer.

  • Aspasia: The Korinthian temple said to employ the hetaerae was dedicated to which god?

  • Aspasia: What was the name of Odysseus' wife?

  • Aspasia: Yes! Penelope was Odysseus' loyal wife , who kept at her weaving while waiting for her husband to return from war.

  • Aspasia: What was the name of Odysseus' wife?

  • Aspasia: You passed the test, wanderer. Congratulations.

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

  • Aspasia: Of course! Let's see what Greece has in store for you.

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Bronze in Argos

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Perfume

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

The Laurion Silver Mines

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Wheat and Agriculture

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Pottery in Athens

Aspasia: Hello, wanderer. May I introduce you to the Kerameikos, the kiln that warms all of Athens' pottery?

("Who are you?")

Aspasia: My name is Aspasia. Though I am not original from Athens, I have climbed to the top of its social ladder using my wit and intellect. I've even earned the love of Perikles, one of the most powerful men in the city. The mind truly is a beautiful thing.

("What do you think of this place?")

Aspasia: The art produced here is some of the most beautiful in the Greek world. I envy the potters' skill, though I’m not quite as envious of their clay-stained hands. It’s bad for the nails.

("I would like to begin the tour.")

Aspasia:...

Narrator: The Kerameikos was a large, sprawling area northwest of Athens's akropolis.

While part of it was used as a graveyard, it was also dedicated to the creation of pottery.

The Kerameikos was so significant to the art form that its name lives on in the word "ceramics".

Perhaps drawn by the river, potters moved into the area and formed their own bustling community.

It's believed that by the end of the 5th century BCE, hundreds of thousands of pottery vessels had been made in Athens, including everything from heavy, undecorated cooking pots, to delicates and beautiful containers reserved for the most precious oils.

Sadly, only around one percent of these works survive today, some only in small fragments.

Learn more: Unfortunately, no ancient manuals for making pottery have survived to the present day, and there is only limited visual and textual evidence to explain how ceramic works were created.

However, the vases themselves provide a few clues. Some pots were decorated with behind-the-scenes glimpses of potters and painters at work. These visual narratives, along with the texts of ancient authors, suggest that pottery-making was a family affair, with fathers teaching their sons the craft at a young age. One base even shows a woman working as a painter, which again suggests that pottery-making was a family business.

Aspasia: You've returned. As you can see pottery is...

("I'm ready for a quiz.")

Aspasia: Then let’s get right to it. Starting with an easy one. What was responsible for the orange-red color of most Athenian vases?

("Paint.")

("Leaves.")

("Blood.")

("Iron.")

Aspasia: Correct! Athenian potters...

("Can you repeat the question?")

("Take me to the next suggested tour.")

("Take me to a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Aspasia: Then we must part ways, at least for now. Farewell, wanderer.

Dyeing and Fashion

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Politics and Philosophy

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Spartan Politics

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Democracy in Athens

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

School of Greece - Philosophy

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Art, Religion, and Myths

The Olympic Games

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

School of Greece - Music

("Who are you?")

("What do you think of this place?")

("Let's begin the tour.")

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Knossos

  • Herodotos: Welcome to Knossos, traveler, where the Minotaur once prowled.

("Who are you?")


("What do you think of this place?")

  • Herodotos: Some say if you listen closely, you can still hear echoes of the Minotaur's ferocious bellowing.
    Of course, it may only be a trick of the wind.
    Perhaps.

("Let's begin the tour.")

  • Herodotos: Knossos was the seat of the old Minoan civilization, where King Minos once supposedly ruled. These ruins have been the backdrop for many important events in both history and mythology. LOok for me when your visit is over, and we'll discuss what you've seen.

  • Narrator: The island of Krete was first settled around 8000 BCE. Over time, significant towns and maritime trade began to develop.
    Palaces were built, destroyed, and then rebuilt, culminating in what archaeologists call the Neopalatial period, which began around 1700 BCE. This period lasted for over three hundred years, and is considered the golden age of the Minoan civilization. The largest palace of this period was located in Knossos—and featured mazelike complexes of workshops, temples, courts, throne rooms, and living areas, as well as paved roads and advancing plumbing and draining.
    Trade and external relations were important to the Minoans, and their networks extended across the eastern Mediterranean. As a result, the people of Krete and the lands they traded with often influenced each other and exchanged ideas, usually through peaceful interactions instead of military conflict.

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Arthur John Evans was an archaeologist known for his excavations at Knossos from 1900–1931. He was so dedicated to his work at the site he missed his father's funeral to preside over the excavation of Minos' palace.

Arthur Evans named the Minoan civilization after King Minos, but it is unknown what the Minoans called themselves.

  • Narrator: The settlement of Knossos was established as early as the 7th millennium BCE. Today, one of the sites most notable landmarks in the palace ruins located on the Kephala hill.
    The ruins are split into two phases, the Old Palace, which has been poorly preserved, and the New Palace. The New Palace of Knossos had a surface area of approximately 13,000 square meters. Making it the largest Minoan palace. Its focal point was a central court which was probably used for ceremonial activities.
    The Minoan palace centers collapsed when Krete was overrun and conquered by a Mycenaean invasion from mainland Greece. However, the date of the final destruction of Knossos' palace is still unknown.

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Arthur John Evans oversaw many architectural reconstructions at Knossos, with somewhat mixed results.

In the negative side, Evans' restoration at Knossos, with somewhat mixed results.

On the negative side, Evans' restoration of the Throne Room prioritized how it supposedly looked in the Late Bronze Age period, instead off representing the full spectrum of its history. Evans also overemphasized the Minoan identity of the site, leaving out the aspects of Mycenaean culture that influenced Knossos' art and architure.

On the positive side, the site's reconstruction helped save many parts of the site that would have otherwise been lost. Moreover, while the restoration of some art and architecture was inaccurate, it did help evoke the elegance and skill of Minoan architects and painters.

  • Narrator: During the New Palace phase, the group floor was dedicated to economic activities, and contained large storage rooms. The residential quarters—which notably had toilets—were located southeast of the Central Court, at the foot of the Grand Staircase.
    The palace was lavishly decorated with wall paintings depicting thing like bull-related sports and richly-dressed women. Large stone "horns of consecration", which were important Minoan religious symbols, hung prominently in the West Court.
    Other notable parts of the palace include the Theatrical Area, which is believed to have served as a viewing space, the Tripartite Shrine, which was dedicated to the worship of an important Minoan deity historians refer to as the "Mother Goddess", and the Piano Nobile, a grand space located on the palace's second floor.

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One fresco excavated from Knossos in 1914—"Ladies in Blue"—has been reproduced for New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art. The copy reproduces and embellishes fragments that were burned or roded on the original fresco.

  • Narrator: During his trips to Krete, archaeologist Arthur John Evans discovered several ancient tablets. They eventually led him to define the forms of Minoan writing known as Linear A and Linear B. The Minoans used these forms of writing for recording many things, including business transactions. For example, one clay tablet at the palace of Knossos was inscribed in Linear B script. The tablet detailed the transfer of coriander—often used in the perfume industry—between a man named Kyprios and another person named Twinon. The deciphering of tablets such as these has given historians great insight into many aspects of Minoan culture and society.

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During the Middle and Late Minoan period, Minoans buried their dead in a terracotta coffin known as a larnax.

Many larnakes were found buried in a cemetery to the north of the town that surrounded the palace at Knossos. The coffins were shapes like bathtubs or chests, and were often elaborately painted with scenes that were chosen for their funerary significance. They were also sometimes buried alongside valuable grave offerings.

It's possible the coffins had domestic uses as well, functioning as either bathtubs or storage chests.

  • Narrator: According to the myth, the half-man half-bull Minotaur was born after Queen Pasiphae slept with a bull sent by the gods as punishment upon her. This embarrassed King Minos, but he could not bring himself to kill the Minotaur. Instead, he hid the monster in a labyrinth constructed by Daidalos.

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Depictions of "bull-leaping" were prevalent throughout Minoan art, and bull-leaping scenes are believed to have decorated the walls above ceremonial bull-rings. However, the reasons for engaging in such an activity remain unknown. Mythical bulls like the Minotaur played important roles in Minoan iconography. This is likely due to cattle being a vital asset in the Kretan economy, especially during the Bronze Age, Bull and cattle are even mentioned in various Linear B documents.

  • Narrator: Daidalos was an important figure in Greek mythology. An ingenious inventor, he once became so jealous of his similarly-clever nephew that he threw him from the top of the Athenian Akropolis. As a consequence, Daidalos was banished from Athebs, though this did not prevent him from being able to get work.
    In Krete, he was hired by Queen Pasiphae to construct an artificial cow suit that would allow her to seduce a bull she was particularly taken with due to a curse from the Gods. Daidalos complied, and his invention helped facilitate the birth of the Minotaur.
    Afterwards, Minos conscripted Daidalos to build the Labyrinth, presumably as penance for his role in creating the Minotaur. But perhaps the most well-known story about Daidalos involves his son, Ikaros, who used wings built by his father and flew too close to the sun, thus plummeting into the sea.

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Much of the story of Daidalos as we known it comes from the Roman poet Ovid. While older versions of the story exist in ancient Greek sources, they wary wildly in their telling and often contradict each other when it comes to specific details.

  • Narrator: Some time after the birth of the Minotaur, King Minos' son Androgeos was killed in Athens by the same bull that impregnated his mother. And infuriated demanded that Athens send seven of their noblest men and seven of their most virtuous women to Knossos every year. After being carried to Krete aboard a ship with black sails, the men and women would then be cast into the Labyrinth to be eaten by the Minotaur.

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Athens' donating of youthful men and women to Krete may have been based on a real payment of tribute to the Aegean's dominant trading power in Bronze Age Greece. However, this is only a theory.

  • Narrator: One of the Athenians youths chosen to be imprisoned in the Labyrinth, Theseus, had enough of the morbid ritual. Before leaving Athens, he proclaimed he would kill the Minotaur, then return to his city on a ship flying while sails.
    Before entering the Labyrinth, Theseus met King Minos' daughter, Ariadne, who fell madly in love with him. Ariadne provided Theseus with a thread he could unravel to him find his way back out of the maze. Armed with this thread, Theseus entered the Labyrinth, killed the Minotaur, escaped the maze, and set sail for Athens with Ariadne by his side.

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After successfully killing the Minotaur, Theseus set sail for Athens with Ariadne, but stopped in Naxos for a long celebration. Due to the many hours of feasting and drinking, Ariadne fell asleep and forgot to return to Theseus' boat, which departed for Athens without her. In another version of the story, Theseus deliberately left Ariadne behind.

When Theseus realized what he'd done to Ariadne, he was so distraught that he forgot to change his ships' sails from black to white. When his father Aegeus saw the ominous black sails on Theseus' ship, he presumed his son was dead and, fraught with grief, threw himself into the sea.

  • Herodotos: I see you've found your way through the maze of ruins.
    The Minoans played a large part in shaping Greek myths, but also in introducing influences from other places and cultures. Now, what else would you like to do?

("I'm ready for the quiz.")

("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

  • Herodotos: Farewell, traveler. I hope you enjoyed exploring the ruins.

School of Greece - Theater

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("Let's begin the tour.")

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("Take on the next suggested tour.")

("Take me on a random tour.")

([LEAVE] "That's all for now.")

Gods and Love

Explore the Akrokorinth, and discover the relationship between the gods and romance.

("Who are you?")

  • Markos: Why, I'm Markos, of course! Only one of the most successful merchants in all of Greece. You really haven't heard of me?
    My name is known from Kephallonia to Kos! If you've ever paid money for something, I probably received a percentage. But enough about me. Let's go back to what you're doing here.

("What do you think of this place?")

  • Markos: It really is a lovely sight, isn't it? The temple, that is. Not the ladies. Although they are also lovely. Lovely, and lively, and... I'm sorry, what were we talking about?

("Let's begin the tour.")

  • Markos: In Greece, many love stories were told about the gods. How romantic! Sometimes they were heartwarming and happy, but they often ended in tears, tragedy, and a whole brood of illegitimate children. I'm looking at you, Zeus! Anyway, this tour will introduce you to some of these divine love stories, which may give you perspective on how the Greeks approached love in their own lives. Enjoy your visit, my friend! I'll come see you again when you finish the tour.

  • Narrator: Much like Athens, Korinth had its own akropolis, called the Akrokorinth.
    The natural promontory provided an excellent view of the surrounding territory. It was also the home of several sanctuaries, allegedly constructed in the 6th century BCE.
    The Akrokorinth's most famous attraction was the Temple of Aphrodite. Pausanias describes it as having statues of Aphrodite, her son Eros, and the son god Helios.
    According to Strabo, the temple's most distinguishing feature was its servants, who acted as "sacred prostitutes". However, Strabo is the only source for this information, and it is still hotly debated to this day.

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On the eve of the Battle of Salamis, the situation for the Greeks felt hopeless. After their loss at Thermopylai, the Persian king Xerxes' advance seemed unstoppable.

Seeking solace in religion, the women of Korinth gathered at the Temple of Aphrodite. According to the authors Pindar, Plutarch, and Athenaios, the women prayed to the goddess, begging her for something, anything, to stop the Persian invasion.

It seems their prayers were answered, and the Battle of Salamis ended with a glorious victory for the Greeks.

  • Narrator: Love played a large role in countless mythological stories. Zeus himself was not immune to the feeling ,and fell for both mortals and other deities.
    Some myths centered on forbidden feelings that led to tragedy, such as Phaedra's love for her stepson Hippolytos.
    While marriage was prominent in mythology, it was usually presented as problematic. For example, Aphrodite frequently cheated on her husband Hephaistos, and Medea's resentment against her ex-husband Jason eventually drove her mad enough to murder her children. These less than ideal depictions reflected Greeks' idea of marriage, which they viewed as a civic duty instead of a romantic union.

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The Homeric "Hym to Aphrodite", which dates back to the 7th or 6th century BCE, tells a story of the goddess succumbing to the charms of a mortal man named Anchises:

"But upon Aphrodite herself Zeus cast sweet desire to be joined in love with a mortal man, to the end that, very soon, not even she could be innocent of a mortal's love; lest laughter-loving Aphrodite should one day softly smile and say mockingly among all the gods that she had joined the gods in love with mortal women who bare sons of death to the deathless gods, and had mated the goddesses with mortal men. And so he put in her heart sweet desire for Anchises who at the time among the steep hills of many-fountained Idea was tending cattle, and in shape was like the immortal gods. Therefore, when laughter-loving Aphrodite saw him, she loved him, and terribly desire seized her in her heart".

  • Narrator: The goddess Aphrodite was one of the mightiest Olympians, and was typically associated with love, beauty, and sex.
    She was worshipped all across the Ancient Mediterranean by men and women, both young and old. Her origins differ depending on the version of the story. The poet Hesiod says she was born from the severed genitals of Ouranos, while Homer's version of the myth names her as the daughter of Zeus and Dione.
    Aphrodite appeared regularly in mythological stories, and had many mortal lovers. Her favourite was Adonis, a beautiful boy who died tragically in a hunting accident. Aphrodite was devastated by his death, so she created a cult called the
    Adonia to commemorate him.

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Eros was the god of sexual love. According to Ancient poets like Alkman, Ibykos, and Sappho, he was young and beautiful, but also cunning, unpredictable, and cruel. The tragedian Euripides later introduced a concept that Eros wielded a bow and arrows that inducted feelings of love in whoever they struck.

Eros was also a god of fertility, and was allegedly celebrated in places like Thespiae, Athens, and Elis. On vases and in other art, he was usually depicted as winged and boyish, and was often represented alongside Aphrodite. He was also associated with women, domestic scenes, and weddings.

Depending on the myth, he has had various different mothers, including Eileithyia, Penia, Iris, Aphrodite, and Gaia. Hesiod, meanwhile believed Eros was a primeval god who emanated from Chaos.

  • Markos: My friend, good to see you again. I bet you were surprised by some of the stories you heard. For a bunch of immortal beings, the gods certainly were saucy, ah? Tell me if there's anything else I can do for you.

(I'm ready for a quiz.)

("Take me to the next suggested tour.")

("Take me to a random tour.")

("Leave – That's all for now.")

  • Markos: Normally I don't let people go until they buy a souvenir, but for you, my friend, I'll make an exception.

Battles and Wars

Spartan Education

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Battle of Marathon

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Thermopylai

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Battle of Amphipolis

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The Battles of Pylos and Sphakteria

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Famous Cities

The Akropolis of Athens

  • Aspasia: Greetings, wanderer, and welcome to the Akropolis, the shining jewel of Athens.

("Who are you?")

  • Aspasia: My name is Aspasia. Though I am not original from Athens, I have climbed to the top of its social ladder using my wit and intellect. I've even earned the love of Perikles, one of the most powerful men in the city. The mind truly is a beautiful thing.

("What do you think of this place?")

  • Aspasia: Personally, I think the Akropolis is one of, if not the, greatest place in all of Greece. Though considering it was the project of my partner, Perikles, I may be a touch biased.

("I would like to begin the tour.")

  • Aspasia: The Akropolis of Athens is a bastion of art and culture worthy of the gods themselves. Within this citadel, you will find many important sacred buildings, as well as some of the most magnificent art in all of Greece.
    You are in for a very enlightening visit.l When you're done, come find me, and we can discuss the things you have seen. Farewell for now.

  • Narrator: The Akropolis has gone through many changes in its long history. It began as a simple rock, was settled as early as the Neolithic period, and then became a fortress in the Mycenaean period.

    Stone buildings started appearing in the 7th century BCE, but the famous structures whose ruins remain visible today date mainly from a period of construction in the 5th century BCE.

    The location of the Akropolis is closely tied with Athens' foundation myth. Supposedly, it was the site where Athena and Poseidon competed for the city's patronage. This connection gave the Akropolis a sacred aura, and it was considered the religious heart of the city.

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After the archaic buildings of the old Akropolis—most notably the temple of Athena Polias—were burned down in 480 BCE by Xerxes' Persian army, the great general and statesman Perikles resolved to transform the naturally imposing rock into a huge monument to Athens' political, military, and cultural greatness. Thus began the most ambitious building program the Greek world had even seen at the time.

Seven million drachmae were spent on the whole project, which has been deemed by UNESCO as "the supreme expression of the adaptation of architecture to a natural site". The Parthenon alone cost 469 talents—nearly 3 million drachmae, and the equivalent of approximately 12 tons of silver.

To justify the massive cost, Perikles cited the need to immortalize Athens' greatness, but also called the attention to the jobs the project would create for hundreds of stone cutters, carpenters, metal workers, painters, and unskilled laborers, all of whom were grateful for the opportunity to make more money.

  • Narrator: The Temple of Athena Nike was built on the remains of old fortifications from the Mycenaean era. Worship at the temple can be traced back to the 6th century BCE, but the building itself was destroyed during the Greco-Persian Wars a century later. It was rebuilt during the Peloponnesian War. Given that the name Athena Nike roughly means "Athena of Victory", it was likely constructed in the hopes that Athens would win the war.

    Unusually, the temple depicts historical scenes of battles against the Persians, instead of the more mythologically-inclined art of other Greek buildings.

    The temple's priestess was chosen randomly among the Athenians, and received of fifty drachmae annually, along win skins and trophies from sacrificed animals.

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The area where the temple of Athena Nike was built offers a beautiful view of the southern shores of Attika, along with the ports of Piraeus and Phaleron.

This noteworthy feature—as well as the Mycenaean ruins nearby—were the basis for the assumption that Aigeus, the ninth king of the old Athenian dynasty, watched the sea from here in the hopes of seeing his son Theseus returning safe and sound from Krete.

Theseus, the most important Athenian mythological hero, had left for Krete under the guise of one of the youth send to feed the Minotaur. Theseus promised Aigeus that he would kill the monster and bring back the Athenian youth on a ship flying white sails, symbolizing victory and joy.

The hero slew the Minotaur and sailed home, but forgot to replace his ship's dark mourning sails with lighter ones. When Aigeus saw the dark sails, he assumed Theseus had died. Stricken with grief, the king threw himself off the steep bastion of the Akropolis, meeting his death on the ground below.

  • Narrator: The Akropolis was built up over a long period, due in no small part to its partial destruction during the Greco-Persian Wars. It was in the 5th century BCE, though, that the Akropolis received its most significant improvements. This period was an extremely prosperous time for Athens, both financially and culturally.

    With a booming economy bolstered by trade and the Laurion silver mines, Perikles, the leader of Athens, financed a huge project to rebuild the citadel.

    He enlisted the help of renowned artists like the sculptor Phidias, as well as the architects Iktinos and Kallikrates.

    Together, they erected buildings like the Parthenon, and the Propylaea gateway. Perikles' goal was to make the Akropolis into a glorious monument to the gods, and to mortal Athenians.

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The history of the Akropolis did not end with the Periklean building program.

In antiquity, fires and invasions often imperiled or even destroyed parts of the Akropolis, forcing Athenians and foreign admirers of the site to restore, embellish, and protect the remnants of Perikles' achievements.

For example, a ceremonial entrance in front of the Propylaia was built by F. Septimius Marcellinus ca. 280 BCE, with stone quarried from nearby monuments which had recently been destroyed by a Germanic invasion. it is known as Beulé Gate, named after its modern excavator.

The Akropolis had many uses throughout history. Under Byzantine rule, it hosted pilgrims seeking to visit the Parthenon, which had been transformed into a church. After the Fourth Crusade, it housed a Roman Catholic cathedral, as well as the palace of the Latin Duke of Athens. In Ottoman times, it acted as a fortress for protecting mosques, living quarters, and the harem of the local governor.

It was only in the first half of the 19th century CE that the newly independent modern Greek state decided to revive the Akropolis' Classical ruins. The medieval and modern buildings were removed, and the site's restoration has been going on ever since.

  • Narrator: Behind the Propylaea was the giant bronze statue of Athena Promachos, or "Athena who fights on the front lines". That name was reflected in the spear and shield the statue held in its hands. It was erected in the mid 5th century BCE by the artist Phidas.

    According to an inscription, it took nine years to make, and cost almost half a million drachmae. At approximately ten meters tall, the statue was apparently so large that Pausanias claimed its helmet and spear tip could be seen from the sea near Cape Sounion, sixty kilometers away.

    The ornamentation of the statue's shield was engraved by the metalsmith Mys.

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Athena, who was miraculously born from Zeus' head, was one of the most important deities in the Greek Pantheon. In the Bronze Age, she was an Aegean goddess who protected lucrative palatial and household activities, such as wool processing.

Later on, she became the patron deity of many ancient Greek cities, with Athens being only the best known among them. However, she still kept her place as the protector of artisans, spinners, weavers, smith, and the like.

The goddess had numerous epithets reflecting specific attributes, including Athena Polias (the protector of the city), Athena Ergane (the protector of crafts), and Athena Promachos ("fighting in the first rank", which alluded to her worship as a martial deity).

She was also conceived as the goddess of wisdom, and her most famous symbol was the owl, which was often engraved on Athenian coins and painted on vases.

  • Narrator: The arrhephoroi were young girls between the ages of seven and eleven who were in charge of special rites. A list of four girls were drafted by the assembly of citizens, from which the high magistrate, the archon basileus, chose two to serve as arrhephoroi for the year.

    The girls lived in a house on the Akropolis. They were in charge of carrying sacred objects, and weavubg the peplos of Athena.

    The peplos was a sacred robe offered to Athena during Panathenaia, a festival held in her honor.

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The arrhephoroi were selected on the basis of noble birth, so only high status girls had the privilege of serving Athena during the feasts of the Arrhephoria and the Panathenaia.

Pausanias wrote that two girls—whose designation meant "Bearers of Mysteries (Sacred Offerings)"—performed a special rite during the Arrhephoria. Their main duty was to descend from the Akropolis to a precinct of Aphrodite, carrying sacred objects on their heads given to them by the priestess of Athena. Once at their destination, they left the objects and received something else in return. Neither the arrhephoroi nor the priestess knew what any of the objects were, as they were always covered.

The arrhephoroi's other duty was to assist the temple's priestess in the sacred act of weaving Athena's peplos (garment). This ritual took place over 9 months, before the garment was finally offered to Athena at the Panathenaia.

Employing young, inexperienced arrhephoroi guaranteed the purity of the sacred robe. It also gave the girls the chance to learn how to spin and weave, which were two most important tasks required of Greek women.

  • Narrator: The Erechtheion was an atypical temple. It was dedicated not only to Athens Polias, but also to Kekrops, the mythical founder of Athens, his son Erechtheos, and even Poseidon, the sea god who challenged Athena for possession of the city.

    The temple was divided into sections. The eastern part housed a statue dedicated to Athena, while the western section jointy belonged to Poseidon and Erechtheos. Meanwhile, King Kekrop's grave was believed to be under the Karyatid Porch. Under the temple was a crypt that was said to contain the sacred snakes of Athena.

    The snakes may have had a sweet tooth, because the priestesses of Athena allegedly fed them honey cakes.

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TBA

  • Narrator: The Parthenon is one of the most well-known buildings in the world, and an enduring symbol of Ancient Greek civilization. While it is located on the Akropolis, the building is nto a traditional temple. It was built by the sculptor Phidias and the architects Kallikrates and Iktinos as a great monument to the glory of the city of Athens.

    That glory is evident in its many carvings. One of the most craved monuments in Greek architecture, the Parthenon's decorations depict several mythological scenes. These include the birth of Athena, her fight against Poseidon for the patronage of Athens, the god's battle with the giants and the procession of the Great Panathenaia.

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The Parthenon was built and decorated between 447 and 432 BCE, and the worship of Athena went on for nearly one millennium, although the building was affected by the destruction caused by Germanic invaders in the 3rd century CE.

In approximately 590 BCE, it was converted into a Christian Greek church dedicated to Maria Parthenos—the Virgin Mary, and the new protector of Athens. The church became the fourth most important pilgrimage destination in the Byzantine Empire, after Constantinople, Ephesus, and Thessalonica.

After the Latin soldiers of the Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople in 1204 CE, Athens became a Crusader duchy for two and half centuries, and the Orthodox church became the Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady.

The Ottoman conquest of 1458 CE transformed the Parthenon once again: this time, it became an Islamic mosque.

Although refurbishments and addtions were made to the building throughout its many iterations, the continued Christian and Muslim activity within the Parthenon helped preserve the monument better than many other ancient structures.

Unfortunately, in 1687 CE, during the Venetian siege of the Ottoman fortress on the Akropolis, a cannon ball shot struck the Parthenon, which was being used to store gunpowder. The roof was blown apart, three walls were severely damaged, and several columns and metopes fell to the ground, as well as most of the sculptures on the pediments and the frieze.

  • Narrator: The Parthenon's inner chamber, or cella, contained a massive statue of Athena that was considered to be one of the sculptor Phidias' greatest masterpieces. The statue was chryselephantine, a combination of gold and ivory. To justify the steep cost of its construction, Perikles told Athenians that the statue was a gold reserve which could be disassembled in times of economic distress.

    The cella also allegedly contained a pool whose main purpose was to control the room's humidity, which helped preserve the statue's ivory.

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TBA

  • Narrator: Athen's treasury was located in the Parthenon, where it was believed to be protected by Athena herself. The treasury contained objects of great value acquired from different conquests, as well as a mass of minted silver coins and various offerings to Athena.

    Perikles also decided to move the entirety of the Delian League's treasure to the Parthenon in 454 BCE. This was a great testament to Athen's power over the rest of Greece. The riches were divided into two parts: the demosia, which belonged to the city, and the hiera chremata, which was dedicated to the goddess and only used for religious purposes.

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At the height of its power, Athens' two main sources of revenue were the silver mines of Laurion, and the contributions paid by the allied cities of the Delian League.

The Delian League began in 478 BCE as an alliance of around 150 Hellenic cities, all headed by Athens. Its aim was to free the Greek cities under Persian oppression. The allies, whose number eventually grow to 300 as a consequence of numerous victories, contributed troops and money, the later of which was stored in the sanctuary of Apollo at Delos, a small holy island in the Aegean.

After the Persians were defeated, the allies started to resent Athens and its constant demand for troops and money. Athens ruthlessly quelled every revolt, and transferred the allied treasury to the Akropolis, gradually transforming the League into its own empire.

In fact, part of Sparta's success during the Peloponnesian War was determined by their promise to give the Athenians "allies" their freedom back, which earned the city lots of support.

  • Aspasia: And what did you think of the Akropolis? It truly is quite something, isn't it? A sacred sanctuary and an architectural marvel, all in one. If you have any questions, don't hesitate to ask.

("I'm ready for a quiz.") TBA

("Leave – That's all for now.") TBA

Mycenae

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Gods of Olympia

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The Agora of Athens

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The Oracle of Delphi

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Piraeus

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Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros

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Discovery Sites

Andros

Discovery Tour Ancient Greece - Cyclops Artwork

(Behind the Scenes)

In Greek myth, the Cyclops is a member of a race of one-eyed primordial giants. They would hunt and kill humans, most notably Odysseus and his crew, so it is only fitting that our Hero should run into one. A huge humanoid with unparalleled strength, the Cyclops wields a mighty axe and is adorned with the bones, skulls, and claws of those he has slain. Artwork exploring the variations of this beastly foe is shown here, by artist Gabriel Blain, including a moss-covered, forest-dwelling version, and one painted with blue eyes, his shoulders and arms bristling with enemy arrows. The team had fun creating these, as Thierry Dansereau explains, "The first villain you meet is called the Cyclops but he is only a one-eyed man. Then you meet a real Cyclops. Surprises!"

Argolis

In the 2nd century BCE, Pausanias wrote that the ruins of Mycenae hid underground chambers where AtreusAgamemnon's father—and the other kings of Mycenae stored their treasure. He also reported the existence of several graves, Agamemnon's included.

When archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann started excavating at Mycenae in the 1870s, he assumed that the huge buried monuments outside the citadel's walls were the treasuries Pausanias mentioned, dubbing the largest monument the "Treasury of Atreus". He also believed he found Agamenmnon's tomb in Grave Circle A.

Schliemann was later discovered to be incorrect in his assumptions, and for a while after, historians believed the so-called "Treasury of Atreus" was the real tomb of Agamemnon. Unfortunately, this was also proven false when the monument was dated to around 1350-1250 BCE, years before Agamemnon was suspected to have lived.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: Entrance corridor of the so-called "Tomb of Agamemnon"

(Behind the Scenes)

The architecture of each city, town, and village reflects both its location's biome and the building materials readily available. For example, Argos, capital of Argolis and known as the 'White City' is constructed from marble. Shown is a variety of concept art by Hugo Puzzuoli, Miguel Bouchard, and Caroline Soucy depicting the types of buildings and structures the Hero will encounter in the game. The variety of heights, sizes, and spacing is important to keep the locations navigable during gameplay. Like most Greek cities there is a clear distinction between rich and poor, with muddy streets and low, ramshackle houses, leading into stone structure, clean roadways and plenty of vegetation.

Black and white line sketches by Miguel Bouchard of multiple temples amd residential villas show the raised steps and intricate walkaways between buildings, as well as the ruins of an older temple.

The region of Argolis was a major center of civilization beginning in the Mycenaean period. In the archaic and Classical period, the entire region was under the control of Argos.

The banner depicts a wolf's head, the main conage of Argos. The wolf, "lukos", in ancient Greek, refers to Apollo Lykaios, who had an important sanctuary in his name. In Argos, wolves were offered as sacrifices to Apollo.

The Asklepeia was a religious festival that included contests and athletic competitions.

The musical portion of the festival featured rhapsodists and citharedes (singers) competing to see who could recite the best epics. The musicians were supervised by the priests of Asklepios, who served as judges.

The winner was decided by a jury made up of a priest, the presiding officer of the physicians, and a specially appointed arbiter. The competition's stakes were high, and artists who forgot to show up received a considerable fine.

The Asklepeia was not specific to Epidauros. There is evidence of the festival occurring in sanctuaries in Aegina, Gortys, Kos, Pergamon, and Trikka. Meanwhile, in Athens, the Asklepeia conincided with another festival called the Dionysia.

Somewhere between 1225 and 1200 BCE, the inhabitants of Mycenae decided to secure a constant supply of fresh water for the citadel in the event of a prolonged siege.

They achieved this goal by building a secret passage to an underground cistern. The water came from a spring on the nearby Mount Profitis Ilias, and travelled to the cistern through underground clay pipes.

As time marched on, the installation drained out. However, during the Hellenistic period, another cistern was constructed on the surface to collect rainwater.

If a trip to the Sanctuary of Asklepios wasn’t possible, sick people could seek help from civic doctors. If Herodotos is to be believed, there was already a system of public doctors in place in Aegina and Athens by the late 6th century BCE.

Some physicians received a retaining fee to reside in the community and treat citizens. However, the doctors could still receive, or in some cases demand, compensation from their patients. While physicians probably treated the poorest citizens for free, it is unlikely they were willing to do the same for the rich, or for non-citizens.

Pausanias writes that Asklepios's first sanctuary was in Trikka, a Thessalian city-state some mythological accounts name as the god’s birthplace. While no archaeological evidence of this temple exists, 4th century BCE coins depicting Asklepios have been found in the area.

The remains of the sanctuary in Epidauros, meanwhile, date back to the 6th century BCE. This makes the site the earliest evidence of the cult of Asklepios.

From the 5th century BCE onward, the cult slowly gained popularity, and by the 4th century BCE it had extended across the entire Mediterranean area.

Due to the huge stones found in the walls of places like Mycenae and Tiryns, Classical Greeks believed their ancestors' citadels were constructed by Cyclopes–giant one-eyed builders straight out of mythology.

Nowadays, the term "Cyclopean masonry" is used to describe a variety of walls built with enormous and unworked limestone blocks fitted together without mortar. It was extremely popular in Mycenae, and was employed multiple times in the building and extending of the citadel walls.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: Cyclopean wall in Tyrins (sic), picture attributed to Athanasiou Konstantinos (1875-1905)

The exact causes of the decline of Mycenaean civilization remain a mystery to this day. Competing theories include a violent invasion by barbarous Dorians, catastrophic earthquakes, drought and famine, trade disruption, internal revolts, or combinations of two or more of the above.

What is known for sure is that almost all important Mycenaean fortifications in mainland Greece were burned down between 1250 and 1180 BCE, just when Mycenaean civilization had reach its apex. The last clay tablets written in Pylos around 1180 BCE claim a foreign attack was imminent, so it's easy to assume that violent events played a significant role in the civilization's decline.

The fall of Mycenae was not immediate. Instead, it endured a slow, painful decline throughout the 12th and 11th centuries BCE until it was reduced to a rural community.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: General view of Mycenae

There are several legends regarding the founding of Mycenae. The most popular story involves Perseus, the great hero and slayer of Medusa. After Perseus unintentionally killed his grandfather, he exchanged realms with his relative Megapenthes. When he arrived in his new lands, he dropped the cap of his sword scabbard—called "mycēs" in Greek. Interpreting this event as a good omen, Perseus decided to build a city.

In another version of the story, Perseus picked up a mushroom—also called mycēs—and drank from the water that flowed from it. With his thirst quenched, the hero decided that the land from which the mushroom grew was a suitable place to establish his new capital.

IMAGE DESCRIPTION: Perseus with the head of the Medusa, copy of the marble statue from the Vatican museum made by Antonio Canova between 1804-1806)

(Behind the Scenes)

These detailed frescoes adorn the walls of residential houses, villas, gymnasiums, bath houses, boats, temples, and pretty much any other surface in the game. These sketches by Ubisoft artists show just a tiny selection of the frescoes found in Assassin's Creed ODyssey.

The baths of Epidauros probably had religious and curative uses, and visitors were encouraged to purify their bodies in them before visiting the abaton. However, the baths were also prescribed to treat different ailments.

Ancient Greeks knew the value of a good bath, and Hippokrates himself meticulously classified different bath types according to various ailments and pains. For example, he recommended hot baths to help cure things like lung and kidney disease. No matter what the problem, Hippokrates had a bath for it.

Guest houses were built to host patients during their stay at the sanctuary. One such hostel was a monument called the Katagogeion.

The Katagogeion also hosted theorodokoi. Theorodokoi were men of influence who liaised with the sanctuary’s ambassadors, known as theoroi. It was the theorodokoi’s duty to donate funds to maintain the sanctuary, and to make appearances at religious festivals like the Asklepeia.

Hephaistos was the god of metalworking, and the patron god of blacksmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, and architects. His workshop was believed to be situated on either Mount Olympos, or on the island of Lemnos. In the latter case, the volcano Moschilos of Lemnos was believed to spew fire from the god's subterranean workshop.

Hephaistos' name was closely associated with fire. For example, during the Trojan War, when the river Skamandros tried to drown the great hero Achilles, Hephaistos burned the riverbanks and the entire nearby plain until the river boiled like a kettle.

Because of his occupation as a coppersmith, Hephaistos was usually depicted as having strong arms fit for wielding hammers and tongs, but weak legs due to his constant standing in front of the anvil. However, other versions of Hephaistos' story state he was born lame.

According to the Ancients Greeks, honey was thought to have supernatural characteristics, since it wasn’t fully understood how it was formed. To them, it was a hidden treasure approaching the divine world, and was highly symbolic. The bee and honey were thus part of the daily life of the Greeks. Poets celebrated the sweetness of it, its purity and aroma, and naturalists like Aristotle and Pliny the Elder described the manners of bees.

It's known that Minoan Greece produced honey, so the knowledge of honey goes back to early Greek antiquity. It was popular for bees carrying pollen to be represented on jewelry. Hesiod and Homer mention honey, bees, and beehives in their works. Virgil consecrated an ode to beekeeping in his Georgics, describing honey to be a sweet present from the heavens.

Raising bees was also a job, and the products that came out of it could even be used as trading currency. For example, Korsika paid a tribute in wax and honey to the Etruscans. With the production of honey, the Greeks developed new culinary dishes and pharmacopoeia.

Herakles' second labor was to kill the Lernaian Hydra, a water monster with numerous poison heads that lived in Lake Lerna of Argolis. One of the heads was immortal, and for each head that was chopped off, two more would generate in its place. The number of the heads was reportedly between six and fifty.

In order to kill the Hydra, Herakles needed the help of his nephew, Iolaos. As Herakles cut off its heads, Iolaos cauterized the wounds to prevent them from growing again. To cut off the immortal head, Herakles used a golden sword given to him by Athena.

After his victory, he dipped his arrows in the Hydra's poisonous blood, having the instinct that they could come in handy for his upcoming labors.

Herakles, the son of Zeus and Alkmene, was both a hero and god. He was renowned for accomplishing the twelve years at the service of his cousin Eurystheas, king of Mycenae.

The first labor was to slay the Nemean Lion, who terrorized the inhabitants of Nemea and took its women as hostages.

Herakles arrived at Kleonai, found the lion, and tried to use his bow against. However, the lion's golden fur was impenetrable, and resisted every arrow shot at it. Herakles found a way to trap the lion in its cave, and then used his club to stun the beast. As it lay immobile, he was able to kill it with his bare hands. Thereafter, Herakles wore the lion's skin to show his victory; This was how he was normally represented in Greek art.

After their healing, patients and worshippers of Asklepios would leave an ex-voto in the sanctuary as an offering of thanks. The ex-voto could be a bandage, crutches or medical tools, a confession stele describing their experience, or a statuette.

Some ex-voto were especially extravagant. For example, Hermodikos of Lampsakos was instructed by Asklepios to find the largest stone he could, then leave it in the sanctuary as an offering. Hermodikos did as he was told, and the stone he offered exists to this day, his inscription still on it:

"In recognition of your power, Asklepios, I dedicated this stone I raised, to prove your art is evident for all to see."

Pilgrims came to Epidauros from all over Greece. However, the influx of visitors increased dramatically after a plague devastated Athens from 430-426 BCE.

According to Thucydides, people were desperate for healthcare, and traditional physicians didn't know how to cope with the new disease. These factors led to masses of people making the journey to the sanctuary in the hopes that Asklepios would heal them.

Later, in 421 BCE, the Athenians were able to bring Asklepios to them during a break in the Peloponnesian War. The god arrived in the form of a wooden statue. It was placed—along with a statue of Hygieia—in a sanctuary on the south side of the Akropolis

Coming to Asklepios’s sanctuary was a process of purification. From a religious perspective, illness was a pollution the gods could help eliminate. Even Hippokratic authors recommended visits to the sanctuary, especially when the only alternative was a bad or inexperienced healer.

Pilgrims visiting the sanctuary at Epidauros had to purify themselves before they could enter. Fortunately, there were nearby sacred springs and baths for exactly that purpose. The springs purified the pilgrims spiritually, but they also made them clean, which was another quality needed to visit the sanctuary.

The Ancient Greeks and Romans had a long history of making bronze statuary. Images of gods and heroes, victorious athletes, statesmen, philosophers were prevalent throughout antiquity, appearing everywhere from temples and sanctuaries to public spaces.

However, bronze statues had a high material value, and it is estimated that even a small-scale bronze value would have cost around 150-200 drachmae in the 4th century BCE. As a result, only the prosperous could afford to dedicate bronze statues to sanctuaries, while poorer pilgrims could only offer clay vases and statuettes.

The Asklepian Games occurred every four years during the Asklepeia festival. They were comprised of artistic and athletic contests, the latter of which took place in a formal stadium.

Probably built in the 3rd century BCE, the stadium featured stone seating from where the audience could watch footraces on the racetrack below. Further archeological excavation has revealed a stone starting line called a balbis, and a starting mechanism called a hysplex, which helped prevent false starts.

The Temple of Asklepios was the main building of the sanctuary. Built around 375 BCE, it replaced an earlier building located further southeast.

The temple was constructed over the course of four years. According to Pausanias, the interior contained a chryselephantine [ivory and gold) statue of Asklepios. The statue was made by the sculptor Thrasymedes of Paros, and depicted the god sitting on a throne, holding a staff in one hand and a snake's head in the other. A dog rested by Asklepios' side to keep him company.

The famous theater of Epidauros was built on the slope of Mount Kynortion. It is considered the most perfect theater structure in all of antiquity, due to the harmony of its proportions and its exceptional acoustics.

The auditorium, still virtually intact, was built in the second half of the 4th century BCE. The stage building, however, is in ruins, though its basic arrangement is clear enough.

The theater housed musical contests held during the Asklepeia, and rocrds show that Greeks used the building as far back as the late 5th century BCE.

Legend told of a beekeeper nymph, Melissa. According to myth, she was the very first to harvest honey. Along with her sister Adrasteia, Melissa took care of a young Zeus on Mount Ida. The grateful Zeus gave unto bees a golden-bronze color, and made them resistant to the weather. Melissa was also initiated to the mysteries of Demeter by the goddess herself. Unfortunately for Melissa, she was killed for refusing to reveal their secrets. Demeter's resulting anger was so great, it provoked an epidemic that made clouds of bees from Melissa's body.

The priestesses of the mystery cults in the Greek religion were often compared to bees, and were called Melissai. In these mystery cults, the most revered goddesses were Demeter and her daughter Persephone, Chthonian goddesses symbolizing the return of the seasons. Many honey offerings were presented to these so-called Chthonian divinities.

The priestesses of the Artemis of Ephesus were also called Melissai.

The so-called "Treasury of Atreus" or "Agamemnon's Tomb" is the largest of nine tholos tombs outside the citadel walls of Mycenae.

The name "tholos" refers to the tombs' round shape. Given their size, it's possible that members of the same family were often buried in the tombs together, along with their riches. The tombs' walls were decorated with bronze sheets attached with nails, and some of the nails are still in place today.

Unfortunately, the precautions the people of Mycenae took to seal the tombs—such as walling in the doors and passageways—did little to protect them from ancient and modern treasure hunters, who emptied the tombs of much of their riches.

Also known as the Thymele, the sanctuary’s tholos (round building) housed the cult of Asklepios. It was the most beautiful building in the sanctuary, and its size and splendor emphasized its importance.

An opening in the center of the floor gave access to a circular pit. From there, it was possible to enter the building's foundation: a subterranean maze that may have housed sacred snakes.

Snakes were considered to be Asklepios' emblem. As such, whenever the god's cult integrated into a new city, they brought a pack of sacred snakes with them.

One medical stele relates how a pilgrim was supposedly healed by one of the sanctuary's snakes:

"A man’s toe was healed by a snake. He was suffering terribly from a difficult wound on his toe, and during the day was carried outside by servants and was sitting on some seat. When sleep overtook him, a snake came out of the abaton and healed his toe with its tongue; after it had done this, it returned to the abaton. When the man awoke. he was healthy and said that he had seen a vision: a handsome young man seemed to have sprinkled a drug over his toe."

Arkadia

Arkadia is a mountainous region of the central Peloponnese. It has plains in the valley of the Alpheios and Ladon rivers, and around the cities of Tegea and Megalopolis.

Its banner depicts a head of Demeter, the goddess of agriculture, from the coinage of the city of Pheneos. This earthy goddess is frequently depicted on the coinage of cities. The greatest gift Demeter gave to humankind was agriculture, and this relation was always shown by the grain wreath that she wore.

(Behind the scenes)

The player will encounter seven distinct biomes - six on land, one underwater - as they journey through Ancient Greece. Each features its own flora, fauna, weather systems, and unique topography. The challenge for the art team was to make sure the biomes each had their own individual atmosphere, vegetation, color palette, even down to the type of rocks in each location.

“AU biomes are a joint effort of several artists, technical artists, and technical directors who work together to create those landscapes that are driven by procedural rules. In order to create believable procedural biomes, the biome team had to fully understand interaction between elements that drive nature and apply it in the game,” explains Vincent Lamontagne, assistant art director and lead biome artist. From left; cross-sections of the six land-based biomes - Spring, Summer, Arid, Paradise Islands, Volcanic, and Deciduous Forest - gave a broad spectrum of the landscape the Hero will have to navigate to survive. Artist Hugo Puzzuoli adds, “Our team had fun translating the diverse nuances of azure blue from the Mediterranean Sea. From the paradisiac white sand beaches to the arid orange volcanic coast.”

The tenth labor of Herakles required travelling to the end of the world to Erytheia to retrieve the cows of the Giant Geryon. Son of Chrysaor - who came out of Medusa's body - and Callirrhoe - daughter of two Titans = Geryon had one body, but three heads and three sets of legs.

When Heraktes arrived to Erytheia, he first killed Orthos, the two-headed dog, and then killed Eurytion, the herdsman. He finally put down Geryon by throwing one poisonous arrow directly into the middle of the Giant's head.

Herakles brought the cattle to Eurystheas, who then sacrificed them to Hera.

Ancient Greece had an agrarian economy, meaning that wealth came from farming the land.

The polis, or city-state, was made up of the astu (city) and the chora (countryside]. Citizens conducted business and politics in the city, but many made their living on farms in the country, growing olives for oil, wine for grapes, and grains.

Due to Greece's mountainous topography and variable rainfall, it is estimated that only one-fifth of the land was arable, so control of the plains was frequently contested. For example, the Spartans conquered the neighboring Messenians and reduced them to slaves with the goal of controlling Messenia's rich and fertile plains. Even a city as powerful as Athens did not produce enough grain to feed its population, and had to rely on grain imports.

Greek myth is full of stories of impressive animals that are separate from the god-like creatures of Medusa and the Minotaur, such as the Nemean Lion, the Golden Hind of Artemis, and the Stymphalian Birds. No foray into classical Greece would be complete without these Legendary creatures. These are strong, powerful animals chosen for their interesting fighting style and appearance. The Odyssey team adapted the real-world versions, embellishing them with different markings and natural weapons. They are dangerous, scarred from many previous encounters, and have an almost diseased, unnatural air to them as shown in the concept artwork by Gabriel Blain. They are not to be attacked lightty.

“The 12 labors of Herakles were depicted many times in the game in various forms. For instance the hunt of mythical animals is inspired by many of those myths, as well as some of the stone work and paintings that can be found across the game."

Pan was the national god of Arkadia. His name and hybrid appearance as a half-man, half-goat refer to his special role as the “guardian of the flocks”. Shepherds sacrificed goats to Pan in exchange for protection for the rest of their herd.

Pan was believed to enjoy roaming the mountains while playing music on his pipes. The Greeks worshipped Pan - as well as Hermes and the nymphs - in sacred caves. However, in Arkadia, there was an entire sanctuary with a temple dedicated to Pan.

The origins of the Athenian cult of Pan have been related by Herodotos. According to the ancient historian, the famous runner Philippides met Pan while journeying to Lakonia to ask the Spartans for aid against the Persians. Pan promised to help the Athenians, and made good on that promise at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE when he sowed panic in the ranks of the Persian army.

The sixth labor of Herakles was to kill the birds that lived in lake Stymphalia in Arkadia. These birds were sacred to the god of war, Ares. They were carnivorous with toxic dung, and were made of bronze.

The lake where they made their dwelling was swampy, so it was difficult for Herakies to approach them. To help, Athena gave him a rattle made by Hephaistos, the god of metalworking, which scared the birds off. Herakles managed to shoot some of the birds with his poison arrows, but several flew away.

Attika

The sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia, or the Brauroneion, was located near the Propylaia.

In a city dominated with dedications to Athena, the Brauroneion stood out for its focus on Artemis Brauronia, the goddess who presided over girls from puberty to childbirth.

It was likely installed by the ruler Peisistratos, a native of Brauron.

It's probably the sanctuary was built for a smaller branch of the main cult of Artemis Brauronia.

It consisted of a portico, and a wooden statue that was later replaced with a marble one carved by the famous sculptor Praxiteles.

In many ancient texts, the goddess Athena bears the attribute "Ergane", which refers to her patronage of craftsmen and artisans, and other crafts.

Athena Ergane was mainly associated with spinning and weaving. She protected women who produced textiles, and in return they offered her spindles, loom weights, raw wool, and textiles as dedications.

On ancient painted vases, Athena Ergane was often represented as either an artisan in a tool-filled workshop, or as an owl next to objects symbolizing certain crafts. For example, an owl next to a wool basket was sometimes stamped on loom weights used by weavers.

It is not clear if Athena Ergane had an actual cult, like Athena Polias, but it is evident that the goddess bearing this epithet received dedications and offerings from all sorts of artisans. Moreover, the sacred peplos given to the goddess during the Panathenaia was woven under the auspices of Athena Ergane.

The Propylaia was the monumental gateway on the western side of the Akropolis. It was built between 437 and 432 BCE, under the supervision of either Phidias or Mnesikles, and was part of Perikles' plan to adorn the Akropolis with magnificent monuments. Although it was not seen as a military structure, the Propylaia was also used to restrict access to Athens' holiest area.

It was conceived as a spectacular construction of Pentelic white marble and Elusinian grey marble, and its design was meant to stylistically mirror the Parthenon.

The Propylaia's construction was suspended in 431 BCE due to the start of the Peloponnesian War, and was never resumed. This means that out of a very ambitious project, only the main building was finished. Nevertheless, with its five gates a ceiling painted with golden stars, it remained impressive. The gateway was also unique in that it mixed both Doric and Ionic columns, in addition to be reinforced with iron.

The northern wing of the western façade housed a 10.75m x 9 m ritual dining room known as the Pinakotheke. According to Pausanias, the Pinakotheke was famous in antiquity for its paintings of Greek battles.

Hydrea

The eleventh and twelfth labors of Herakles were tacked on at the end, since Eurystheas didn't recognize Herakles killing the Hydra as a labor because Iolaos helped him. Cleaning the stables was also ignored because Herakles was paid, and it was the rivers that did the actual cleaning work.

The eleventh labor required Herakles to steal apples from the garden of the Hesperides, the three nymphs of the evening. The garden was situated in the west of the world, in Northern Africa, and produced golden apples.

There, Herakles tricked Atlas into retrieving the apples for him. Although he proposed to hold up the heavens for a while in Atlas' stead, Herakles tricked the Titan and walked away with the fruit himself.

Kephallonia

(Behind the scenes)

The development team kept the siblings as close as possible in look and feel, with a few distinctions. Alexios has a different body and gait, he's larger and sports dark brown dreadlocks, but they share the same coloring and variations on the same outfits.

Alexios and Kassandra fight with a sword, bow, or spear. The development team wanted to show proactive combat, wielding dual weapons with a focus on attack rather than defense.

Earty concept sketches of Alexios by Fred Rambaud show different outfits and weapons, from bare-chested brawler, to full Spartan warrior.

Pegasos was the mythical winged-horse bred by the dead Medusa after Perseus killed her. Bellerophon captured the animal while it drank water from a well.

Pegasos helped Bellerophon in fighting and killing Chimera in Lycia. Chimera was a monster that had the body of a goat, the head of a lion, and the tail of a snake. Bellerophon attacked her from the sky, and thought of placing a block of lead on the tip of his spear. He threw the spear - aiming for the neck of the fire-breathing monster - and the heat of the fire made the lead melt, asphyxiating her. Bellerophon returned victorious, but several quests followed that would leave him blind and miserable.

Pitch and timber were the main materials used to create triremes. The pitch was produced from various trees and was extracted by heat. The pitch and wax were customarily applied, either successively or as a mixture, to the wetted surface of the ship's hull, giving the vessel its speed potential as well as its watertightness and protection from sea microorganisms. The seams of newly built warships - as well as older ships under maintenance - were caulked with flax soaked in pitch. It seems likely that a new coat of pitch was put on before each new sailing. Although pitch was used generously on the triremes' hulls, they seem to have leaked water into the bilges fairly quickly. This is why ships had to be beached and dried out.

The emphasis of lightness for the hull timber was obviously a prime consideration in its overall design. For lightness combined with strength, a trireme's timber was mostly made of soft wood such as pine and fir, but the keel was made of oak for extra strength. Masts were made of fir - one of the tallest and straightest trees - while carefully prepared rough, young fir trees ensured that the grain of the wood was aligned along the shafts, making the oars strong for their weight. For the inner part of the ships, larch (pitys) or plane (platanos) were also used because of their Light weight, while the stem-posts adjoining the breastwork and the bow timbers were made of ash, mulberry, and elm.

One result of using softwoods was that the trireme hull tended to soak up water. The hulls not onty became waterlogged and leaky, but they also suffered from the scourge of wooden ships: the marine borer (teredo navalis). Consequently, alltriremes were beached and carried out of the water as often as possible to dry and clean their hulls.

It is archeologically attested that systematic reuse of wood from old ships was practiced throughout antiquity. When triremes were sunk during a sea battle, combatants went to great lengths and took heavy risks to recover the wreck. Sometimes, vessels were towed home as prizes, and after being repaired, equipped, and renamed, they became part of the enemy navy.

In addition, older triremes were used as service vessels. One was the “soldier-vessel”, a troop transport. There was also the “horse-transport”, made out of old triremes by removing the two lower levels of seats and converting the space into stalls for thirty horses.

Jason was the rightful king of lolkos in Thessaly, though the position was occupied by King Pelias. When Jason appeared in front of Pelias and asked to return to the throne, Pelias told him that he should bring him the Golden Fleece. This was the fleece of the golden ram held in Kolchis. Jason set out on this quest with his crew, the Argonauts.

After several adventures, they arrived in Kolchis to claim the fleece. While there, Jason felLin love with the witch Medea, daughter of Aietes, the king of Kolchis. Medea helped Jason in the quests her father required, and her potion lulled the giant snake that was protecting the Golden Fleece to sleep. Once he held the fleece tightly in hand, Jason began his journey back home, with Medea at his side.

(Behind the scenes)

We first meet Kassandra in her home on Kephallonia; she is a mercenary, hardened and scarred by her experiences. When designing her features, the team wanted her to look strong and vibrant. Bringing such a character to life includes the smallest of details. “We had to create a false reflection in her eyes to ensure she looked alive. She needed to Look great in every angle," explains Thierry Dansereau.

On his way back home, Odysseus found himself on the island of the Cyclops - giants that have one single eye in the center of their forehead.

Odysseus reached the island and entered a cave with his companions. They were so hungry, they began to drink and eat everything in sight. When a Cyclops named Polyphemos returned to the cave with his flock, he blocked the entrance with an enormous rock, and began to eat the men. Trapped, Odysseus introduced himself as simply “nobody”, and offered wine to the confused Cyclops. Once the giant was drunkenly asleep, Odysseus blinded him with a burning wooden stake. The next day, Odysseus and his men escaped the cave hidden under the bellies of animals, while the blinded Polyphemos shouted to his fellow Cyclopes that he was blinded by "nobody".

The sirens were beautiful but deadly creatures that lived on a rocky island. Their song was so enchanting, sailors who heard their singing fell to the rocks. Sirens were half-women, half-birds - or at least, that was how they were represented in Greek art. They were usually depicted played musical instruments, such as harps.

In "The Odyssey”, Odysseus was very curious to listen to them, so Circe the witch told him how he could enjoy their song without danger. Odysseus had his sailors plug their ears with beeswax and tie him to the pole of his ship. When they passed near the sirens, Odysseus was mesmerized by the song. He begged his sailors to release him, but they couldn't hear him. This trick saved his life and the lives of his companions.

Skylla was a mythological female sea monster that was placed opposite Charybdis in a very narrow passage of water, thought to be the channel of Messina.

The mention of Skylla is first seen in “The Odyssey”, when Odysseus and his companions had to travel the channel and found themselves between the two monsters. Circe advised Odysseus to sail at full speed, but closer to Skylla - Charybdis was more dangerous and could sink the entire ship. Odysseus followed this advice, and as they passed by, Skylla devoured six of his men. They quickly escaped, and managed to pass through with no further losses.

Typhon was an extremely dangerous monster in Greek mythology. À giant serpent-like creature with “a hundred heads, fearful eyes, and terrible voices”, Typhon was either the son of Gaia (goddess of the earth] and Tartaros [one of the primordial deities), or of Hera, or of Kronos.

At some point, Typhon chalienged Zeus in order to overthrow him and take his place. The battle between them was desperate, but Zeus managed to win with the aid of his powerful thunderbolts.

After losing to Zeus, what happened to Typhon differs depending on the account. He was either thrown to Tartaros, the deep abyss, or buried under either Mount Etna, or under the volcanic island Ischia. Zeus, on the other hand, became the legitimate ruler of the gods.

Korinthia

ACOD DT - Children

After a baby was born, it was presented to the father, who would then decide its fate. If the child was a girl or showed signs of a disability, they were occasionally abandoned and left to die.

Wealthier families could hire caretakers or employ their slaves as nurses to look after their children. This was a necessary precaution, as children were very susceptible to diseases and illnesses.

Education in Greece was reserved for boys and young men. Rich families could hire tutors to teach their daughters skills like reading, but this was not the norm, and girls were mainly taught how to run the household.

ACOD DT - Jason and Medea

Jason was the legendary Greek hero who led the Argonauts, a group of adventurers named after their ship, the Argo. Together, they set out to steal the magical Golden Fleece, and eventually succeeded with the help of a sorceress named Medea.

Jason married Medea, and the couple eventually settled in the city of Korinth. But the couple's happy ending was short-lived; when Jason met the king of Korinth's daughter, Glauke, he abandoned Medea to seek the princess' hand in marriage.

Enraged, Medea gifted Glauke a dress that was secretly poisoned. Upon wearing the dress, Glauke was burned alive.

The ending of the story varies. Either Medea's children were stoned to death as punishment for her murder of Glauke, or Medea herself killed her children as a way of getting revenge on Jason.

The legend of Medea was later told in a tragedy by the famous playwright Euripides.

Kos

Bust of Hippokrates - Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens

Hippokrates is the most famous physician of antiquity, and is often called the father of medicine. He was born in the island of Kos in 460 BCE, and was a member of the Asklepiads, an aristocratic family that passed their medical techniques from generation to generation. He had two sons named Thessalos and Drakon.

Hippokrates left Kos early in his career to become a traveling physician. According to his biographers, he once went to the city of Abdere to cure the philosopher Demokritos of madness. Another anecdote says he was asked by the Persian king Artaxerxes to cure a plague decimating his army. Unfortunately for the king, Hippokrates refused to help an enemy of Greece, no matter how much gold he was offered.

Hippokrates died in Thessaly at around the age of 85. He enjoyed a great reputation among his contemporaries, and Plato even credit him with inventing the scientific method.

The Greeks created a bodily hygiene and beauty culture in which the use of fragrances was very important.

Both men and women used perfumes in their bathing rituals, and good hosts always made sure they treated their guests to a bath and perfume session. Men also anointed their bodies after exercising, and it was unheard of for a man to go to the gymnasium without bringing his flasks of perfume.

The art of making perfume was part of the field of medicine in Antiquity. Certain resins and odorous substances were believed to have therapeutic effects, and the same ointments used in body care could also be used for healing purposes. In the 1st century CE, the famous pharmacologist Dioskourides even began his treatise De materia medica with a list of aromatic plants, perfumed oils, and unguents.

Perfume was often considered to be manifestations of the gods' divine presence, and using or offering incense and perfume was believed to be a way of communicating with the Gods.

The Athenian Assembly burned aromatics at the start of each session to invoke deities, in the hopes they would inspire citizens to speak. Perfumes was also burned on the altars that populated various sanctuaries, and statues of the Gods were anointed with perfumed oils.

But perfume wasn't the only scented substance with sacred uses. Gardens, as well as crowns of flowers and garlands, ensured that temples always smelled exceptional. Gods were also associated with specific flowers and plants. For example, Apollo was honored with olive branches, and Aphrodite was linked with roses, myrrh, and apples.

Kythera

Aphrodite, the goddess of love, was born from salty sea foam, and that is why she is sometimes called Haligeneous ("salt-born"). The myth tells us that this foam came from the genitals of Ouranos (the sky). They fell near the island of Kythera, and this is where and how Aphrodite was born.

As you can see, salt and Aphrodite go together. Salt was associated with fertility and reproduction. For instance, Plutarch wrote in his Symposiakon that “salt encourages remarkably generation”, reshaping Aristotle's notes in the “History of Animals” that “if they merely lick salt, mice get pregnant”.

Aphrodite is sometimes shown holding a small salt bag in her hand, and those who attended the Aphrodisia - the sacred festivals of Aphrodite - were required to bring and carry a salt bag to honor the salt-born goddess.

Different types of murex secrete different types of purple. The purple is influenced by the chemical composition of their sacs, but also their sex and size. Sunlight, temperature, humidity and salinity can also influence the color's brightness, tone, and intensity.

Dyers could obtain a greater variety of color shades by mixing different types of shellfish, controlling the fermentation process, or adding other ingredients such as honey or flour.

Kythera is the name of an island as well as a city. The strategic position of the island - just south of the Peloponnese - made it a target for the Athenians during the Peloponnesian War. Athens occupied it during most of the war and used it to support trade and to raid Lakonia.

Kythera's banner was inspired by its coinage. Both featured the dove, which is sacred to Aphrodite, who had a sanctuary in Kythera. According to mythology, this island was the goddess's birthplace.

Lakonia

Compared to Athens, Sparta has been subjected to far less archaeological work, and its akropolis and agora have not yet been excavated. As a result, it's difficult to put together a complete picture of ancient Sparta.

The Athenian general and historian Thucydides gives the earliest description of Sparta, but it is Pausanias's visit to the city in the 2nd century CE that provides most of the knowledge we have today.

The original layout of Sparta is difficult to map because in Thucydides's time, the city did not have any defensive walls. This is partially because Spartans viewed fortifications as frivolous, expensive, and unnecessary - they felt their men could do a better job defending the city than any walls could.

In one of the Athenian general Thucydides's historical writings, he described a debate between the Spartan king Archidamos and one of Sparta's ephors over whether or not the city should engage Athens and the Delian League in what would later become the Peloponnesian War.

Surprisingly, Archidamos argued for a more cautious approach, stating that their enemies were numerous, well-funded, and more skilled when it came to naval engagements. He believed that Sparta should not be so hasty in picking a fight until it was more prepared.

The ephor, meanwhile, appealed to the city's honor, and said that the only response worthy of strong Spartans was to vote for war.

Despite being the king, Archidamos's efforts to postpone the war were eventually overruled.

Artemis was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and Apollo's twin sister. A virgin and a huntress, she was one of the most important Olympian deities, and presided over crucial aspects of life: girls' transition to womanhood, childbirth, the rearing of children, but also Spartan boys” rites of transition to manhood, and certain aspects of war. She was most commonly depicted with a bow and arrow, and associated with deer.

Artemis had several cults in Sparta, and the most important of them was Artemis Orthia. This cult was closely associated to the Spartan education system, the agoge.

Many dedications to Eileithyia - the goddess associated with good deliveries - were found in the sanctuary, showing the two deities' roles were closely related.

Dionysos was the Greek god associated with wine, ritual madness, and theater. This temple was set on a hill opposite the Spartan Akropolis. The site was called Kotona [“the hill”), which gave the god his epithet Kolonatas. The temple seems to have been a place of worship for women. When approaching adulthood, girls may have been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysos linked to this temple.

During the god's annual feast, Pausanias tells of a footrace involving eleven girls, the “Dionysiades”; this custom would have come from Delphi.

According to Pausanias, the Dromos was used as a place for footraces, and contained gymnasia as well. It was open to Sparta's citizens, who could also offer sacrifices on the nearby statue of Herakles.

(Behind the scenes)

The Spartan army encampment in Megaris sprawls across the landscape. Tents house weary soldiers, shields and spears neatly arranged, to be quickly grabbed if the Athenians should attack. These camps are a maze of tents and low buildings, temples and houses overtaken by war and generals, and are always well guarded.

“The layout of the locations needs to feel credible as though it could be lived in and at the same time needs to fit within the game metrics of fight and stealth,” explains world director, Benjamin Hall. “Anywhere in the world where the player finds themselves against enemies are designed to be a homogeneous blend between art and design.”

Kastor and Pollux, the Dioskouroi, were divine twins, sons of Zeus and Leda, and brothers of Helen and Klytemnestra. One of them human and the other divine, they were linked to Sparta, as myth stated they were born on Mount Taygetos. The Dioskouroi were the protectors of the Spartan kings, and took turns in their royal duty. They helped the Spartans in battle, and they were associated with horsemanship as well as with athletic contests. In art, they were often represented with their sister Helen. An important number of marble reliefs of the Dioskouroi have been found in excavations of the Spartan area, and are now kept in the Sparta Museum.

Four Spartan kings played important roles in the Peloponnesian War: Archidamos II, his elder son Agis II, Pleistoanax, and his son Pausanias.

In 464 BCE, Archidamos Il managed to quell a helot revolt following an earthquake that shook the city to its core. A few years later in 445 BCE, his double in kingship, Pleistoanax, was exiled for presumably taking a bribe from the Athenian statesman Perikles - someone Archidamos had previously been on friendly terms with.

During the first part of the Peloponnesian War, which was named the Archidamian War after Archidamos, the king marched against Attika in 431 BCE, 430 BCE, and 428 BCE. He was succeeded by his son Agis Ilin 427/6 BCE, who was appointed a guardian because of his young of age. Agis did not manage to invade Attika, but together with Pleistoanax, who had returned from exile, they signed a treaty with the Athenians in 421 BCE known as the Peace of Nikias.

During the third part of the war, it was Agis's decision to occupy Dekeleia and control Athens's countryside, as well as access to the Laurion mines. This move was crucial, because Athens lost the possibility to mint coins with Laurion silver, restricting the city's ability to finance the war and pay for mercenaries and contributing to Athens's eventual surrender in 404 BCE.

Pausanias, meanwhile, was the king of Sparta who laid siege to Athens in collaboration with the admiral Lysander, which culminated in Sparta's decisive victory in Aigos Potamoi in 405 BCE.

The mothakes are one of the less well-known classes of Ancient Spartan society. Most of what is known of them is the stuff of hypotheses and theories: they were either illegitimate children of Spartan fathers and helot or períoikoi mothers, orphans whose training was sponsored by guardians, or poor people whose training was paid for by wealthier Spartan families.

Mothakes accompanied Spartan boys in the agoge as their companions, or syntrophoi. Though they did not share the same rights as citizens, they could eventually join the Spartan elite if they completed their training, or if their patron bought them a unit of land known as a kleros. Fulfilling these conditions granted them citizenship, and allowed them to join the Spartan military.

Written sources attest that some mothakes, such as Gylippos, became accomplished military leaders during the Peloponnesian War. In fact, it's been suggested that Lysander, the famous Spartan admiral instrumental in winning the aforementioned war, was a mothax as well.

The Lakedaimonian army was not exclusively made up of official Spartan citizens.

The army was composed of all male Lakedaimonians aged twenty to sixty [and occasionally even older], regardless of social class. Because of this, Helots and Perioikoi often fought alongside Spartan homoioi (citizens).

The períoikoi were indigenous non-Spartan freemen who lived in the periphery of Sparta, but did not have political rights. They formed autonomous communities and developed local economies because, unlike the Spartans, they engaged in commerce and manufacturing.

In other words, while Spartans concentrated on war, the períoikoi focused on everything else. They could be carpenters, merchants, farmers, and fishermen, among many other professions.

Their dependency on Sparta did now allow them to develop a proper economy, but at the same time they aided the Spartans by allowing them to concentrate on military matters. It is also believed that the períoikoi procured of the metals and crafted the arms the Spartans used in battle.

When Pausanias visited Sparta's agora, he described the imposing Persian Stoa, a structure built to commemorate the Greeks' decisive victory over the Persians in the Greco-Persian Wars:

“The most prominent building in the market place is the Persian Stoa, so called because it was built from the spoils of the Medes. In time they embellished it to the size and ornamentation which It now has. The columns are Persians of white stone, Mardonios son of Gobryas and others.”

(Behind the scenes)

“A dedicated river tool has been developed in order to render believable river layouts in a Greek mountainous landscape. Here is an in-game image of a spring river.” - Vincent Lamontagne, assistant art director and lead biome artist.

The Spartan banner bears the letter “lambda”, standing for Lakedaimon, the other name of Sparta. On their coins, the initials were lambda and alpha: “LA”.

This emblem is inspired by Spartan shields bearing the lambda. While there's no archaeological evidence of these shields' decoration, they're known from textual evidence. A fragment of a comedy by Eupolis tells that the sight alone of the lambdas on Spartans' shields was enough to frighten Kleon.

On other occasions, shields were decorated by varied iconographies, as shown on numerous vases depicting warriors.

(Behind the scenes)

Fearsome and formidable, these warriors are unmatched throughout Greece and the known world. These character studies by artist Fred Rambaud show the different types of warriors the Hero will encounter in Sparta, from the heavily armored brute, to the more nimble, spear-wielding fighter, and the brawler, replete in gold armor and a heavy ram's- head hammer.

(Behind the scenes)

Storyboards are crucial to mapping out a sequence of events. These storyboards by Miguel Bouchard show the Hero's family sharing some dramatic moments at the top of the treacherous Mount Taygetos. This storyboard demonstrates the terrible decision made by Nikolaos.

The Akropolis of Sparta consisted of several buildings that date from different chronological periods - from the Archaic to the Byzantine era.

At the top of the Akropolis was the sanctuary of Athena Chalkioikos, dated to the óth century BCE. It was originally a sanctuary of Pitane, as confirmed by archaeological discoveries dating as early as the Mycenaean period.

Near the sanctuary of Athena was the ancient theater of Sparta. The theater seen in-game is based on a structure dated to the Roman period. The theater probably had a wooden stage; a fact supported by several inscriptions from the 2nd century CE. Excavations next to the theater also revealed connected shops.

The Akropolis of Sparta also held visible traces of the Skias, the semi-circular building of the archaic-classical periods - but with visible repairs from the Roman period.

According to Pausanias, the two most important Spartan temples were the temple of Artemis Orthia, and the temple of Athena Chalkioikos.

Pausanias describes the building of the sanctuary of Athena Chalkioikos in great detail. It was Located on the Akropolis of Sparta, west of the agora. Its construction was started by the mythical king of Sparta, Tyndareos, but was completed by the Spartan sculptor Gitiadas in the 6th century BCE.

The epithet Chalkioikos [house from bronze] was attached to this temple due to the bronze and copper decorations on its walls. These embossed sheets depicted mythological scenes like Herakles's labors, achievements of the sons of Tyndareos, the Legend of Perseus and Medusa, and the birth of Athena. The bronze decorations and the bronze statue of Athena were the works of Gitiadas, who also composed a hymn to the goddess.

According to many ancient authors, Spartan women were an exception among other Greek women; authors from Athens were both fascinated and afraid of these figures, and presented them as both powerful and licentious.

In the warfare state of Sparta, girls were educated with a eugenic perspective to become the future wives and mothers of warriors. According to Queen Gorgo, they were the only Greek women who gave birth to real men, and were the only ones who “commanded to men”. This famous sentence showed the authority of Spartan women in their city.

In addition to the desire for strength, gymnastics and sports were also emphasized in education to make the young women attractive enough to marry. This included being well-versed in music, dancing, singing, and poetry. Spartan women dedicated themselves to intensive physical exercise and led very different lives from their Athenian counterparts. They were more autonomous, and more free than many Greek women of ancient times.

They also may have trained themselves to wrestle. One purpose of this training could've been for the defense of the city and of their children in the event of an attack on Spartan territory.

Hephaistos Islands

ACOD DT Flags

(Behind the Scenes)

Created by Nika Rukavishnikova for each of the twenty-seven regions in Assassin's Creed Odyssey, the flags represent the color and iconography of their region. For example, Athens is easily identifiable as the blue banner with the owl symbol. Krete shows the bull head, and Sparta the rich red with a gold lambda. The flags also denote the export or main industry of that region. A lot of historical research was referenced for these designs, particularly from coins of the period and region.

The banner of Thasos depicts the head of Herakles, inspired by the area's coinage. Herakles had an important sanctuary the city and was the hero-protector of Thasos.

He is shown wearing a lion-skin headdress - the scalp of the Nemean lion he killed with his bare hands.

The iconography of the coin itself is a precise copy of a relief of the gate of Herakles, one of the entrances to the city. All gates were decorated by reliefs - there was also a gate of Hermes, a gate of Zeus, and a gate of the Silenos, amongst others.

The gate of Herakles led to the Herakleion, the sanctuary dedicated to him.

Euripides's “Bacchae” features the tale of how the god Dionysos introduced wine to Attika.

The story goes that Dionysos found hospitality in the home of lkarios and his daughter Erigone. During his stay, Dionysos showed his mortal host how to cultivate vine plants and turn their fruit into wine.

Later, Ikarios gave his wine to some shepherds. Not used to the feeling of drunkenness, the shepherds thought that lkarios had poisoned them, and killed him in response. Stricken with grief for the death of her father, Erigone hung herself from the branches of the tree that stood where her father was buried.

Thasian wine was very popular in the Greek world, and it was in such high-demand that adulteration and imitation wines became major issues.

To combat these issues, a law was established by the citizens and landowners of Thasos that forbid any foreign wine from entering Thasian territory. They also prohibited the selling of wine in jugs or cups, to ensure that wine could only be sold in properly labelled amphoras or pithoi marked with a stamp of authenticity.

Below is text from a stele outlining the details of the law:

“No Thasian ship shall import foreign wine within Athos and Pacheia; if it does, the owner shall be Liable to the same penalties as for adulterating the wine with water, and the helmsman shall be liable to the same penalty ... Nor shall anyone sell wine by the kotyle either from amphoras or from a cask or from a false [unlabeled] pithos; and whoever sells it, the lawsuits and the deposits and the penalties shall be the same as for adulterating it with water.”

Makedonia

Makedonia's banner features the head of a horse. In northern Greece—especially in Thessaly and Makedonia—horse breeding was an important activity and a major source of wealth.

When Makedonia increased its power under King Phillip II—the father of Alexander the Great—horses played a crucial role in the army. Companion cavalry, the elite cavalry of the Makedonians, has been regarded as the best of the ancient world.

The inspiration of the banner came from a coin from Pharsalos in Thessaly depicting an artistic-rendering of a horse's head. Horses are very common in iconography, especially in coinage.

The Peloponnesian War began over two main stories. One is the Athenians having entered into conflict with an ally of Sparta, the great city of Korinth, which had tried to take over one of Athens' allies, the city of Potidaia. The other is the so-called "Megarian decree" which was passed by Athens in order to forbid all trade between Megaris and the Athenian empire.

As a result, the Spartans called for a great congress in Sparta where they conferred with their allies. The Megarians were pushing towards war, since they were greatly affected by the decree, and so were the Korinthians. The king of Sparta, Archidamos II, advised for a more cautious policy, trying to prevent the outbreak of the war, or at least to make sure that Sparta was better prepared to face the Athenians who ruled the seas in an open confrontation.

The war that would ensue pit two essentially different powers and styles of warfare against each other. Sparta and their allies were based mainly in the Peloponnese, and their force consisted especially of land armies of hoplites—the only maritime power of this League was Korinth. The Athenians, on the other hand, had become a maritime power during the struggle against Persia, and remained so in the aftermath.

Malis

Upon the arrival of the Persians, the terrified Delphians consulted the Oracle of Apollo. They were told to address their prayers to the winds, as they would be Greece's most powerful ally in the coming conflict; Xerxes campaign did indeed rely heavily on coordination between land and sea forces advancing in unison.

During the Battle of Thermopylai, a storm cost the Persian sea armada many of its ships—over four hundred vessels were destroyed. In calm weather, these ships would likely have forced the Greeks to fight in a tactical retreat, letting Xerxes land troops south of Leonidas' position and bypass Thermopylai entirely. The cooperation of the winds led the Athenians to later construct a temple in honor of Boreas, the wind god.

The Greeks had always distinguished Europe—where they had settled—from Asia. They reckoned it began with the far side of the Aegean Sea and extended well beyond to Persia and India. But, beyond pure geography, the Persian invasion gave a political significance to the distinction between Asia and Europe.

Herodotos writes of two worlds: Asia, dominated by the Persian Empire, and Europe, by which he actually means the Greek world. This is particularly notable at the time of the passage of the Dardanelles by the Persian army.

While Greece is still a few hundreds of kilometers away, Herodotos quotes Xerxes as saying: "Let us enter into Europe after having prayed to the gods who reign over the land of the Persians". He passes radically from one world to another, from one civilization to the other. Texts describe Asia as a "barbarous country", but we must be careful that the word does not have the meaning of today; it simply means that the spoken language is incomprehensible to the Greeks, without implying a judgement of value.

In "The Iliad", Homer describes the struggles that broke out between friends and foes over who would lay claim to the remains of a fallen warrior. The death of Leonidas at Thermopylai prompted such a fight.

Herodotos, who knew "The Iliad" well, was no doubt aware that he was repeating a well-known trope. He says that two sons of Darius fell in fighting over Leonidas' corpse, and that a melee ensued between the Spartans and Persians. Leonidas' conduct at Thermopylai is comparable to the Homeric heroes of legend, as it's often suggested that this conflict is as important as the Trojan War itself.

The Greco-Persian Wars incited the Greek Herotodos from Asia Minor to write the first works of a new literary genre: history. At the beginning of his book, Herodotos writes, "Herodotos exposes here his research, so that what men have accomplished does not fade from memory, those great and wonderful exploits accomplished by both Barbarians and Greeks".

The word "research" was previously used only in medicine to describe the search for the causes of a disease. It then came to designate a new intellectual construction, history, in the current sense of the word, highlighting the need for rigor and objectivity. Since the 5th century BCE, it's thanks to the Histories of Herodotos that we're able to understand the deeds of Sparta at Thermopylai.

Xerxes went to spectacular lengths to ensure the passage of his army from Asia Minor into Greece. For example, he made a bridge of boats to cross the straits of Dardanelles, twelve kilometers long. This bridge was barely finished when a storm destroyed it. Furious, Xerxes ordered that the sea be punished with three hundred lashes, and the chains be thrown to the bottom of the ocean to better restrain it.

Xerxes also dug a canal at the entrance of the eastern peninsula of Athos, which has a height of more than 2,000 meters, can prove extremely dangerous in the event of a storm, as shown by the catastrophe that struck a Persian fleet in 492 BCE. Xerxes had a channel of some two kilometers long constructed, using "detachments of all the peoples of the army, and by the inhabitants of the region, who dug under the threat of the whip". Herodotos saw it as a manifestation of pride more than a work of public utility. It would've sufficed, he says, to build a kind of wooden rail on which the vessels would have been drawn, as was done for the Isthmus of Korinth.

Megaris

This banner is inspired by the coins from Halikarnassos. Bandits and pirates have been associated with a ketos—a sea monster associated with Poseidon—which is often depicted on their coins from 500-495 BCE.

Bandits and piracy were a harsh realities (sic) in antiquity—so much so, that it wasn't unheard of to be killed or enslaved by them.

A ketos looks like a serpent fish with a dragon head. When he needed to send punishment, Poseidon would unleash a ketos. He sent one to Troy to punish King Laomedon, and sent another attack Ethiopia to punish King Cepheus and Queen Cassiopeia. However, the latter ketos was killed by Perseus when he rescued Andromeda.

The region of Megaris is the link between central Greece and the Peloponnese, located on the Isthmus of Korinth.

The area was well-suited for agriculture and animal husbandry.

The name of the city derived from "megarizein", the appellation of a ritual in honor of Demeter and Kore where piglets and other offerings were thrown into ground cavities (megara).

Pigs and boars were often depicted on coins, and one coin of Lyttos in Krete was chosen as the model for the banner.

Pigs served as both food and sacrifices, but on some occasions they were used in war. When Megara was besieged by the Makedonian King Antigonos Gonatas, the Megarians sent burning pigs to defeat his elephants.

Melos

The banner of Melos is derived from a coin of the city, depicting the symbol of the triskeles; the name of this symbol literally means "three legs". It was sometimes used on coins, but more often on shields.

The larger meaning of this symbol is not clear, but an ancient epigram speaks of a triskeles on a shield that is supposed to frighten opponents—the bearer of this shield supposedly ran very fast.

This symbol is still in use today on the Sicilian flag, and that of the Isle of Man.

Messenia

Charcoal is the solid residue that remains when wood - or other organic matter - is “carbonized” under controlled conditions in a closed space. Very Little air is allowed to come into contact with the fuel during the carbonization process. If this condition is not observed, the wood (or other raw material) is simply reduced to ash and its fuel value is lost.

This means that transport costs are much lower for locally produced charcoal than for Locally gathered wood - an important consideration for a product whose production cost consists almost exclusively of the labor invested in it. It's also noteworthy that charcoal creates a much hotter, more even, and more easily controlled heat than wood, which means that itis much better suited for domestic cooking and grilling and a virtual “sine qua non” for blacksmithing and particularly ironworking.

Messenia's history was linked closely with Sparta's. The region was long-occupied by the Spartans - its population was enslaved as helots.

Independent cities emerged only after the Theban invasion of the Peloponnese in the 4th century BCE. After the defeat of the Spartan army at the battle of Leuktra in 371 BCE, the helots of Messenia revolted against Sparta. Epaminondas, the Theban general, supported the building of the fortified city of Messene.

The banner of Messenia is inspired by the coins of Messene, showing Zeus brandishing his thunderbolt. Zeus had an important sanctuary on Mount Ithome, which was included in the walls of Messene.

(Behind the scenes)

Waging war in the ocean was a brutal affair in Ancient Greece, The ships, mostly triremes, were simply designed and unstable, especially in high seas and adverse weather. The development team looked at historical accounts of naval warfare from the period to recreate the drama and danger in game.

Blue-clad Athenians have their ship cleaved in two in concept art by Hugo Puzzuoli.

Thucydides was an Athenian aristocrat, general, and historian who chronicled the history of the Peloponnesian War. While he does not mention his predecessor Herodotos directly, it is probable that Thucydides was influenced by the so-called “Father of History”.

Thucydides's account of history, however, focused less on the mythic origins of the Greeks, and instead provided a perspective on how much the Greek world had evolved since its beginning - and how much it would continue to evolve into the future. His work also provided insight into the educational and cultural development of Athens. Thucydides was a skilled orator trained by some of the best speakers of his time. Because of this, many of the most important moments in his historical writings are presented as speeches.

Several Greek authors have left us works on siege tactics or on how to build war machines. However, artillery such as catapults were not yet invented at the time of the Peloponnesian War - it would take another century for them to appear.

The main war machines used at this time, called mechanai, were mostly scaling-ladders, battering rams, and tortoises. There are two known instances of incendiary machines, but we don't know exactly how they worked. The Thebans used one against the Athenians at Delium in 424 BCE, and the Spartans at Torone in 423 BCE.

Woodcutting and charcoal making typically took place in the forest. Charcoals were then bagged and transported to private homes or presumably nearby markets. In wood-rich areas, local production of wood for common use appears to have been either in the hands of individuais, or potentially middlemen who might collect wood from various sources, then reselLit at the local agora. The elite's access to such wood may have been outside the market if their landholdings provided suitable material), except for the purchase of exotic materials.

The full range of woodworking tools and techniques employed by wood workers of the ancient Mediterranean and the practical knowledge concerning wood species and their most valuable applications attest to the importance of wood technologies for agriculture and hunting, domestic life, trade, warfare, and leisure activities. It is worth mentioning that the tools and the techniques employed by the end of the Classical and Roman period would show little change until the appearance of the Industrial Revolution fifteen centuries later.

Silver Islands

The banner of Delos is inspired by the coins of the island. According to mythology, Delos was the birthplace of Apollo, and along with Delphi, it was a major center of his cult. Apollo is a multi-faceted god; he is the god of music, poetry, arts, oracles, light, knowledge, and more.

He's often represented on coins with musical instruments, such as the kithara on this bronze coin from Delos.

The Pythian Games of Delphi also included musical events in honor of Apollo.

Farms aimed to be self-sufficient - a goal that was not always easy. Crop management required various strategies to alleviate the risk of crop failure and ensure the long-term productivity of arable land. Wheat crops failed due to insufficient rainfall every one in four years, while barley crops failed every one in ten.

To mitigate crop failure, farmers planted small plots to exploit climate variations. In addition to cereals, they also cultivated vines for wine and olives for oil, and planted fruit trees and vegetables.

Herms [rectangular pillar with head] were commonty placed as protectors of sanctuaries, crossroads, and public areas

Characters

Image Name Description Availability
ACOD DT Alexios Achilles render
AlexiosAchilles Armor inspired by the myth of Achilles 60 Discovery Sites Found
ACOD DT Alexios Hunter render
Alexios – Hunter Armor inspired by the Daughters of Artemis from the main game. 6 Discovery Sites found
ACOD DT Alexios Immortal render
Alexios – Immortal Inspired by Persian armor. 15 Regions completed
ACOD DT Alexios Mercenaryy render
Alexios – Mercenary Interpretation of mercenary armor. Default
ACOD DT Alexios Spartan War Hero render
Alexios – Spartan War Hero Inspired by the Spartan armor. 120 Discovery Sites Found
ACOD DT Alkibiades render
Alkibiades Athenian statesman and military commander. Has a cunning mind behind his golden locks. Complete 1 Politics and Philosophy tour
ACOD - Anthousa render
Anthousa Courtesan and friend to Alkibiades. Ambitious and calculating. Default
ACOD - Archidamos II render
Archidamos II Spartan King, helped reach agreement with Perikles to end the First Peloponnesian War Complete all Battles and Wars tours
ACOD DT Athenian Man render
Athenian Man Average Athenian man. Wishes he were at a symposium right now. 15 Tours completed
ACOD Athenian infantryman
Athenian Soldier Light infantryman. Fights for Athens. Loves how strong his armor makes him feel. 3 Tours completed
ACOD DT Athenian Woman render
Athenian Woman Average Athenian woman. Excels at weaving. Longs to get out of the house more often. 10 Tours completed
ACOD DT Blacksmith render
Blacksmith Greek metalworker. Does his best to live up to Hephaistos Complete 1 Daily Life tour
ACOD - Brasidas render
Brasidas Spartan General during the Peloponnesian War. A brave and intelligent fighter. Complete 1 Battles and Wars tour
ACOD Cult of Kosmos Member render
Cult of Kosmos Member Operates secretly from upper echelons of society. Wears modified Greek theater mask. 25 Tours completed
ACOD DT Deimos render
Deimos (Kassandra) In the main game your sibling becomes Deimos, a weapon raised by the Cult of Kosmos. 140 Discovery Sites Found
ACOD DT Greek Tough Guy render
Greek Tough Guy Brawny bruiser who idolizes Herakles. Has a passion for poetry, but hides it from his friends. Default
ACOD DT Kassandra Artemis render
Kassandra – Artemis Armor inspired by the Daughters of Artemis from the main game. 15 Discovery Sites Found
ACOD DT Kassandra Athenian War Hero render
Kassandra – Athenian War Hero Inspired by the Athenian armor. 110 Discovery Sites Found.
ACOD DT Kassandra Greek Hero render
Kassandra – Greek Hero Inspired by the Greek armor. 8 Regions completed
ACOD Pirate Set
Kassandra – Pirate Interpretation of Pirate regalia. Default
ACOD Kyra render
Kyra Leader of a rebellion and proficient huntress, she is always ready to fight for her people 70 Discovery Sites Found
ACOD - Layla Hassan render
Layla Hassan Talented and rebellious technical engineer. Former employee of Abstergo Industries. 20 Discovery Sites Found
ACOD - Leiandros (masked) render
Minotaur Fraud Not a real Minotaur. Don't be fooled by his elaborate mask and imposing moo.
ACOD DT Myrrine render
Myrrine Kassandra and Alexios' mother. Also known as the pirate "Phoenix". Complete all Daily Life tours
ACOD DT Perikles render
Perikles Elected leader of Athens, a great political mind, and beloved by his people. Complete all Famous Cities tours
ACOD DT Phoibe Render
Phoibe Athenian orphan. Strong-willed and independent, she's always wanted her own eagle. Find a Discovery Site
ACOD Praxilla render
Praxilla Well known poet who wrote many varied works, from drinking songs to festival hymns. Complete 1 Art, Religion, and Myths tour
ACOD - Pythagoras render
Pythagoras Philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. Big into triangles. Complete 1 Famous Cities tour
ACOD DT Sokrates render
Sokrates Athenian philosopher, creator of the Socratic method. Known to be quite the conversationist. Complete all Politics and Philosophy tours
ACOD - Sophokles render
Sophokles Famous Athenian playwright. Though very prolific, few of his works have survived to now. Complete all Art, Religion, and Myths tours
ACOD - Spartan hopelite render
Spartan Soldier Spartan hoplite. Fights for the glory of his city. Never skips a leg day. 5 Tours Completed
ACOD DT Victoria Bibeau render
Victoria Bibeau Former Abstergo psychiatrist, she supervises Layla's health as she uses the Animus 90 Discovery Sites Found
ACOD Xenia render
Xenia Fierce pirate leader. Adores searching for hidden treasure 5 Regions completed
ACOD DT Young Boy render
Young Boy Fun-loving and playful young boy. Wants to be a politician when he grows up. Or a soldier. Or both. Default
ACOD DT Young Girl render
Young Girl Spirited young girl. Wants to grow up to be a huntress like Artemis. Default

Mounts

Image Name Description Availability
ACOD Abraxas Phobos Skin
Abraxas This fiery steed comes straight from the Underworld.
ACOd-AegeanAtollPhobos
Aegean Atoll This mount somehow enjoys being on rocking boats as much as running on dry land.
ACOD Brown Horse Phobos Skin
Brown Horse A strong horse that won't hesitate to charge through battle.
ACOD Egyptian Horse Phobos Skin
Egyptian Horse Horses from Egypt can endure the most hostile climates.
ACOD Fangs Phobos Skin
Fangs This horse comes from generations who served silent and deadly warriors.
ACOD Hourglass Phobos Skin
Hourglass Adorned with the symbols of the Titan Kronos, this mount will serve faithfully until the end of time.
ACOD Mycenaean Steed Phobos Skin
Mycenaean Steed Often used for trading gold, copper, glass, and ivory, these horses are also found use pulling chariots in battle. (sic)
ACOD Pale Horse Phobos Skin
Pale Horse Healthy and enduring, this horse can accomplish any task.
ACOD Pegasos Phobos Skin
Pegasos Born when Perseus decapitated Medusa, Pegasos was asked by Zeus to bring lightning and thunder to him from Olympos.
Phobos Black
Phobos Brown
Phobos White
ACOD Racing Horse Phobos Skin
Racing Horse These horse are bred for speed and like to carry as little as possible.
ACOD Traveler&#039;s Horse Phobos Skin
Traveler's Horse There is no better horse for embarking on an epic journey.
ACOD Unicorn Phobos Skin
Unicorn This fabulous animal of legend is a loyal companion.

Timeline

Gallery

参考与来源

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