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发现之旅:古埃及Discovery Tour: Ancient Egypt)是一款可下载的教育工具,它允许玩家在不受战斗和游戏限制的情况下探索不同的世界。

该模式于2018年2月20日在《刺客信条:起源》中发布。它免费提供给拥有游戏的玩家,同时也作为个人电脑上的独立版本发售。它引入了一种允许玩家在游戏的地图上自由漫游,并通过一批导游来了解古埃及的历史的模式。[1]

旅途编辑

埃及编辑

埃及的主要地区The Major Regions of Egypt编辑

了解埃及的主要区域

DTAE The Nile Egypt

The Nile, Egypt / 2004

埃及的生活集中在尼罗河的沿岸,并且分为两个区域。

下埃及位于接近地中海的尼罗河三角洲,而上埃及在深入非洲的南方。

因为距离地中海较近,下埃及的温差没有上埃及如此极端。

DT - MentuhotepII

Relief of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II and the Goddess Hathor

直到公元前3100年埃及统一之前,每个地区都有自己的法老与王冠的象征。

下埃及的王冠是红色的,由莎草纸与蜜蜂的符号所标记。

上埃及的王冠则是白色的,由莲花与莎草的符号标记。

DT - Temple of Ptah

Temple of Ptah, Memphis

两个区域各有相竞争的主要城市,特别是下埃及的孟斐斯,以及上埃及的底比斯

两个区域之内都有不同的信仰教派,各自崇拜着他们的主神。

DT - Perfume burner

Perfume burner, composite, with stand

许多神殿都被设计来代表两个区域,而仪式经常会让上下埃及同时进行。

尼罗河,生命之母Bringer of Life, The Nile River编辑

了解尼罗河及其在古埃及文明发展中的重要性

DT - Nile river

尼罗河

埃及人将尼罗河的暗色沃土称为“黑地”,而周围的沙漠被称为“红地”。

肥沃土地对比贫瘠沙漠的鲜明差异对于文化仪式形态,神话与宗教有着深远的影响。

Martin Deschambault - ACO Nile

尼罗河

尼罗河对埃及文明有着相当大的决定因素。举例来说,尼罗河的季节变化非常有一致性,古埃及人根据它来指定历法。

泛滥期或称阿克赫特是当洪水从适合耕种谷物的土壤褪去之时,接下来将伴随着种植期与采收期,被称为佩瑞特与施姆。

这些规律的季节加上大量的野生生物和肥沃的土壤代表埃及居民有办法养育自己,并确保他们的国家在贸易上的实力。

DT - Memphis Nile

Memphis

尼罗河从南流向北,恰好横越通过上下埃及。

所有埃及的重要城市都沿着这条生命的窄带建造。

由被敌人当作是天然屏障的山脉与沙漠保护着,并由尼罗河的植物与野生生物供养,埃及文明享有超过4000年的经济与文化的蓬勃发展。

DT - The Nile 2004

The Nile, Egypt

古埃及人与古希腊人在各自的语言中都将尼罗河称为“大河”。

绵延超过6700公里的距离,尼罗河是世界上最长的河流之一。它由南向北流动,横跨今天的11个国家。

尼罗河发源自呀赤道带的大湖区域,包括世界上最大的湖泊之一,今坦桑尼亚附近的维多利亚湖。

Martin Deschambault - Nile 2015

The Nile

大河流经非洲大陆赤道附近的森林,沼泽,火山地带,干草原与沙漠,分岔开一小段,带着各地区不同的沉积物并将它们一路带至埃及。

它的主要河道被称为白尼罗河,在喀木土与青尼罗河会合。它在此地与会通过富含泥沙与滋养物的沉积层,并将这些物质纳入自己的波澜之中。

DT - Nile cataract Nubia

View of the second cataract, from Nubia

尼罗河由南到北流经六座瀑布,在不同的河流区块间创造天然屏障。

瀑布是大约100公里的长型地区,充满气泡和激流漩涡的河水在无数的石堆与陡坎的硬石间湍急地向前流动。

DT - Nile cataract Egypt

View of the first cataract, from Philae

在通过努比亚和第1座瀑布后,大河正式地在亚斯文回归埃及。

在它抵达开罗和三角洲之间仍然还有一千公里的距离,将生命带给那些居住在它河岸边的生物,直到它最终流入地中海。

DT - The Nile 2004 (Cropped)

The Nile, Egypt

古埃及的灌溉与一般用水都集中于尼罗河。然而,他们也有办法取得溪流,河川和几座大湖的水。

三角洲坐落在尼罗河的北端尽头,也被称作下埃及,是一处大型的灌溉区域,大河在该处分岔成数条支流。

DT - Tomb of Menna

Menna and Family Hunting in the Marshes, Tomb of Menna

三角洲有几座大型的近海咸水湖,水体被细长的条状陆地与海洋切割开来。

参杂着深浅不同的水域,咸水沼泽和沙洲平原,这些湖泊是大量物种的栖身之所,也富含水和陆地植物。

偶尔可以在此处发现抢匪掩蔽在浓密的芦苇之中,等候着粗心的旅行者。

埃及的沙漠Deserts of Egypt编辑

了解涵盖94%埃及的沙漠

DT - Wadi Al-Hitan

Wadi Al-Hitan (The Valley of Whales), by Véronique Dauge

自苍翠繁茂的尼罗河向两侧延伸的是严酷干燥的西部沙漠与多山的东部沙漠,它们涵盖将近94%的埃及。

这两座沙漠都拥有各自的微气候,并包含数座拥有特殊动植物的小型沙漠。

鲸鱼化石在撒哈拉沙漠深处被发现,被称为鲸鱼谷,此地点是海洋曾经覆盖过该区域的证据。

在撒哈拉沙漠东北方的白色沙漠的名称是来自于它的白色石灰岩,与黄沙形成鲜明对比。

风将白色沙漠中的岩石侵蚀成蕈状岩,其中最著名的被称为上帝之指。

DTAE Desert

大沙海是一座大型且不间断的沙漠,从西边的埃及延伸至东边的利比亚。

这是一种被称为利比亚硅玻璃的独特地质学构成物之产地,这个暗淡的黄绿色物质从小卵石大小的碎片到粗糙大圆石大小的玻璃石块都有。

卡塔拉洼地The Qattara Depression编辑

了解埃及西北方的卡塔拉洼地

DT - Dust storm Egypt

Dust Storm in Egypt

卡塔拉洼地位于埃及的西北部。

面积达到18,000平方公里,洼地位于海平面下133米并被盐所覆盖着。

它是非洲第二低点,仅次于阿法尔洼地。

该地气候十分干燥,平均温度达到摄氏36度。

著名的锡瓦绿洲就位于受到保护的西南地区。

现今,卡塔拉洼地被利用来进行原油钻探。

锡瓦Siwa编辑

了解锡瓦绿洲的地理位置与其重要性

DT - Siwa acropolis

Aerial view of Siwa

锡瓦绿洲在埃及的西方沙漠之中。

地理上来说,锡瓦绿洲位于低于海平面20米的漥地。它的天然泉水和温暖气候促成丰富的椰枣树产量。

尽管明显受到某种程度的埃及与非洲文化的影响,该地区的孤立环境造就了独特的社会与语言。

虽然他们敬仰相同的神祇,锡瓦神殿的建筑与传统埃及神殿有所不同。

DT - Louis Maurice Siwa

General View of the Siwa Oasis

由于它独特的地理结构,古王国的埃及人将绿洲称之为大锅。

绿洲对于游牧部落与商队至关重要。没有它们,在如此恶劣的里环境中根本没有机会存活下来。

因此,绿洲迅速成为交易中心和政治管控的地区。

DT - The Nile 2004 (Cropped)

The Nile, Egypt

因为干燥的气候,绿洲能获得的降雨量非常少,反而地下河流在天然的盆地中涌动。

由于许多绿洲与尼罗河平行呈现南北向,有些地理学家提出它们可能曾经是这条巨大河流的直流。

有证据指出古埃及人尝试要创造出一些绿洲。

DT - Dust storm Egypt (cropped)

Dust Storm in Egypt

利比亚绿洲是最有名的,因为它们在地理上与文化上与尼罗河河谷和三角洲有所联系。

这些西方的绿洲有着与其他埃及地区截然不同的地理外形。

最知名和最重要的几座绿洲是哈里杰,达克拉,法拉夫拉,拜哈里耶和锡瓦。

DT - Siwa Oasis, Qesm Siwah, Matrouh Governorate, Egypt

Siwa Oasis, Qesm Siwah, Matrouh Governorate, Egypt

太阳之泉是锡瓦的诸多热源之一,并拥有连克里奥帕特拉都会在其中沐浴的特质,因此获得了这个名字。

地下热源的存在早在公元前5世纪时就被希罗多德证明,当时绿洲被昔兰尼希腊人称作“阿蒙奈恩”。

DT - Zeus Ammon on throne

Zeus Ammon on a throne

神谕者预测未来,传递或多或少难以理解的预兆并提供神性的指引。

锡瓦神谕者被认为是古代世界的三大权威之一,与 德尔菲和多多尼的神谕者并列。

由于希腊在昔兰尼加的几处殖民地,神殿将宙斯与对阿蒙的崇拜结合。

DT - Alexander the Great Pharaoh

Alexander the Great as Pharaoh, Karnak, Temple of Amon, by Jean Binot

这也难怪亚历山大大帝会踏上冒险的旅程到锡瓦来征询神谕者的意见,效法传说中英雄的行为,就像是海克力斯珀尔修斯

这项举动获得了神谕者的认同,并认可了他成为埃及法老的要求。

他被证实是阿蒙之子,授予了他迄今在所有埃及的外来入侵者中最正统的权力。

DT - Oracle of Siwa

Oracle of Siwa

有权势和有钱的人们会送礼或是旅行很长一段距离,借此确保自己能通过锡瓦神谕者的祝福而获得好运。每次成功的祝福都会提高预言者的名望。

奔跑者尤巴斯塔是著名的昔兰尼公民,他咨询了神谕者来知晓自己会不会赢得公元前408年的第93届奥运会赛跑。他拿下了胜利,并在过程中增加了锡瓦神谕者的名望。

DT - Amun protecting King Taharqa

Colossal statue of Amun protecting King Taharqa

Behind the scenes
阿蒙神谕殿由法老雅赫摩斯于公元前6世纪建造。

在游戏中,它的入口被公羊头狮身像们看守着,着是代表阿蒙的动物。它们的灵感来自位于大英博物馆的一座十分类似的圣殿。

另一个选项会是受到希腊化的宙斯-阿蒙表现:有角的狮身人面像,这样的宙斯-阿蒙表现十分流行于锡瓦。

法尤姆The Faiyum编辑

了解法尤姆的地理位置与其重要性

ACO DT - Faiyum Tool

Tool. From Egypt, Fayum, along the road between the Fayum and the Giza pyramids.

法尤姆绿洲是西部沙漠中的庞大盆地,借由尼罗河的泛滥而形成。因此,它不被认为是真正的绿洲,尽管它是该地区名称的来源,并涵盖了摩里斯湖。

绿洲藏有某些该地区最古老的考古学遗物,这代表从新石器时代开始就有猎人与采集者居住在该地区。

DTAE The Nile - Lake Moeris Location

Lake Moeris

法尤姆绿洲的水会流入摩里斯湖。摩里斯湖是一座辽阔的淡水湖,但在某些时候会变成咸水湖。

在第12王朝,古埃及人使用一座水坝将水流转向,将湖泊当成他们的水库并挖掘出一条供给水道。

灌溉系统让他们能够在整年都持续种植无花果,葡萄和橄榄作物。

DT - Medecine House

Medecine House: nilotic scene, pygmy hunt

芦苇船,风帆船,三列桨座战船与驳船是埃及内陆水域最常被看到的船只。

它们被使用作不同的目的,范围包含日常捕鱼,贸易,战争和旅行,到摆渡用来修建伟大埃及建筑的巨大石块。

DT - Hawara Labyrinth

Hawara labyrinth

最令人赞叹的金字塔可以追溯至古王国时代,并可以在吉萨的旧址中找到,萨卡拉和代赫舒尔。

然而,有一座在当代尤其出名的金字塔坐落于别的地方。在中王国时期间,有些法老选择法尤姆当作自己最终的安息地,其中的一名统治者是阿蒙涅姆赫特三世。

他的金字塔对古老编年史家留下深刻的影响。他们将它称作“迷宫”,主要是因为在金字塔底端的庞大丧葬神殿结构。希罗多德提到他观察了12座庭院和超过3000座金字塔房间,但他也以喜欢使用夸饰法闻名。

DT - Faiyum Lepsius map

Faiyum, Situation plan of the Labyrinth and its pyramids, by Lepsius, Mercier & Loeillot.

阿蒙涅姆赫特的金字塔在建设时使用了一块石砖核心并覆盖着石板,设计让人无法侵入。墓室是使用单一块沙岩所制成,它的设计十分特别。

理乍得·莱普修斯和弗林德斯·皮特里都探索过该金字塔遗迹,占地385米乘158米,并辨认出此处就是迷宫的所在地。

他们的研究条件十分艰困,因为大部分的遗迹都被附近的水道给淹没了。此外,建筑体的石头与金字塔的外罩都早已被开采走了。

Ubisoft决定要为据说是献给神圣的鳄神索贝克的许多地下土窖,以及这座失落的历史遗迹重新赋予生命。

DT - Krokodilopolis

Krokodilopolis

创建于第5王朝,此地在第12王朝中十分热闹,被称为“谢德埃”。

在托勒密时代,这座大都会被希腊人称为“鳄城”,以表示对鳄神索贝克的敬意。

在希罗时代中,属地公民也就是退伍后居住于该地的托勒密士兵将灌溉系统进行扩张。灌溉和供水分布让可耕种的土地成长为三倍,并让这座城市成为富饶和富有的地区。最高峰时期有27000名居民住在辖区中。

城市地点在战略上控制着许多与主要运河相连结的小型水道,进而掌控至尼罗河。

DT - Town of Sobek

Stele of Aamerout worshipping the crocodile god Sobek

这个地区主要的教派是谢德埃的索贝克,一名跟水与沃土相关的神祇,这两者对于依赖灌溉的地区至关重要。

许多当地的村子将“索贝克之镇”这项称号加入他们的官方名称之中。

在节庆期间,古埃及人吟诵赞美索贝克的诗歌,请求他显现神威。

希腊移民和之后的罗马人若是采用了当地的防腐丧葬仪式就会协助促进索贝克神殿的经济繁荣,他们的石棺有着美丽的彩绘并有极为真实的画像当作装饰。

DT - Sobek or Soukhos

Krokodilopolis pond

和孟斐斯的圣牛教派十分相似,一只活生生的鳄鱼被奉养在鳄城主要神殿的范围内。

埃及人称之为索贝克,希腊人称之为苏库斯。根据斯特拉波的记述,祭司用肉,酒与蜂蜜牛乳来喂食它。

他们将它的身体盖满珠宝与黄金。在它死后,它被进行防腐处理并和其他数千只木乃伊化的鳄鱼一起放置在鳄鱼洞穴中。

孟斐斯城The City of Memphis编辑

Learn about the city of Memphis and its place through various periods of ancient Egyptian history.

DT - Cities and Regions

Figures of various gods

在古埃及所有是其中的城市都有一项相同的特点,它们都坐落于尼罗河畔。

城市的功能往往是用作治理或敬神,主要城市拥有数座神殿以供奉为数众多的男神或女神。

埃及人将他们的城市组织称作赛帕特,或是之后的波斯语词汇,诺姆。下埃及有20个赛帕特,而上埃及有22个。

古埃及的首都对着世纪经历过多次变更。

DT - Memphis, Thebes & Sais

Khonsou temple, Euergetes gate, Karnak

其中一座最大的城市是位于下埃及的孟斐斯。它是宗教神殿的重要中心之一,包含着他们最终要的神祇,创造之神卜塔。

底比斯位于上埃及,它媲美着孟斐斯并将且被当作政治与宗教的中心。两座重要的神殿卢克索和卡纳克建造于该地。

塞易斯王朝较小型的首都为塞易斯城,这是埃及最后的原生埃及人之首都。

1997 Drawing of Memphis - Jean-Claude Golvin

Memphis

在第三王朝期间,在法老左塞尔的统治下,孟斐斯变为埃及的第一座宗教与行政首都。

甚至当埃及的政治首都自身份权的时候,法老都会在这座神圣的城市中进行加冕来宣布他们登基称为君王,直至并包括亚历山大大帝。

尽管今日于开罗南方之保留了少部分的遗迹,我们依然能够推测出城市的结构,它延伸之多5公里长与2公里宽。

DT - The White Walls

Cult Image of the God Ptah

孟斐斯也被称作“百门之城”或“白墙”,这些名称与围绕城市的城墙有所关联。

在工匠之神卜塔的保护之下,这座城市是繁荣的宗教与经济枢纽。

重新发现埃及Rediscovering Egypt编辑

了解现代考古学的起源

DTAG Mass Pillaging

Saqqarah / 19th century

19世纪随着观光于挖掘情形大幅增加以及来自其他国家的非法倒卖,都威胁着埃及的考古遗产。

埃及人本身也参与了这场破坏行动,洗劫遗址中的古物来转卖,从遗迹中搬走巨石与肥沃的古老泥块来自行利用。

DTAE Auguste Mariette

François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette, Egyptologist

为了保存埃及的遗产,一项主要政策于1858年成立,埃及总督创建了文物理事会。

在外国学者团队的支持下,奥古斯特·马利特在理事会上实施了严格的管制。他带着着使命前往埃及各处,甚至去了努比亚,在几乎所有大型考古站都介入过。

意识到要将尚未出土的文物留在埃及的必要性,马利特在1858年要求创建一个博物馆以达到这般要求。这博物馆正是埃及博物馆的前身。

DTAE Gaston Maspero

Portrait of Gaston Maspero

加斯东·马伯乐是马利特的继任者,同样扩展并重整了文物理事会,发起律法限制文物的输出。

法国学者们持续主导者理事会,直到1950年代才转移给了埃及。

在19世纪中,埃及学快速称为私立学府以及知识协会所认可的学科。

DTAG Jean-Claude Golvin

Archaeologist Jean Claude Golvin in June 2002

一名法国建筑师,考古学家以及前研究者,尚-克洛德·高尔文现在专注于以美术重现古代城市与遗迹。

直至今日,他已经创作了超过800幅画作,当中包括三册专注在重现古埃及原貌的画册。

他的作品表现出非常精致的细节,同时可以在全世界的图书馆以及书本中当中看到。

DT - Krokodilopolis

City of Krokodilopolis

制作团队也很兴奋能与尚-克洛德·高尔文合作来重新构筑游戏中的埃及。

在这他特地为制作团队绘制的19张水彩画中,高尔文使用科学数据作为基本来推测,借此为古埃及的许多地点与以及提供了完整的诠释。

早期草图以及完整演算的图片被制作团队用来作为打造《刺客信条:起源》世界的参考。

尽管古埃及丰富的信仰文化以及丧葬遗迹仍被深入研究中,埃及学的主要学派则转移了目标。

与其单纯取得惊人的文物,埃及学家们今日倾向于提升对于埃及的知识。

在过去,考古挖掘会直接在实地执行,虽然现在仍然也是这么做,但是许多有关埃及学的研究都转移到了图书馆或数据库当中。

时至今日,埃及的考古学仰赖着跨学科的接触,现在不同领域各种学科的科学家们互相协助埃及学家,找出全新,非入侵式的技术。

GPS数据,卫星影像遗迹透地雷达让考古学家能够在开挖之前先知道地下埋藏着什么。

泡碱Natron编辑

了解泡碱的使用以及在古埃及是如何开采这项原料

DTAE Bag of Natron

Bag of Natron from Tutankhamun's Embalming Cache

泡碱是无色的盐类,被古埃及人用作食物保存,清洁产品和玻璃制作,它也会在木乃伊化制作过程中被使用。

DTAE Woman Mummy

Mummy of a woman, 3rd century BCE

在正式的防腐仪式中,祭司会将遗体泡入泡碱当中来除去所有的水分。

当遗体被彻底脱水后,他们可以开始进行包裹。

DTAE Natron Lakes

Natron Lakes

泡碱是在泡碱溪谷中进行开采。主要的开采方式包含在湖床干涸时将它一片片切下,或是在涨潮时耙过矿物饱和的水域来收集矿物盐。

ACO Natron Mine - Concept Art

Natron mines

两种技术至今都仍被采用,并赋予制作团队灵感来在位于孟斐斯西北方的山脉中重现这些矿脉。

古埃及的动物Fauna of Ancient Egypt编辑

了解古埃及的动物

DTAE Eyeshadow palette

Eyeshadow palette, decoraed with hyenas or lycaon from the Neolithic Period

早在第一王朝时,家禽与野生动物就出现在埃及的浮雕中。

除了多元的生态能够作为可靠的食物来源以外,这也同时影响了文化以及神话。

DTAE Gazelle figurine

Gazelle figurine from the 18th Dynasty

埃及的地形让他们有非常多元的动物,包含了豹,犀牛,大象以及不同种类的羚羊。

DTAE Hipppotamus figurine

Figure of a hippopotamus, nicknamed "William" dating from the 12 Dynasty

尼罗河也是许多鱼种的栖身之所,同时还有河马跟鳄鱼。

DTAE Ibis statuette

Wood and bronze statuette of Ibis from the Ptolemaic Era

各种不同的鸟类栖息在河岸,从猛禽与水鸟到鸣禽都有,并全都被记录在埃及的圣书文符号中。

与众多爬行类和昆虫接触,像是眼镜蛇,蝎子与圣甲虫,都对圣书文与艺术产生影响。

DTAE Pharaoh Spear Lion

Artist's sketch of a pharaoh spearing a lion from the 20th Dynasty

虽然所有的动物都有各自神圣的意义,而狮子在古埃及特别象征着力量与忠诚。他们对法老来说意义非凡,在埃及内被猎杀到几乎快要灭绝。

古埃及的植物Flora of Ancient Egypt编辑

了解古埃及的植物

DTAE Tomb of Sennedjem Art

Sennedjem and Ilneferti in the Fields of Iaru, painting from the 19th Dynasty

尼罗河三角洲的气候与独特地理特性,造就了多元的植被。

许多植物都被古埃及人作为生计来源,同时也作为交易用的作物。

尼罗河三角洲规律的季节变化,让埃及可以维生数世纪之久。

DTAE Relief - Crafting of Papyrus Boats

Crafting of papyrus boasts: relief from Niuserrer's chamber of the seasons from the 5th Dynasty

植物之中最有用的大概是莎草,这个高立的莎草科植物沿着尼罗河的水边丰富的滋长着。

虽然最常被用来造纸,古埃及人还找到了许多不同的用途,包含了编制绳索,拖鞋以及地毯。

有莎草花装饰的船只是用植物座的,这种植物也在画作与浮雕中会看到,同时也被用在进行仪式。

DTAE Olive Branch

Relief: Hand clutching an Olive Branch, from the 18th Dynasty

沿着尼罗河岸有着许多不同的树种,像是椰枣,角豆树以及柽柳。

最早被用来种植的水果树是无花果树,接着则发展到苹果,石榴而最终在新王国时期发展到了橄榄树。

芒果的种植则是源自于中世纪来自亚洲的进口。

DTAE Keskapashouty

Neskashouty, Scribe, Counter of Grain in the Granary of Divine Offerings of Amun, dating from the 21st Dynasty

有些树木也与诸神有所联系,例如刺槐就与荷鲁斯相连结。

托特与塞沙特两位神祇则被描述会将国王的治理刻入酪梨树中。

赖特氏鼠尾粟则与女神伊赛特相连结,她也是生命仪式的守护神。

古埃及圣书文Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs编辑

了解圣书文,它们如何随着时间演化,以及它们可以如何教导我们了解古埃及文化。

圣书文被视为神圣的文字,出现在遗迹,雕像和神圣莎草纸上,形似圣书文的符号最早可追溯到公元前4000年的陶器上。

这类风格的标志和图画是从古代起源一直流传到法老统治结束的唯一书写方式。

古埃及人则把圣书文称为诸神的书写。

圣书文是个困难的语言,它原本为法老,贵族以及祭司所用,而且只会用在仪式,古墓以及政府记录中。

因为只有少数埃及人才能阅读古老的圣书文,为这语言在他们自己的文化中添增了一层神秘面纱。

ACO Tomb of Nakht - Agricultural Scenes

Agricultural Scenes, Tomb of Nahkt

圣书文的结构为我们提供理解埃及文化的管道,不单只是翻译出来的内容,还包括这些符号的形成过程。

古墓墙上,石棺上,雕像以及陶罐上都看得到它们的身影,也一丝不苟地记载在无数个古老莎草纸中。

在许多神殿当中,祭司会举行仪式以及每日祭品。

在陵墓壁画当中,圣书文以惯有的方式来吟诵。这些口语代表着符咒,为了让死者在永恒之终能从供品中受益。

符咒与祭品同时也会用在活着的人身上,借此强化药效并治疗疾病。

最著名的古埃及文档莫过于“死者之书”了。

以圣书文与僧侣文书写的这份文档,描写出了重要的符咒与仪式。

这些符咒是为了确保生命到死亡之间能有平稳的转变,并让逝者能够安全地穿过死后世界的危险。

尽管成功解读之后,因为可以从许多方向读起的关系,使得圣书文的阅读依旧困难。

根据符号的方向,圣书文可以从左到右,从右到左,或者水平和垂直阅读,但绝不会是从底部往上阅读。

要从哪个方向阅读起的线索就在于象征符号所面对的方向。如果一个象形文字往右看着,这就代表读者必须从右边开始读起。

莎草纸上的文字则从右侧开始,然后从每列的上方读往下方。

古墓中书写的文字则类似于漫画中的结构。

文字可以放在角色的前方,后方或上方,而它的符号则与角色面对的方向一致。

另一个线索则是神的名字,或者象征诸神或国王的圣书文,它们总是写在描述文字之前。

与字母语言相比,埃及圣书文拥有更多符号。

为了解决缺乏元音的情况,埃及人发明了一种符号类型,当这些符号放在单后缀端时,它们能定义该单字的意思。

举个例子,一只狮子的画像可以代表狮子,同时也有因为狮子常与危险或强大联想在一起的抽象概念。

中埃及圣书文的符号略超过七百个,到了希腊罗马年代尾声,符号数量更是达到了一万个。

埃及学家,艾伦·加德纳爵士创建了一个用来分辨常见圣书文符号与变体版本的列表。

古代埃及语言与亚洲和非洲语言有着许多相似之处。它们皆与埃及文书写法有着类似的演变。

这些语言属于闪含语系。埃及语言有着五种明显的演化,每种都有自己独特的结构。这些语言被称为古埃及文,中埃及文,晚埃及文,世俗文与科普特文。

科普特文时唯一存活的语言,让语言学家们能够找出元音结构并区分不同的方言。

虽然圣书文和僧侣文让我们大略得知古埃及语言的构造和写作方式,但是它的发音方式至今仍有争议。

制作团队选择了英文作为口语交谈,人物们则使用古埃及和希腊单字与口音。

背景人群所使用的语言主要是基于艾伦·加纳德爵士的埃及文法。

为了重现着个已经失传的语言,我们向埃及学家和对话教练咨询并设置了目标发音,接着找来拥有阿拉伯,希伯来和非洲背景的配音员们赋予游戏生命。

在亚历山大大帝来到埃及并创建起他的政权后,希腊文成为了政府机构使用的语言。

无法阅读圣书文使得希腊人感到愤愤不平,而为了缓和这紧张的情势,才有了罗塞塔石碑。

基督教的扩散为法老文化画上了句号,也导致了非基督教建筑的破坏。

这点同时也让圣书文的写作与理解彻底失传。

尚-法兰索瓦·商博良Jean-François Champollion编辑

了解如何辨识以及解译圣书文

DTAE Occult Alphabets

The long-desired fulffiled knowledge occult alphabets, attributed to Ibn Wahshiyya

从公元5世纪到文艺复兴时期,关于圣书文的知识完全失传了。

许多热衷于此的人们接受了解译此语言的挑战,然而几乎没有进展。在不同研究人员确定名字与部分文法结构下,一些基础知识由此而生,并确认了王名圈代表着王家名称的标记。

他们仍然缺少信息的重要片段,而这关键部分的解谜都要感谢罗塞塔石碑的出土。

DTAE Rosetta Stone

Rosetta Stone / Ptolemaic Era

罗塞塔石碑在1799年被拿破仑军队中的一名士兵,布夏德发现了。

这块石板可追溯自公元前196年,上头以三种文字书写着而古埃及文与希腊文:包括圣书文,世俗文以及希腊字母。

随着拿破仑·波拿巴在1801年战败之后,英国人取得了这块石碑的所有权。从1802年开始,它就在大英博物馆展示至今,也是该博物馆有史以来最多人探访的古物。

ACO DT - Jean Francois Champollion

Portrait of Jean-François Champollion, Egyptologist

1803年,第一段被解译出来的时希腊文的部分。里面详细记载了托勒密五世的法老诏书,提醒着国民,他们的法老领导者埃及迎向繁盛的世代。

二十年后,以摹本研究的尚-法兰索瓦·商博良完全翻译了整块石碑。

DTAE La Grammaire egyptienne

"La Grammaire egyptienne" Autograph manuscript by Champollion

在他对石碑的研究中,商博良成功观察到一个能够解开谜团的关键要点。那就是圣书文不仅是表意文字,更是音标符号。

圣书文由音标符号,单字符和语标所组成。本质上来说,它们是语音,字母以及完整单字的组合,整体上则形成了一种语言。

DTAE Serapeion Foundation plague

Foundation plague from the Serapeum in Alexandria, showing the Greek and Egyptian inscriptions

商博良在研究石碑的时候,意识到同一个单字,圣书文的字符数量与希腊字母的数量有所不同。这使他相信圣书文必定具有语音特质。

这也就是解开罗塞塔石碑秘密的第一步。

DTAE Ptolemy I's Cartouche

Inscription fragment of Ptolemy I's cartouches

为了证明这个理论,商博良开始辨识历代埃及统治者的名讳,接着将它们的语音发音与希腊版本进行比较。

例如,基奥普斯就是古代编年史作家们给大金字塔主人,胡夫的希腊名。

DTAE Temple of Iset on Philae

Temple of Iset, Island of Philae / circa 1880

商博良接下来就是确认他的方法能被验证,因此他使用了菲莱方尖碑作为额外参考。

方尖碑上刻有以埃及圣书文和希腊文书写的两则碑文。他在这些碑文中确认了托勒密和克里奥帕特拉的名字后,并在罗塞塔石碑上找出了相同的语音规则后,商博良知道他的方向没有错。

ACO DT - Jean Francois Champollion hieroglyphs

"La Grammaire égyptienne" Autograph manuscript by Champollion

商博良开始解译罗塞塔石碑时早已精通数种古代语言。他用他的科普特文知识来辨识方尖碑上的日盘圣书文实际上是“拉”的拼音写法。

进一步的翻译让他的结论更加屹立不摇。埃及圣书文的字符环绕在语音和限定词的使用上,这意味着符号其实就代表了单字本身。

创建昔兰尼The Founding of Cyrene编辑

了解昔兰尼城

DT Map of the World - Mediterranean

Map of the world by Eratosthenes of Cyrene, circa 240 BCE

昔兰尼加横跨了非洲西北方的海岸。在古代这里被称为“五城”,与希腊殖民期间有五座大城市成立有所关联。

绿山的茂密平原上也就是现今的利比亚的位置,希腊殖民者在公元前630创建起了昔兰尼这座城市。

昔兰尼的人口成长地很快,扩散到整个高原的梯田上面,让它称为了第一个也是最大一个的殖民地。

DT - Arcesilaus Cup

Arcesilaus II, king of Cyrene, supervising the weighing and storage of silphium.

昔兰尼这座城市是由巴图斯·亚里斯多德德尔菲神谕者领导下建成的。

过度拥挤又遭遇干旱,巴图斯的家乡,锡拉之岛无法供养所有人的生活。巴图斯向神谕者咨询,并得知它们必须前往北非海岸寻找可耕作地。

在前面两个世纪当中,许多国王统治过这座城市。然而,一场叛乱彻底终结了君主制度,从此以后,这座城市由贵族治理。

DT - Agora of Cyrene

Agora of Cyrene

昔兰尼的主要特点就是奉献给诸神的神殿:例如阿波罗狄蜜特宙斯,以及托勒密王朝的伊赛特塞拉皮斯神。

广场则定义了市中心所在,在西部外围则创建起了著名的卫城

公元2世纪末期时港口周围新建了一道防御城墙。随着城市逐渐发展,越来越多的建筑物开始修建在城墙外围。

DT - Aristippos

Two-faced bust, likely Aristippus of Cyrene and his daughter, Arete

在罗马的影响下,昔兰尼成为一个经济强势的城邦,在整个地中海中占有一席之地。

除了希腊城市科斯岛之外,昔兰尼的医学院与各地不相上下。

古代数学,天文学和地理学的一些伟大思想家出生于此或在城里的各个学派中受到启发,其中包括由苏格拉底学生阿瑞斯提普斯所创立的哲学学院。

DT - Cyrene statue

Statue of a draped woman, acephalous

从公元115年到公元117年,犹太区发生了一场反叛,给昔兰尼带来严重的损伤。

长久下来,一连串的战争,差劲的罗盘草耕种管理和地震,对城市造成不可复原的伤害。

它在公元365年时被完全废弃了。

DT - Cyrene & Apollonia

阿波罗尼亚

附近的阿波罗尼亚港有着理想的地理位置,天然海湾,由两座岛屿和岩石庇护的出入口。

搭建起灯塔之后,这港口后来还扩建码头和仓库,以乘载不断增加的航运流量。

DT - Apollonia ruins

Apollonia Ruins On Landscape Against Cloudy Sky

凭借着成功作为一个商业贸易港口,阿波罗尼亚超过了昔兰尼,最终称为了五城的首都。

数次地震使得城市逐渐偏移,造成原有的大部分结构下沉,至今仍能在水中看到它的部分遗址。

广场与温泉浴场The Agora & Thermal Baths编辑

了解亚历山大的共有公共空间与其在其他城市中的功能

DT - Agora of Cyrene

Cyrene Agora / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

昔兰尼的广场是城市的公共集市与政治中心。

它有着露天的中央庭院,摊贩群集而商店立于周围,有些甚至恰好塞得进有长屋顶的柱廊之下。

和其他希腊城市中相同,广场有一座中央炉灶,被称作公共会堂。此处时昔兰尼的官方使馆,用来款待造访城市的宾客。

DTAE Cyrene - Prow Monument

Prow Monument, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Libya) / 2003

(Behind the scenes) 一尊代表着海战胜利的无名雕像是广场上的中心摆饰。

雕像的女性形象可能代表着尼姬,胜利女神。

它可能与萨莫色雷斯的胜利女神非常相似,该女神像目前存放于卢浮宫博物馆,并被制作团队用作参考。

DTAE Cyrene - Possible Tomb of Battos

Possible Tomb of Battos, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Libya) / 2003

昔兰尼广场上也陈列着许多神殿与纪念碑来庆祝它的创建人巴图斯国王和城市的诸神。

有两座圣坛与阿波罗神殿有所关联,并有座大理石雕像基地供奉着利比亚女神。

城市的建筑群包含一座法院,并附带着一座文件馆。文件馆收藏了法律文献和其他城市治理上不可或缺的文档。

残存建筑物被火损坏的痕迹显示它可能在公元115年的一场犹太人团体的叛乱中被摧毁。

DTAE Hadrian's Baths - Jean Claude Golvin

Hadrian's Baths, Sanctuary of Apollo [Detail] / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

公共澡堂在罗马与希腊城市中十分常见,而昔兰尼也遵照这项传统。

两座来自不同时代的热水澡堂在遗迹中被发现。

在其中一座澡堂门口的刻字被推测可能归咎于其拥有者,它证明了此建筑物是存在希腊化时代。

DTAE Mosaic of the Nile

Mosaic of the Nile / 1st Century

马赛克原先是基于很实际的原因所创造:对于防水地板的需求。

由希腊人从埃及和昔兰尼加引进,设计上象征着日常生活,海洋动物与神话生物。

出了传统希腊图样,他们同时结合了特定的埃及文化概念,像是莲花。

不过,至今马赛克复原的最佳范品却是来自亚历山大。

DTAE Venus Anadyomene

Venus Anadyomene [Excavated at the Baths] / 2nd century BCE

昔兰尼澡堂被安置在一座地下陵墓之中,陵墓的年代约在公元前8至6世纪之间。

澡堂座椅是直接刻入石头中而成,进而提供更舒适的洗澡环境。

如同许多的公共建筑物,热水澡堂也会被精心装饰。像是阿芙萝黛蒂或是弓箭手厄洛斯的雕像,就在其中被发现。

凉室,也就是冷水池,是来宾第一间进入的房间。随后会进入温室或是温水区,并接着是热水房,称之为热室。

热水澡堂的水源来自于天然的泉水,发热的石块被放置在水中来制造所需要的蒸汽。

流动的泉水最终会来到一座水槽与喷泉,被称为奥古斯塔水池。

较晚的罗马澡堂是在图拉真皇帝时期建造的,并接着在哈德良时期整修。

在公元365年的一起地震后,它们被采用拜占庭设计的澡堂给取代,并在重建中使用到旧热水澡堂的石头。

制作团队通过描写图拉真时期所建造之澡堂的历史文档来创造出游戏中可进入的场所。

昔兰尼的宙斯神殿The Temple of Zeus in Cyrene编辑

了解位于昔兰尼的宙斯神殿

面朝东方日出伫立着一座供奉宙斯教派的神殿,它是在公元前5世纪中的某些时候被建造的。

长70米并有着46根多立克式的圆柱,这座雄伟的建筑物是在非洲被建造的最庞大的希腊神殿。比帕德嫩神殿以及奥林匹亚的宙斯神殿略大一些。

外部使用多立克建筑常见的装饰元素进行设计。

柱子们有着不同的尺寸,让造访者观看建筑物的各面向时都可以给予独一无二的感受。

在神殿于犹太人叛乱期间被摧毁后,哈德良皇帝将它进行重建。他选择不重新建造外柱廊,但用大理石修复了新的科林斯柱。

神殿后来在马克·奥里略统治下完工。

在奥古斯都时期,一座十分相似但是较小的奥林匹亚宙斯神殿之模仿建筑被使用来敬神。

哈德良接着比照奥林匹亚的宙斯神殿建置了新的12米高雕像,它是使用凿刻的大理石制成,并在头,手臂与脚部分使用圆雕技巧。

考古学家确定这座神殿中有一座纪念性的宙斯雕像,然而专家们对于它到底是属于宙斯还是更特定的宙斯-阿蒙教派之神祇仍抱持着不同意见。

基于认识到昔兰尼在希腊地中海地区是宙斯-阿蒙的扩张核心,制作团队决定将此教派的雕像放置在这个地点。

昔兰尼的重要名胜Important Monuments of Cyrene编辑

了解阿波罗神殿以及昔兰尼的圆形竞技场

阿波罗神殿坐落于昔兰尼高原的一处突出边缘,眺望着地中海。

它可以借由阿波罗尼亚的路通过冥都而入,或是采用神圣的方式,自城市的广场进入。

城市内遍布的大量神殿与雕像反映出受到希腊与埃及教派数世纪影响的现象。

供奉阿波罗的神殿,昔兰尼和宙斯立于那些托勒密诸神诸如塞拉皮斯与伊赛特的旁边。

许多喷泉被装饰来代表其他的神祇们,包括城市的命名典故,昔兰尼。

一座被称为普罗皮莱们的门廊标记着它的入口,并有着显眼的阿波罗的喷泉。

太阳与守护之神阿波罗对希腊与罗马都是一名重要的神祇。

为了向他敬奉所建的神殿被认为是十分神圣的。

壮观的神殿建筑有着自然的壁带,伸展超过200米的长度并大约有50米的宽度,而且被大量的多立克列柱给环绕。

由考古学家发现的片段指出针对柱子的修复工程大约发生在公元115-116年之间。

祭坛位于神殿的前方,它们被估计出自相同的时期,但是在不同的时间被进行修复。

每年都由许多公牛在祭坛以敬奉阿波罗的名义被献祭,为了绑住动物在环形物上的石头留下的痕迹在今日依然可见。

在罗马化时代所雕刻出的“阿波罗与七弦琴”于神殿附近被找到,它被认为是一项重要的考古学发现。

阿波罗的雕像在被发现时是破碎的状态。令人惊讶的是,大部分的碎块都被寻找到,而修复后的雕像现今位于大英博物馆。

制作团队根据目前的部分重建推断出雕像的最后样貌,并将它放入神殿中来表现出该时代的守护神。

昔兰尼的圆形竞技场位于被称为莫陶沙台地的地方,就在阿波罗神殿旁边。

它在2世纪时建于一座老旧的剧场之上。

原本作为舞台使用,这座剧场在罗马的角斗士娱乐活动来到这座城市最后变成的圆形竞技场。

入口被设置在圆形竞技场的两侧尽头,一座墙取代了前两排的看台作为当成对厂商大批野生动物的保护措施。

用来让野兽与角斗士游走行进的通道环绕着竞技场,和罗马竞技场的通道不一样,它是位在圆形竞技场下方。

地下室和回廊用来容纳角斗士与动物,还包括将陷阱提升至竞技场中心的升降机。

由于原本的剧场十分靠近悬崖侧壁,扩建工程无法提供一个完美的圆形,反而是接合了半圆形的结构来让竞技场成为椭圆形形状。椭圆形的结构依然能确保在每个角度都能得到很好的视野。

制作团队因为技术原因决定创造一个完美圆形的剧场,并采用罗马剧场的结构来当作他们的参考来源。

昔兰尼的卫城The Acropolis of Cyrene编辑

了解昔兰尼城的卫城区

DTAE Position and Plan of Cyrene

Position and plan of Cyrene by Beechey & Walker, in Proceedings of the expedition to explore the northern coast of Africa / 1828

位于城市的西方边缘,昔兰尼的卫城比希腊的还要小,但它的制高点为城市提供保护。

在它的入口只有单一扇门,并在侧面有两座塔。一段至今清晰可见的铭文表示城墙与要塞在奥古斯都时期被修复。

DTAE Bust of Berenice II

Portrait of Berenice II, (found in Hermopolis Magna, Egypt) / 246 - 221 BCE

遗址中有挖掘出数座小雕像,其中包括贝勒尼基,昔兰尼国王马格斯之女。马格斯是托勒密二世同母异父的兄弟。

在东北塔处,有一座由两座小神殿和门廊构成的圣殿,并有着一座被认为是塞拉皮斯与伊赛特的圣坛。

当神殿被发掘时,考古学家发现火焰损害的痕迹,然而没有任何迹象显示这场火灾是什么时候发生的。

在20世纪中,一座防御工事建造在整个地区之上来对抗来袭的军队。

它完全涵盖了附近罗马房屋的古代遗迹,而考古学家尚未将它们完全挖掘出。

角斗士竞技场The Gladiator Arena编辑

了解罗马共和国内的角斗士竞技场

DTAE Lamp featuring Gladiators

Lamp: Gladiators fighting / 1st Century

(Behind the Scenes) 尽管角斗士一直到之后的罗马时代才会在昔兰尼进行打斗,但制作团队决定要加入角斗士竞技场的原因有二。

第一,他们觉得去描写这方面的罗马人生活是很重要的;和第二点,他们感觉这会为游戏体验增加有趣的可能性。

DTAE Gladiator Mosaic 1

Gladiators fighting / 4th Century

第一批进入竞技场的角斗士是战争中的俘虏。

这是展现人与野兽之间暴力交锋的壮观场面,持续了将建一千年。

DTAE Gladiator Figurines

Figurines of gladiators / Hellenistic Period

到后来自愿者开始上场。为了地位与财富,大量更有技巧的战士也提升了娱乐质量。因此,角斗士这项职业出现了。

受到角斗士雇主合约的约束,斗士们在营房内用餐,训练并被看守。

DTAE Gladiator Helmet

Helmet of a gladiator / 1st Century

角斗士被分成重装与轻装的斗士,各自拥有特定的护甲和武器配置。

举办者通常会让受到观众支持的两组派别在战斗中对上彼此。

DTAE Gladiator Mosaic 2

Gladiators fighting / 4th Century

比赛筹备相当完整,决斗时将会有背景音乐以及裁判监督。

死亡,不论是经由战斗或是被判决的结果,并不一定是落败方的唯一出路。

有些人因为他们的表现而被释放,并成为恶名昭彰的名人。

昔兰尼的主要出口物品Major Exports of Cyrene编辑

了解昔兰尼主要经济财富的来源

DTAE Cypriot Juglet

Cypriote ring based juglet; [the inverted poppy shape] suggests that the jars once held opium, which is made from the sap. / 18th Dynasty

昔兰尼的经济财富之主要来源为种植并出口罂粟花和罗盘草

尽管罂粟花产出的鸦片油也是出口项目之一,跟这项作物有关的信息并不多。

关于种植罗盘草的信息反倒对我们来说更容易取得。

DTAE Cyrene Silver Coin

Cyrene, Silver coin. Head of Ammon. (reverse) Silphium, c. 435-375 BCE / 1889

罗盘草和它黄色的花朵,被当作是太阳神的赏赐。

只在地中海周遭的区域生长,罗盘草的提取物被高价出口并对于昔兰尼加的财富至关重要,因此它被雕刻在他们的钱币上。

DTAE Vase Aphrodite and Eros

Vase of Aphrodite and Eros / Classical Antiquity

罗盘草的根部会产生一种树脂,而希腊人与罗马人都会在药材中使用它来治疗咳嗽,发烧,消化不良和许多其他病痛,它也被当作避孕药使用。

在来自公元前4世纪的食谱汇集中,该草药在各种各样的食谱中被提及,包括一道红鹤菜肴。

DT - Arcesilaus Cup

Arcesilaus II, king of Cyrene, supervising the weighing and storage of silphium

高需求量,过度滥采和也许某次气候的变迁造成罗盘草的最终灭绝。

最后一次关于它的提及是在公元4世纪,而从此之后就再也没有发现过这种植物的记录。

金字塔编辑

金字塔的起源The Origin of the Pyramid编辑

了解古埃及的早期墓葬以及以及如何进化到现今广为人知的金字塔建筑

“金字塔(pyramid)”这个词的来源具有争议性,大部分人相信它来源自希腊文的“puramis”意思是圆锥形的面包。

古埃及生与死的概念源自太阳的周期变换,金字塔光滑面的完美形状被联想成法老在死后转化成为一道太阳光芒的象征。

金字塔代表着奔奔石,赫利奥波利斯创世神话中的原始之丘,这些故事或多或少掺杂在埃及人生活中的每个面向。

在前王朝时期中,丧葬习俗的发展会因为居住者位于上埃及或下埃及而有所不同。

早在金字塔出现之前,就存在有墓葬冢。

在下埃及的迈里姆德贝尼萨拉迈有一处地点,我们在哪里找到最古老的墓葬地点,可追溯到公元前5000年。

对于陵墓的研究显示死者的尸体会被存放在不深的坟墓当中,呈现胎儿的姿势。尽管在这些坟墓中发现了一些物件,但它们无法让我们判断那些存放于其中之人的社会阶级。

在上埃及,前王朝的习俗较容易探究,但是显示出较复杂的丧葬仪式。它们被分成两种文化时期:拜达里与那加答。

拜达里时期是从公元前4400年到公元前3800年,在村落外围发现的小型冥都都证明某种丧葬教派的出现。

死者的尸体被向下放入椭圆形的坟墓,并使用山羊或瞪羚皮覆盖,日常用品会被附加在尸体旁。

在三个那加答时期中,从公元前4000年到公元前3510年,丧葬习俗发展得更加复杂。

陵墓的形状从椭圆形转变为矩形,以模仿生者房屋的羊毛。墓地的增大,而丧葬物品变得更多且具装饰性。

陵墓变得更加复杂,会使用砌体结构,木制饰皮肤或砖块来强化结构。

随着时间经过,具有社会阶层区分的冥都开始出现。举例来说,在希拉孔波利斯,社会精英与平民有着各自的冥都。

石室坟墓这个词在阿拉伯方言中代表着“庞大的长凳”是指一种在埃及远古时期到中王国时期所出现的丧葬建筑。

作为一种墓葬冢的演变,石室坟墓通常由两个部分所组成。一座在地面上建筑的结构,形状是庞大的矩形并有阶梯状的墙壁,还在其下方的地下墓室。

小型的石质坟墓时常会围绕在大上许多的国王陵墓附近,这些坟墓通常存放着国王亲戚与朝臣的遗体。

石室坟墓底部构造的配置在古王国时期发生演变。

从第五王朝之后,石室坟墓通常会有复数房间作为底部构造,有时会多达30间房间。此外,装饰的数量与质量显著地提高,就和在其中发现的雕像数量一样。

第六王朝能够见到艺术被展现至极限,整个石室坟墓的表面会被日常生活的景象覆盖,说明这些有幸在法老金字塔附近舒适地度过永生的人们是多么地富裕成功。

这类石室坟墓中最好的里斯是围在萨卡拉的梅里鲁卡坟墓。

左塞尔的阶梯金字塔建筑群The Step Pyramid Complex of Djoser编辑

了解第一座由人类建造的石造遗迹,左塞尔的阶梯金字塔建筑

阶梯金字塔位于一个被建物围绕起来的中心处,建物群包含神殿,宫殿模型与其他人造建物,全是为了法老左塞尔的死后世界而建。

这个埋葬站址本身就涵盖了十五公亩,同时也位于萨卡拉高原的最高点。

从这个站址的细节与规模中可以明显看到,这个站址在当时来说是个技术性的奇观。

唯一关于站址设计图的数据,被发现在一面印有一间地窖规划草稿的石块上。

阶梯金字塔是第一个建造在石头上的纪念碑,垂直60米高,是当时最高的建物。

这座4700年前建成的建物,原先只是要作为一个石室坟墓,也就是平顶的长方形古墓设计。它著名的建筑师伊姆霍特普,可能认为这样的设计对伟大的法老左塞尔来说太卑微了,因而增加了阶梯设计。

阶梯金字塔站址收到一个1600米长,10米高的围墙围起来。

这个巨大的墙壁是用白色石灰岩制成的,而方向上是沿着南北向。

虽然有着14道门,但是只有东门使用来让生者通过的。其余假门是用来让国王的“卡”通过使用。

与假门相同地,还有模仿御敌城墙的棱堡,鉴定设计的墙壁。

这些设计要素的配置,显示出它们与赫卜赛德节有所关联。

唯一真正能进入站址的入口要通过一个狭长的廊道。

这个室内空间有着被雕塑来模仿原木的石质屋檐。

在通道的末端是个巨大的开口。由于用意是要模仿成门廊,那里雕塑这永远敞开而无法被移动的大门与枢纽。

这个廊道布有二十对最高六米的柱子,个别都是由石块堆栈而成。完成品的表面是用来模仿一束束芦苇捆。

在这些柱子上可以发现红色颜料的踪迹,而支撑的墙壁有着黑色的颜料。这很有可能是要让墙壁混入阴影中,给予红色柱子独自立起的错觉。

在两侧的柱子都存在着石室,而这些被认为是用来代表上,下埃及各行省的空间。

根据一些埃及学家的说法,这些房间的配置可能具有仲裁与审判的象征。

这座古墓受到一条雕刻出来的蛇形所保护着,它位在庭院的南方。墓室就在它的下方,隔着一个30米深的竖井。

这个有着低矮天花板的石室与石室坟墓相似,而它也相对于未来的墓室显得比较完整。

这座古墓是由粉红色的花岗岩所制成,然而有证据显示这里曾是打磨过后的石灰岩。由于这里对于遗体来说显得太小,有可能这座古墓的用意是要给国王的“卡”使用,也可能是放置国王器官的卡诺卜坛。

后来埋葬传统则是会将卡诺卜坛与遗体放在相同的石室中。

一个从古墓延伸出受过打磨的石灰岩楼梯,向西引往地底下的居所。

其中一些房间是要让国王与他的家人在死后世界使用。里面发现了大量的陶罐,其中甚至还贮藏着啤酒,牛奶以及油。

其中虚假的门廊上,装饰着国王参与仪式的浮雕。

在这些浮雕中,可以看到他携带着农用工具奔跑着,并且进行着一个复活死者的仪式。

建筑师伊姆霍特普选择使用石材作为建材,以让这座站址能够长久保存。

随着最开始的石室墓穴完成时,伊姆霍特普设计出了一个规模更具野心的埋葬处。他决定要将坟墓彼此堆栈。

通过阶梯上额外的且很,证据显示金字塔被增建了两次,而最终的高度是62米,底部长宽则是121米与109米构成。

允许法老进入诸神世界的楼梯,则是借由阶层堆栈的矩形金字塔呈现,完全包起了原始的石质坟墓。

这个金字塔本身是个实心的建筑,它所有的石室与走道都是在建物之下。

法老神圣的左塞尔是第三王朝的创立者,他统治了19年。

在他的统治期间,他以荷鲁斯·尼特杰里赫特为名,意指“诸神的躯体”。他在死后数个世纪之后作为敬意的象征被给予了左塞尔的名字,而他也经常被认为是埃及最伟大的法老之一。

有一部以他为名的伪经在托勒密时期被写成,当时距离他的死亡已经是两千五百年后。

左塞尔被连结为天空之神荷鲁斯的人形化身。一座接近于阶梯金字塔的基座写着他的名字,并且连结着荷鲁斯。

他也是第一个住在孟斐斯的法老,让该地成为附近区域的政府中心枢纽。

在萨卡拉的站址以前,左塞尔也以建造许多神殿和纪念碑知名。

该种埋葬站址是同种建设的首例,而它也是左塞尔最伟大的建筑成就。

这个埋葬站址的建设上模仿着左塞尔宫殿,其中有着模仿逆转,树与芦苇而刻制的石头。

要在一个硬质岩石上创造出这些细节与细微的纹路,是个非常费时且费力的任务。

而这座站址的许多设计是为了进行赫卜赛德节,以让国王能够在死后世界也能有办法巩固他的统治。

在角落的是个被称之为“T”的神殿。这座神殿是整个站址中最为神秘的建筑。

它的外部立面是平整的,同时其中却使用复杂的节德柱与雕刻物所装饰。

很有可能这个地方是要让国王的“卡”实体化的场所,从死后世界象征性地拜访赫卜赛德庭院的平台。

The Heb Sed festival enabled the pharaoh to maintain universal order, and renew godly powers.

Through a series of trials and religious rites such as dance, offerings and visiting the sanctuaries of various deities, the ruler's vital force and divine nature was confirmed.

The celebration was meant to represent the ruler's jubilee and would take place every 30 years, though the deadline was not always followed.

The earliest known ritual dates from the 1st Dynasty.

Within the complex of Djoser, south-east of the pyramid, is a dedicated space for this essential ritual to be performed by the king even in the afterlife.

The Heb Sed courtyard is lined with false chapels, and equipped with a platform featuring two staircases meant to represent Upper and Lower Egypt.

Located in the courtyard, the two pavilions are believed to represent the palaces of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Rectangular in shape, the two replica structures face one another. Their façade is similar to the chapels of the Heb Sed ceremony, with column crowns carved to look Like falling leaves.

Because Queen Hetephernebty and Princess Inetkaes' names were discovered on a stela near the pavilions, it is thought that these funerary chapels were intended for them.

The funerary temple is on the north side of the complex, facing the stars where the deceased ruler was believed to travel after death.

Within this temple was the pharaoh's serdab or cellar. It is a small enclosed space with one wall sloped to match the first step of the pyramid.

The north wall has two observation holes.

A statue of Djoser is seated on the throne, wearing a mantle and a tripartite wig with a crown known as a nemes.

Representing the king's ka, this statue looks through the observation holes into the courtyard, enabling the king to observe the ceremonies and receive offerings in the afterlife.


左塞尔阶梯金字塔内部Inside Djoser's Step Pyramid编辑

了解左塞尔的阶梯金字塔以及伊姆霍特普对金字塔建筑演化的影响力

DTAE Statue of Imhotep

Statuette of Imhotep / Late Period

阶梯金字塔的建筑师伊姆霍特普对于法老左塞尔是非常重要之人,对于整体古埃及人也一样。

一座左塞尔雕像的基底在1926年被发现,它颂扬伊姆霍特普是木匠,雕刻家,制石者和先知领袖。

我们对于伊姆霍特普每日的生活所知甚少。虽然他在写作医疗文字上提供了贡献,不过他作为建筑师这个角色却最为人所知。

DTAE Step Pyramid in 2012

The Step Pyramid of Djoser / 2012

从金字塔的设计到建物本身内含的元素,伊姆霍特普打算要创造能够使他的国王获得永生的东西。

作为一项建筑学的成就,阶梯金字塔是使用石块而非泥块所建造。这是埃及人第一次建造这么高的纪念建物。

伊姆霍特普明确地想要使用石头来反映出天然的材料。

左塞尔的墓葬群在接下来的数百年与数千年都十分著名,而它的伟大建筑是伊姆霍特普在晚期被古埃及人给神化。

DTAE Vertical section drawing of Djoser's Pyramid

Vertical section, looking west..., in The Pyramids of GIzeh, from actualy survey and admeasurement, by J.S Perring (Detail) / 1839-1842

除了在中央为左塞尔所建造的地下宫殿,还有11座井被挖掘。每座井都有33米深,并与延伸约20米的水平长廊连结。

前五座长廊都是提供给王室家族的成员使用。

DTAE Square of the pyramid

Square of the pyramid..., in Reise zum Tempel des jupiter Ammon... by Heinrich Menu von Minutoli / 1824

有两条通道通往地底并查分成三个方向进入不同的仓储长廊。

这个庞大的地底空间容纳着贮藏区块与典礼供品。

其中一条地道从金字塔的东侧起始,容纳着40000个石质器皿,其中许多原先属于国王的祖先。

DTAE Sections of apartments

Pyramids of Saccara: Sections of apartments &c., in the Pyramids of Gizeh

左塞尔的墓室位于一座28米深的竖井底部。

根据埃及学家尚-菲利普·洛埃,此房间原本是使用磨亮的石灰岩块所制成,而它的天花板使用五角星来装饰。

然而在某个时间点,石灰岩块全部都被粉红色的花岗岩取代,只剩下作为星星装饰的石灰岩块碎片。

DTAE Vertical Section

Pyramids of Saccara: Vertical section, looking west..., in The Pyramids of Gizeh

在房间的最底部有着许多通往各方向的地道。这座由地道,长廊与房间组成的迷宫横跨了超越五公里。

有一定数量的死路与假门,它们可能是为死后世界而设计,而非愚蠢的窃贼。

DTAE Jean-Philippe Lauer at Saqqara

French Egyptologist Jean-Philippe Lauer on the site of Saqqara in 1939 / 1995

不像吉萨或孟卡拉的大金字塔,左塞尔金字塔没有任何被窃贼挖开的额外通道。

不需要用到这些通道,由于要进入这些地道与长廊十分容易,窃贼一旦进入神殿后既可以轻易的将它搬空。

左塞尔木乃伊被偷走的时间是未知的,所剩部位仅有左脚,由法国埃及学家尚-菲利普·洛埃在1934年发现。这名建筑师用他的一生致力于周密地探索这座建物,并相信它是属于左塞尔的。

DTAE Encrustations

Encrustations, architectural elements, plague (Djoser Netjerikhet ?)

法老的房间也被称作蓝室,使用蓝绿色砖瓦来进行装饰,这是为了要模仿他的宫殿中覆盖着墙壁与窗户的芦苇席。

石块被小心翼翼地弯曲并涂色以看起来像是敞开门口和窗帘的卷起草席。


有两个长形房间,沿着南北轴并靠在一起。

南方房间有使用时半分隔开的假门,而北方房间是一条走廊来通向其他的房间。

DTAE Sections of Apartment 2

Pyramids of Saccara: Sections of apartments &c. in The Pyramids of Gizeh

门框使用上等的石灰岩制成,并刻有国王的名字。

而在南方的陵墓,门框上刻有浮雕。这些浮雕显示国王无止尽的进行仪式以及拜访圣所。

它们的内部装饰是制作团队附加的虚构内容,来增加陵墓的惊奇感。

从这个建物的精巧细节与规模可以明显看到,这个丧葬纪念建物在当时来说是个技术上的奇观。

斯尼夫鲁的第一座金字塔Sneferu's First Pyramid编辑

了解斯尼夫鲁位于美杜姆的金字塔

在第4王朝首任国王斯尼夫鲁的长期统治之下,埃及之丧葬纪念建物建设的最杰出与最具创造性的时期就此展开。

丧葬纪念建物设计从阶梯金字塔转变成了光滑表面金字塔,这些实际的建物正是演进的证明。

此设计的最初尝试是美杜姆的金字塔。

当斯尼夫鲁的七阶金字塔纪念建物开始建造时,它在后来的纪念建物成八阶的结构。建造的最后阶段可以看到突出的台阶,并使用了外盖来让表面变平顺。

然而光滑处理的墙面没有提供足够的黏着力,而外盖并没有被支撑在坚固的地基上。因此,四面外墙的基底无法承受,导致墙壁下滑并坍塌。

虽然美杜姆金字塔因为设计上的瑕疵而被放弃,但它展现了其他革新并影响了未来的金字塔设计。

就像是光滑的坡面,这次首次有礼仪用途的铺路被建造,从山谷导向至金字塔的神殿。另一项革新是和墓室有关,它不在位于井的底部,而是在地表以上。

这项改动推进了三寝室系统的开始。

代赫舒尔的曲折金字塔The Bent Pyramid of Dahshur编辑

了解代赫舒尔的曲折金字塔

在美杜姆金字塔的建造失败后,斯尼夫鲁将他的居所与官方冥都转移至代赫舒尔。在哪里他开始了他在建造丧葬纪念建物的第二次尝试。

完工的建筑被称为曲折金字塔,这样的形状在埃及只有它一座。


虽然该金字塔被证明不稳固并被放弃,它象征着一次记述上与建筑商的突破。宣示着一项非常重要的设计变革即将发生,曲折金字塔展现了从阶梯金字塔到实用的滑面金字塔之变革。

曲折金字塔的特别之处是拥有两座不同的入口:一座是在背面,而另一座在西面。

在这座金字塔中的房间太小而无法将人类埋葬其中,它原先可能是要埋藏用来储藏“卡(死去国王的“生命之灵”)”的雕像。

有了曲折金字塔,建筑师们成功地实现出一种全新的想法:用渐进水平设计的方式将安置的大石块作为核心来建造金字塔。

如此一来,各个建造阶段都可以在单次工期完成,让建筑师可以完全掌控每一项设计元素。

不幸的是,这些预防措施并没有阻止金字塔内部房间的下陷或破裂。斯尼夫鲁放弃了纪念建物,并又开始建造另一座金字塔。

代赫舒尔的红色金字塔The Red Pyramid of Dahshur编辑

了解代赫舒尔的红色金字塔

红金字塔建在曲折金字塔以北两公里处,它的名字来源是建造时所用到的微红石灰岩。红金字塔的高度达到105米。

虽然红金字塔的地表层比曲折金字塔的还要低,它们的高度实际上差不多相同。

这次的任务是要让金字塔成为几何上的真实平面金字塔,因此催生了另一项新的设计构想:外罩石块的使用。

金字塔的下行窄道可由北面进入并会抵达地面层,该处存在两间有南北对齐的高天花板的壮观房间,并由水平的短通道相连结。

由楼梯进入的第二间房间的南面墙壁,另一条窄道会通往最后的房间,它是金字塔本身的是在建筑中建造,并向东西对齐。

红金字塔的附加物包含了一座小丧葬神殿,位于东边。一条甬道据推测从东边的神殿开凿而来,但它尚未被挖掘出来。

红金字塔在结构上十分稳固,于完工时在设计方面留下了非凡的里程碑。

在多次尝试后终于成功为自己建造了一座合适的丧葬纪念建物,斯尼夫鲁知道他在死后的未来已经不须操心。

中王国的金字塔群Pyramids of the Middle Kingdom编辑

Learn about the various funerary monuments of the Middle Kingdom.

During the Middle Kingdom era, the powerful rulers of the 12th dynasty resumed the tradition of elaborate pyramidal tombs.

For example, Amenemhbat I built a funerary complex in Lisht, and Senwosret II selected the Illahoun site in the Faiyum. Amenemhat II and Sesostris III however, cast their favor towards Dahshur. Amenembhat III built a pyramid there as well before moving to Hawara in the Faiyum.

The plundering of tombs in troubled times prompted the architects of the Middle Kingdom to devise increasingly complicated means of security during construction.

As such, while the architectural plans of the Hawara pyramid were simpler than the one at Dahshur, the means used to protect it from looters were much more elaborate.

Beyond the use of blind passages and concealed trapdoors, the architects relied on a system of stone slabs which were slid into place at the end of construction. These massive stone stabs were meant to permanently block the passageways leading to the funerary chambers.

The kings of the 13th Dynasty began building their pyramids at Mazghouna, south of Dahshur, then moved on to Faiyum and Abydos.

The kings of the 17th dynasty, however, satisfied themselves with crowning their cave tombs with small pyramids of raw brick.

The kings of the 18th dynasty gave up the shape of the pyramid as a royal tomb entirely. They chose a mountain with a pyramidal shape in the Valley of Kings, and dug their graves there.

It was not until the Nubian pharaohs of the 25th dynasty that kings were once again buried under pyramidal tombs. In fact today, the area of ancient Nubia, modern Sudan, contains a record number of 220 known pyramids, to Egypt's 138. Despite their slow decline in use and quality, pyramids continued to fascinate all and sundry, up to the Roman era.

They remain to this day a symbol of the religious dedication of the Pharaohs, and the grandeur of ancient Egypt.

吉萨冥都概观An Overview of The Giza Necropolis编辑

Learn about the plateau hosting most famous necropolis of ancient Egypt.

DTAE Pyramids of Gizeh - Jean Claude Golvin

Pyramids of Gizeh / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

The Giza plateau is located on the West Bank of the Nile, and was considered by ancient Egyptians as the domain of the dead.

The pyramidal complexes found there were built over the span of three generations, during the reign of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.

DTAE Detail of Temple and Sphinx

Temple and Sphinx (detail) / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

The Giza area, now famous for its three pyramidsm is part of a wider grouping of funerary complexes. Rulers from this period generally elected to be buried in the area.

The focal point of the entire region was the city of Memphis, chosen as the capital of Egypt at the beginning of the Old Kingdom.

DTAE Pyramids of GIza Topographic Plan

Topographic Plan for a Part of the Memphis Necropolis (detail) / 19th Century

The placement of the Giza monuments and particularly that of the pyramids, followed a practical, yet strict alignment. First they focused on cardinal points, and then they accounted for the natural geology of the plateau.

人面狮身像的谜题The Riddles of the Sphinx编辑

Learn about the Great Sphinx of Giza, and different changes the Sphinx endured through time.

DTAE Alley with sphinxes in Karnak

Karnak. (Dromos) Alley with ram-headed sphinxes / 1st Dynasty

A sphinx was originally meant to be a personification of the king.

The human head, wearing pharaonic regalia, was fused with the body of a lion, thus sharing the qualities the powerful animal possessed. Namely its power, the swiftness of its attack, and its majestic authority.

By these very virtues, it was also considered a symbol of protection. Unsurprisingly, statues of sphinxes coutd be found along the dromos, protectors of the path taken by the gods to reach the temples.


DTAE Sphinx Complex - Jean-Claude Golvin

Pyramids of Gizeh - Sphinx / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

Over the centuries, enthusiasts and historians alike have wondered... Who built the Sphinx? For what purpose? And who does it represent?

These questions remain unanswered. Several theories do exist however, some more credible than others.

One theory supposes that Djedefre chose to pay homage to his father, Khufu, by building the Great Sphinx of Giza.

The stone temple on the eastern face of the Sphinx would have been added later on by his brother and successor, Khafre, in order to strengthen the divine worship of their father. It would be the first Egyptian temple oriented with the sun.


DTAE Royal Head of Djedefre

Royal Head (Didoufri), (also known as Djedefre) / 4th Dynasty

Another theory suggests that the Sphinx was built by Khafre, and was meant to represent him.

The arguments to support this hypothesis are based on the fact that the limestone beds used for the main work of the temple of the Sphinx are geographically and architecturally similar to the Valley Temple of Khafre.

Some believe that Khufu himself built the Sphinx, which was later finished under his successors, Djedefre and Khafre.

These arguments are based on the stylistics of the engraving, the typology of the nemes, and the absence of a beard at the time of construction.


DTAE Detail of Temple and Sphinx

Temple Sphinx / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

While ancient Egypt, as a whole, leaves a rather monochrome vision of its monuments and statuary, it is vital to understand that in ancient times, absolutely everything was painted.

The sun eating away at the pigments of the colors, the sand, the climate and the implacable impact of time unfortunately destroyed the glorious colors of the Sphinx of Giza.

Documents from an Arab Egyptologist of the 12th century Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, indicate that traces of red were still visible in his time.

Today, however, the only color that remains are traces of red close to the ears of the Sphinx, as well as hints of blue and yellow on the nemes, traditional colors for that type of headdress.

The pigments for the color red was manmade, obtained by mixing different products such as clay, quartz sand and very finely crushed hematite.


DTAE Guardian Figure

Guardian Figure (wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt) / circa 1919-1885 BCE

(Behind the Scenes)

Red had a strong symbolism in ancient Egypt. It was both the color of life and the color of death. It could represent the sands of the desert, or the brilliance of the sun. Red was also associated with the god Seth, vengeful and destructive.

The Egyptian word for red, dSr, is also the word which was used to signify the desert, or the royal crown of Lower Egypt.

In art, red was also the color used to paint the bodies of men, while the yellow was used for women.

It is possible that there were also color restoration efforts during the Saite Period about 600 years before Cleopatra's rule, as indicated by notes on the Inventory Stele, discovered in 1858 by Auguste Mariette.

Itis because of this that the Team made the decision to display it with its full range of colors, even though the Sphinx's colors would have likely faded by Cleopatra's time.


DTAE Sphinx Side View

Side view of the Sphinx of Gizeh, Auguste Mariette papers / 1853

Dating from the 4th dynasty, approximately 2600-2500 BCE, the Great Sphinx of Giza is the oldest and largest sphinx that we know of.

Carved from a natural limestone outcrop, the Sphinx measures 19.8 meters in height, 73.2 meters in length and 14 meters in width.


DTAE Sphinx of Khafre

Sphinx of Khafre, with the pyramid of Cheops on the horizon / circa 1919-1885 BCE

(Behind the Scenes)

In order to bring polish to the imposing monument, several blocks of limestone were added after the initial construction phase. Since then, there have been numerous attempts at preservation.

The polish present in the game integrates some aspects of modern restoration attempts. The team made this choice to present a more iconic version of the Sphinx of Giza to the player.

Today the Sphinx is called The Terrifying One. This appellation is translated from its Arabic name, Abu'l Hôl, which in turn was derived from Balhouba, in Coptic.


DTAE Sphinx 19th century

Gizeh: Sphinx / 19th Century

The Sphinx as a whole was carved in situ, from a natural stone promontory.

Its head was built in a limestone peak of the Mokattam plate, and the body was sculpted in the underlying rock layer where it is located.

The degradation of the Sphinx is due in particular to wind erosion and the different quality of limestone used in its construction. The level of sodium contained in the groundwater which abuts the stone is also a contributing factor.


DTAE Sphinx of Giza 1909

Gizeh. Sphinx & Great Pyramid of Cheops / 1909

The natural bedrock is seen through the oblique natural strata of the Sphinx's body that are similar to the surrounding limestone.


DTAE Sphinx 1762

"L'encyclopedie", Diderot & d'Alembert, tome 12 / 1762

Since Antiquity people have always believed there was a hidden tomb deep within the Sphinx.

It is thought that attempts to plunder the Sphinx began as far back as the First Intermediate Period.

Since then, numerous attempts to pierce the Sphinx's secrets have been carried out, leaving indelible scars upon the monument.


(Behind the Scenes)

Twelve meters long and cut during pharaonic times, another entrance in the back of the Sphinx aroused curiosity. Although Thutmose IV attempted to seal it off, it was possibly reopened by treasure hunters. It was rediscovered by Howard Vyse, and mapped more recently by Mark Lehner.

This entrance at the back of the Sphinx leads to different cavities of a few meters each, in directions going inside the statue's body and under the surface. The team has used this opportunity to extrapolate a little more.

While there have been no major discoveries pertaining to the Sphinx of Giza in recent years, theories and hypotheses continue to emerge.

Without validation provided by archeological sources, however, they remain unsubstantiated.

DTAE Recumbent Anubis

Recumbent Anubis / circa 664-30 BCE

The first of the main theories as to the Sphinx of Giza's meaning posits that the sphinx was originally a massive representation of the god Anubis. lts principal arguments are that that the head of the sphinx is disproportionate compared to the size of its body.

The second theory believes that the representation of two sphinxes on the stela of Thumosis IV would indicate that another stone sphinx had existed on the site itself, possibly even in paired symmetry on the other side of the Nile.

However, neither of these theories can be verified in any way.


DTAE Montage of Sphinx

Montage of different versions of the sphinx during the development of the game / 2016 / Ubisoft

(Behind the Scenes)

Several scientific projects using new technologies have been put in place in the past decades.

The most important was led by Mark Lehner and his team, who specialize in the study and survey of the Giza plateau, including the Sphinx site. The mapping made it possible to see the materials used to construct the Sphinx, analyze the different layers of erosion, and figure out the most fragile areas to protect.

After a few attempts at giving the Sphinx artistic proportions, the team instead decided to use photogrammetry mapping to faithfulty reproduce the proportions of the Sphinx.


DTAE Sphinx of Amenhotep III

Sphinx of Amenhotep III, possibly from a Model of a Temple / circa 1390-1352 BCE

What the Sphinx of Giza represented during its construction, and how the sphinx was perceived by the Egyptians of the New Kingdom are two very different matters.

Originally a representation of the king imbued with the power of the lion, the sphinx was eventually viewed as a direct representation of the most divine.

It is theorized that kings of the New Kingdom believed that the Sphinx of Giza was the one who recognized and legitimized the ruler of Egypt.

Thus, despite the fact the Sphinx of Giza was partially buried under the sand during his reign, Amenhotep II knew that the monument was of great importance.


DTAE Scarab Inscription of Amenhotep II

Scarab Inscribed with the Throne Name of Amenhotep II (featuring a shpinx) / circa 1427-1401 BCE

Amenhotep II built a second temple dedicated for the Sphinx-as-Horemakhet, to pay homage to Khufu and Khafre, his predecessors.

It became a common habit for this dynasty to spend time with their royal courts at the Sphinx. Its sanctuary became known as Setepet; The Chosen.


DTAE Ramses II and Great Sphinx Harmakhis

Ramses II, making an offering of incense and water to the Great Sphinx Harmakhis

Egyptologist Mark Lehner believed that Amenhotep Il built a statue of himself anchored between the paws of the Sphinx, likely to legitimize his reign, alongside a stela, found by Selim Hassan.

Many other pharaohs of this dynasty, such as Tutankhamun and Ramses II, also left marks of their passage in a similar fashion, sometimes even stripping the stones of nearby temples and pyramids to do so. Amenhotep II's son and successor, Thutmose IV, was a frequent offender.


DTAE Sphinx of Giza 1851 - 1852

Djizeh necropolis of Memphis - Sphinx & pyramids / 1851 - 1852

While sleeping between the Sphinx's paws, the future Thutmose IV saw in a dream the god Horemakhet proclaiming his coming accession on the throne of the Two Lands.

This was, of course, on the condition that he remove all of the sand covering the Sphinx, which stood guard as the personification of the god, and should thus never be engulfed by the sands of the desert.


DTAE Sphinx of Giza Stela

Pyramids of Gizeh (Works of Mr Mariette. Stela at the base of the Sphinx, excavated by Mr Mariette; Dec 1852, Egypt, Gizeh) / 1854

The 15-ton dream stela built by Thutmose IV to commemorate his dream was discovered by an Italian Egyptologist, Giovanni Battista Caviglia in 1818, when he undertook the task of freeing the Sphinx from the sand which had, yet again, covered it.

Cavigilia was looking for an entrance into the structure of the Sphinx, but instead, he discovered an open-air chapel and stelas between the paws. Ashes from a ceremony were still present. Protected by sand, they quite possibly were from the last ceremonies in Roman times.


DTAE Sphinx of Giza in the 19th Century

The Great Sphinx of Gizeh / 19th Century

That same year, Cavigilia discovered fragments of the Sphinx's beard that had probably been added during the New Kingdom.

If many of these pieces are held by museums in Cairo, a fragment is displayed at the British Museum, along with a piece of the uraeus that was on the Sphinx's headdress.

It is believed this fragment of beard was possibly kept in place thanks to the statue of Amenhotep II, which was supposed to be located under the head of the Sphinx.


DTAE Napoleon before the Sphinx

Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, by Jean-Leon Gerome; circa 1868

A popular cultural Legend purports that the nose of the Sphinx of Giza was lost during the time of Napoleon Bonaparte, to the cannon fire of French soldiers in training.

However, engravings from before the time of that campaign already depicted the Sphinx without a nose, indicating that it had been removed before the French campaign.


The most plausible hypothesis is based on the research of the German historian Ulrich Haarmann.

During the 1980s, Haarmann compiled medieval sources written by Arab authors. In doing so, he discovered that the sphinx was once perceived as a favorable omen, a deity supporting sediment-nurturing floods and crops.

Around 1378, a Sufi by the name of Mohammed Sa'im al-Dahr could not stand this vision of the monument and in an iconoclastic act, broke the nose of the Sphinx. According to the texts, he was then hanged and burned between the legs of the Sphinx for his crime.

胡夫的墓葬群Khufu's Funerary Complex编辑

The valley temple was the first architectural component encountered when one entered the funerary complex.

Itwas considered the official entrance of the tomb, and mixed the structural components of both a temple and a portico.

Khufu's valley temple shows evidence of a basalt pavement, letting us know where the portico portion of the structure was located.

Such a partition is believed to symbolize both the subterranean and solar aspects of the afterlife.

Khufu's causeway ran from the floodplain up to the plateau, linking together the valley temple and the mortuary temple.

A traditional causeway presented itself as a paved path, enclosed by walls and often roofed.

Fragments discovered by archeologists indicate that the walls in Khufu's causeway, one of the longest known to us, were decorated with carvings and possibly paint.

Depictions show a great variety of themes: stars on the ceiling accompanied by scenes of battles on the walls. Other engravings depicted the creation of the complex by illustrating craftsmen at work.

The most impressive private cemeteries of Giza are located east and west of Khufu's pyramid.

The eastern cemetery was reserved for members of the royal family, while the western cemetery was mostly set aside for various court dignitaries.

In both areas, private tombs, also known as mastabas, were aligned and laid out methodically in streets and avenues. This arrangement was probably an attempt at recreating the king's court for the afterlife.

To the east of Khufu's pyramid reside three smaller constructions: the three Queens' Pyramids.

A stoping passage led from the ground surface to a burial chamber, cut out of the bedrock and lined with masonry. If it seems quite certain that these monuments were intended for queens' burials, the identity of the original occupants is hard to assess.

The northernmost pyramid was most likely meant for Queen Hetepheres, who is believed to have been Khufu's mother.

However, in 1925 her actual tomb was discovered nearby, by accident. It was hidden at the bottom of a deep masonry pit, in an underground chamber.

Within the concealed chamber, Egyptologists discovered the most complete royal funerary equipment dating from the Old Kingdom... though her body was missing.

Within the vicinity of Khufu's pyramid, Egyptologists have uncovered seven boat-pits. The exact function of such boat-shaped pits remains unconfirmed, though one can easily conjecture that it was symbolic in nature.

The boat-pits being located at the eastern side of the pyramid, at the precise spot where the resuscitated king was supposed to reappear, could constitute evidence to support such an assumption.

The two southern boat-pits, each covered by a roof of huge limestone slabs, were discovered in 1954 by Kamal al-Mallakh, an Egyptian Egyptologist.

Only one of them had been opened. 1224 boat parts made of cedar wood were retrieved one by one, and patiently reassembled by the master restorer Ahmed Youssef.

This process took 28 years. Youssef worked by following lines of mortice and tenon joints, and by stitching parts together with vegetable ropes, all in order to keep the design as authentic as possible.

The Greek term pyramidion refers to the capstone of a pyramid, or the tip of an obelisk.

In ancient Egyptian, both components were called benben. This word was also used for a specific kind of food: a cone-shaped offering made of bread.

The pyramidion was intended to be a miniature reproduction of the pyramid, making it equal to the monument itself in symbolic importance.

A few pyramidia have been retrieved from pyramidal complexes.

The earliest, found in Dahshur, is undoubtedly a good example of Old Kingdom's pyramidia; it is made of limestone and has no inscriptions.

Some engraved pyramidia were recovered from private funerary chapels. Their inscriptions all related to the solar symbolism of the benben.

(Behind the Scenes)

The pyramidia of the pyramids of Giza were never recovered. The reconstitution you see in the game is fictive, incorporating a golden pyramidion bearing inscriptions relevant to Khufu.

大金字塔的秘密The Secrets of the Great Pyramid编辑

Built around 2550 BCE, the Great Pyramid of Giza is considered one of the most iconic structures of Egypt.

It is the biggest of the pyramids, and the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing.

The numbers associated to the Great Pyramid of Giza are impressive: a workforce of over 20 000 people, six million tons of stone, and twenty years of construction.

lt was a massive undertaking for a pharaoh's tomb.

The construction of the Great Pyramid was also a display of power and opulence on the part of Khufu. Itis part of the pharaoh's vast funerary complex, which also includes two temples, three satellite pyramids, a causeway and a builders' necropolis.

We can guess that the intent behind the construction of these monuments was Khufu's way of declaring himself one of the most powerful pharaohs to rule a unified Egypt.

New insights into engineering and ancient Egyptian culture are still being revealed over 4500 years later.

For example, a recently unearthed papyrus offers a glimpse into the life of a tradesman at the time of the pyramid's construction.

Also, a logbook belonging to a team leader during the building gives details on the craftsmen, their work schedules and the raw materials required.

It is interesting to note that by Cleopatra's time, the pyramid's celestial purpose, its construction and the function of its mysterious inner chambers was already unclear.

Today, it is only through dedicated research that we have begun to grasp some of the Great Pyramid's mysteries.

The Egyptians had polished their design for centuries by the time work on the Great Pyramid began.

Intended as a tomb for Khufu, the Great Pyramid's structural design has been considered to be nearly perfect by engineers and historians ever since.

Precisely oriented north-south to the four cardinal points of a compass, the length of each side of the Great Pyramid at its base was 230 meters, and its original height was 147 meters.

The pyramid is a mere .05 percent error away from being a perfect square.

In order to achieve the shape of a true pyramid, the design required many considerations in the planning phases, as well as precision during execution.

lt was especially critical that they control the angle of inclination on all sides at every stage of construction.

Materials for the Great Pyramid consisted of quarried limestone blocks, weighing between 2 to 15 tons each.

The methods of moving these blocks into place is still debated by architects and Egyptologists.

The precision of its design in an age with only soft metal tools, as well as the enormous scale of its construction, make the Great Pyramid one of the most impressive feats of human engineering.

It's estimated that it took between 600 000 and 2 million blocks of stone to build the Great Pyramid.

Experts calculate it would have required men to move twelve blocks every hour around the clock for twenty years to place the 2.3 million stones the monument is made of.

While the interior chambers were built with red granite from Aswan, most of the pyramid was made from local limestone, weighing between 2 to 15 tons per block.

There is debate on how the pyramid stones were moved into place. Recent research is exploring the idea that it was built around a large interior ramp.

The recently discovered logbook confirms that the high quality limestone of the outer casing was brought by boat across the Nile, from a quarry in Turah.

Once complete, the smooth white polished stone of the Great Pyramid woutd've reflected the sunlight Like a beacon, earning it the name “The Horizon of Khufu".

Over the centuries, thieves and travelers attempted to access the Great Pyramid numerous times.

Ancient writings describe details of its interior, proof that some made their way within, though who gained entrance first, and when, is unknown.

The main entrance of the Great Pyramid is located 17 meters above ground level. It faces north, likely in order to align with the North Star.

Though the entrance passageway had been discovered in antiquity, any further access into the Great Pyramid was stopped by massive vertical slabs of rock.

As such, present-day visitors to the pyramid must use the Robbers' Entrance.

(Behind the Scenes)

The Robbers' Entrance is reported to have been opened in the 9th century by Caliph Al-Ma'mun. In search of treasure, the Caliph had his men dig their way inside the Great Pyramid.

The most likely scenario is that they enlarged a corridor which had been created by tomb robbers during antiquity. As such, this is how the team can justify access to this wonder.

Attempts to gain entry to the Great Pyramid and uncover its potential secrets continued throughout the centuries.

In the 19th century, the belief that another entry existed at the south side resulted in a hole being blasted into the pyramid's side, with no results for the damage that was done.

While the search is still ongoing today to uncover more hidden rooms and passageways, conservation is the primary concern of all such efforts.

大金字塔,地下墓室The Great Pyramid: Subterranean Chamber编辑

From the original entrance of the Great Pyramid there is a passage leading to the subterranean chamber.

lts walls were carved out of the existing rock of the plateau and then covered in a fine unmarked limestone.

The descending passage has a steep 26-degree downward slope. Narrow and with a low ceiling, this pathway is long and challenging.

(Behind the Scenes)

While the original passage was 145 meters long, the team reduced its length, and made it both wider and higher.

The main focus of the work in reproducing the location was centered upon preserving the unique claustrophobic environment of the Great Pyramid, while still allowing for a smooth game navigation.

The well shaft was a 58-meter vertical passage that connected the descending corridor to the Grand Gallery above.

An adjacent grotto may have originally been a small natural well in the bedrock that was enlarged during the tunneling.

Whether the grotto was intended for another purpose is uncertain.

There is much speculation over the purpose of the well shaft.

One theory is that the channel was cut or enlarged to supply air to workers in the descending passage.

Another is that it was meant to provide an exit route once the work was done in the heart of the pyramid. Without the well shaft, workers would have been trapped inside forever when the Grand Gallery was sealed.

The opening at the bottom of the well shaft was most likely sealed by exiting workers to camouflage the passageway.

There is a subterranean chamber at the end of the descending corridor, 30 meters below the Giza plateau's surface.

Dug directly into the bedrock, the space is wide with a ceiling three meters in height. Its floors and walls are rough and uneven, indicating that it was never completed.

At the south end of the room there is another narrow corridor, similar to the others, though it abruptly ends after roughly 20 meters.

(Behind the Scenes)

The chamber also contains an 11-meter pit near the east side. It's unclear what this may have been used for.

In the game, this well Leads to a fictive underground complex, containing key game-related mysteries.

The subterranean chamber's original purpose remains a mystery.

One popular theory is that it was originally meant to be Khufu's burial chamber. But the pharaoh changed his mind, preferring to be buried higher up in the pyramid, which would explain the chamber's unfinished state.

大金字塔,上层墓室The Great Pyramid of Giza: Upper Chambers编辑

At the entrance of the ascending passage are three granite flagstones estimated to weigh up to 25 tons each. They were used to protect the Great Pyramid from thieves.

Undaunted by the granite blocks, the thieves simply dug into the softer limestone around them, thus creating the Robbers' Entrance.

(Behind the Scenes)

While in reality the Robbers' Entrance is one single cavity which leads to both passages, in the game, the team created individual accesses to either passage.

As such, in the game, one entrance leads to the ascending passage, while another leads to the descending passage.

The ascending passageway of the Great Pyramid provides a direct path into the Grand Gallery, and is accessed 30 meters from the entrance along the descending corridor.

Both corridors have similar dimensions and are designed with the same 26-degree incline.

The ascending corridor has smooth masonry on its walls, and the layout includes many trapezoidal stones.

Bath the ftoor and ceiling of the passageway indicate that the passage was enlarged, possibly during or after the funeral, to allow workers room to move granite blocks meant to plug the corridor.

The Grand Gallery's purpose is still debated among experts.

It may have been intended to align with the stars, act as a buffer to protect the King's Chamber or simply to facilitate the transport of the granite blocks used inside the pyramid.

Access to the Queen's Chamber was at the beginning of the Grand Gallery.

Though this room is referred to as the Queen's Chamber, it is believed that there was no queen buried here.

Based on their knowledge of earlier pyramids, Egyptologists believe it was more likely intended as the king's serdab, a chamber meant to contain the ka statue, which would in turn house the king's spirit.

Situated exactly within the pyramid's center, on the east-west axis of the pyramid, the chamber has a vaulted ceiling and measures 5.7 by 5.2 meters.

In the eastern wall there is a niche, tucked away in a small corbelled archway, which may have originally held the ka statue.

Behind this niche is another smaller hole, possibly dug out by thieves in search of further treasure.

In the 19th century, two shafts were found running through the north and south walls.

They each run in a horizontal line for 2 meters before sloping upward, and both are closed off with limestone blocks fitted with copper handles.

Whether they were intended as ventilation shafts for workers or a celestial connection for the pharaoh's spirit is unconfirmed.

A recent scan of the room indicated the presence of an unknown cavity hidden behind the north face of the walls over the descending corridor.

Further investigation is still ongoing, to ascertain the nature of the anomaly so as to avoid risking damage to the monument.

Khufu's architects were possibly influenced by earlier rhomboidal pyramids when designing the Gallery.

Itis the longest corbelled vault ever built, measuring 47 meters Long and 8.60 meters high. The walls were made to taper inward, allowing for better distribution of weight. As a result, the ceiling measures just over a meter wide at its highest point.

Though this construction technique is present in other pyramids, few have the same precision and stability.

While the space is visually dramatic, the Gallery seemed to serve a practical function, though what exactly remains uncertain.

Stilt, the wall design was undoubtedly meant to contribute to the stability of the structure, and its floor may have helped workers move the materials.

A channel runs along the middle of the room. A movable floor originally rested in this central recess. The raised benches on either side are equipped with slots that may have been used to help position the granite blocking stones.

Atthe end of the Grand Gallery is the entrance to the antechamber leading to the King's Chamber.

Directly above, there is another narrower horizontal passage that connects to the top of the King's Chamber, and allowed the workers access to the weight relief rooms.

The far end of the Grand Gallery leads to a small antechamber, with a portcullis preventing access to the King's Chamber.

The portcullis was composed of three separate granite slabs. They were designed to be lowered into place, and seal the chamber after the burial of the king.

The grooves dug out to hold the slabs in place are still clearly visible to this day. The elaborate locking system was composed of a series of grooves for the ropes and pulleys that dropped the stones into place, like the notches on a key.

(Behind the Scenes)

For the purposes of the game, the team elected to remove the portcullis slabs in order to grant the player access to the King's Chamber.

In reality, workers would've backed out of the room after the funeral, Lowering each slab into place behind them one at a time.

Each of the three stones were smashed by looters centuries later, and evidence of their break-in is still evident.

The King's Chamber is built entirely out of red granite.

The King's Chamber measures 5.8 meters in height. It has an imposing cover of five stacked levels above, with granite beams weighing 25 to 40 tons each.

The uppermost Level is surmounted by a vault of stones, arranged in chevrons to bear the enormous structural load.

As in the Queen's Chamber, two shafts extend out from the room towards the north and south faces of the pyramid. They measure nearly 64 meters until they are blocked by copper-handled granite plugs.

Some experts in the culture of the Old Kingdom believe that the shafts were thought to lead the king's soul to the stars, with the incarnation of the pharaoh as the god Ra represented by the northern well, and the god Horus by the southern well.

There is a granite sarcophagus at the west end of the room, but it is the concealed construction inscriptions left by workmen on the roof's stones which verify this as the resting place of Khufu.

The sarcophagus was recorded as being empty when it was discovered, and its design indicates that there was once a lid in place. It's possible that this sarcophagus is only a cenotaph in memory of the Pharaoh, but was never actually meant to recieve the body.

Khufu's mummy was never found. It is hoped that as of yet undiscovered hidden rooms and shafts of the pyramid may provide an answer as to its location.


尚皮耶-胡丹的推论Jean-Pierre Houdin's Theories编辑

(Behind the Scenes)

The team wanted to provide players with a sense of exploration and discovery, particularly within the Great Pyramid.

As such, a decision was made that the internal design of the monument in the game would reflect Jean-Pierre Houdin's theories.

While the antechambers of the king's tomb have yet to be discovered, Houdin posits that this is merely due to a unique design placing the pharaoh's tomb at the center of the pyramid.

The entire tour you are about to take was designed along Houdin's hypotheses.

(Behind the Scenes)

While respecting Houdin's hypothesis as to the general layout of the antechambers, the team wanted the contents to enhance the game experience.

In regular royal tombs the antechambers were filled with all the material goods needed by the pharaoh in the afterlife.

To support the feelings of discovery and awe, the art team created a unique and fantastical treasure in this second antechamber.

(Behind the Scenes)

Houdin theorized that the ascending corridor and the Great Gallery were used by the workers to haul hoist the heavy beams above the king's chamber. He called it the Service Circuit.

The corridor you are in now was created by the team following Houdin's theory, and is referred to as the Noble Circuit.

Itis through this corridor that the wooden sarcophagus containing the pharaoh's mummy would have been transported to its final resting chamber.

(Behind the Scenes)

With this structure in mind, one can easily assume that the pyramid's entrance would have been connected to the two antechambers.

Modern research has revealed that a cavity might be located behind the north face chevrons of the pyramid.

As such, the team chose to create this area for the player to explore.

Here is where Houdin believes that the priests and nobles would have exited the pyramid after the burial ceremony.

(Behind the Scenes)

Many theories regarding the construction of the Great Pyramid rely on the usage of external ramps.

However, Houdin believes an external ramp would have been too steep for the upper portion of the pyramid.

This is why he posits that there were two ramps: an external ramp for about half of the height of the pyramid, which then became an internal ramp for the second half.

(Behind the Scenes)

Houdin's theory states that this internal ramp followed the sides of the pyramid in an ascending spiral pattern.

A notch discovered in the edge of the Great Pyramid known as Bob's Room seems to support this theory.

Located at the corners of each edge of the pyramid, these large rooms would have allowed workers to turn the stone by 90 degrees, allowing them to continue the ascent.

The team chose to create rooms such as this one, bringing Houdin's hypothesis to life.

(Behind the Scenes)

This long corridor was the first section of the ascending internal ramp.

Through it, the blocks used to build the Great Pyramid would have been carefully moved upward, and then turned at each edge of the pyramid in order to continue their ascent.

Though the team only created the main ramp for the game, Houdin posits that this ramp had two levels, allowing workers to return safely to the bottom thanks to an additional corbelled upper section.

(Behind the Scenes)

According to Houdin, the start of the inner ramp was located at the base of the southeastern face of the pyramid.

This location would have been the junction point of the external and internal ramps.

Below us, workers would have built the lower part of the pyramid with the external ramp, before eventually switching to the internal ramp for the middle and upper sections of the pyramid.

At that time in the process, they could have reused the material of the external ramp to fill the center of the pyramid, hauling the stones in through the internal ramp.

哈夫拉的墓葬群Khafre's Funerary Complex编辑

Since the very beginning of the 4th dynasty, mortuary temples were built adjacent to pyramids, on the eastern side.

Such a location, facing the rising sun as well as the world of the living as a whole, held an important symbolic meaning, for it was within the mortuary temple that kings were revived through daily rituals.

In its standard form, a mortuary temple was divided into two parts: a front area which consisted of a vestibule and a courtyard, and an area in the back, where all sacred elements were located.

The back of the temple incorporated several essential features, including an inner sanctuary with a false door, which allowed the soul of the pharaoh to travel between the world of the dead and the world of the living.

The largest of all such structures, Khafre's mortuary temple, was entirely built with megalithic blocks of limestone from a nearby quarry, and encased with granite.

Parts of Khafre's mortuary temple, particularly the courtyard walls, are thought to have been decorated with splendid reliefs. However, not a single image of the king has been discovered inside the mortuary temple.

Khufu's direct successor, Djedefre, followed the custom which required each king to establish a new site for their funerary accommodation, and chose Abu Rawash as his last resting place. When the time came to build his own funerary complex, Khafre, also one of Khufu's sons and the successor to Djedefre, broke with tradition, and returned to Giza.

Not only did Khafre thumb his nose at tradition, but he did so in a way which he hoped would allow him to overshadow his father's most important monument.

Though Khafre's pyramid is smaller than Khufu's, it was cunningly built on a more elevated bedrock layer than the Great Pyramid, making it appear higher than any other pyramid at Giza.

Today, Khafre's pyramid is the only one among the three at Giza that still has the upper part of its limestone casing.

Considered a most sacred area, the Giza necropolis was strictly defined, both geographically and physically.

An 8-meter thick Turah limestone wall completely surrounded the Great Pyramid. The only way inside would have been through the mortuary temple.

From the reign of Sneferu and onwards, the subsidiary pyramid became a common feature within the pyramidal complex.

The function of the subsidiary pyramid however, smaller in size and in height than the royal tomb, remains unclear, though some believe that it was meant to house the ka of the pharaoh.

In mainstream media, the ka is often defined as the soul of the deceased.

The truth is a bit more complicated. Within the ancient Egyptian funerary belief system, the ka was a component of a living person, which separated itself from the body at the time of death. It represented the deceased's vital essence.

In order for the deceased to ascend to a new life, whether in this world or the next, the ka had to be embodied in a statue, and its existence maintained through offerings and rituals.

Within Khafre's subsidiary pyramid, a wooden box containing pieces of cedar was discovered by archaeologists. When reassembled, it turned out to be a shrine mounted on a sled.

Just as with the solar barges found around Khufu's pyramid, it seems Khafre's shrine and sled were ritually disposed of after his funeral.

孟卡拉的墓葬群Menkaure's Funerary Complex编辑

DTAE Pyramid of Menkaure Sepulchral

Sepulchral Chamber, Third Pyramid, by Howard-Vyse & Perring / 1840

The dimensions of Menkaure's pyramid are much less grandiose. However, unlike its predecessors, Menkaure's pyramid shows a great deal of complexity in its internal and external finish.

The outside was partially covered in red granite, while the internal walls were richly decorated. This latter innovation would not catch on until the end of the 5th dynasty, when pyramid texts began to adorn the walls.


DTAE Section through Menkaure's Pyramid

Section Through Centre of Third Pyramid, by Howard-Vyse & Perring / 1840

Menkaure's pyramid contains two sloping passages, both located in the northern side of the structure.

The upper one was abandoned during the construction phase, whereas the lower one, slightly above the base of the monument, constitutes the real entrance.

The lower passage leads to a first room, which, for the first time since the reign of Djoser, is decorated with engraved false doors.


DTAE Seated Statue of King Menkaure

Seated Statue of King Menkaure

While Menkaure's pyramid complex was unfinished at the time of his death, it was hastily, and somewhat shabbily, completed by his successor, Shepseskaf.

Even so, this funerary structure marks a watershed in the history of this kind of monument. From then onwards, the pyramid shrank, whereas the mortuary temple expanded both in its quantitative and qualitative aspects.

Of particular note, it is within Menkaure's mortuary temple that one can find the heaviest block of limestone ever used for a pyramid complex, weighing in at over 200 tons.


DTAE Pyramid Complex of Menkaure

Pyramid of Gizeh (detail)

Menkaure's causeway was completed in mud-brick by the king's successor, whereas the lower part was nothing more than a simple ramp.

As for the valley temple, it was built in two phases: the foundations were first laid out in limestone during Menkaure's reign, but the temple itself was completed in mud-brick afterwards.

As such, the valley temple was soon damaged and ended up being completely rebuilt during the 6th dynasty.


DTAE Pyramid of Menkaure - Queens' Pyramids

View of the Pyramids South of Third Pyramid, by Howard-Vyse & Perring / 1840

Three small structures referred to as Menkaure's Queens' Pyramids, were erected along the southern side of the main pyramid. One of them was a smooth-faced pyramid, while the other two were more basic step pyramids.

Itis difficult to assess whether the latter were designed as such or were left unfinished, with no casing to smooth out their surfaces.


DTAE Queen Pyramid Entrance

Entrance to the 4th and 5th Pyramids (Queens), by Howard-Vyse & Perring / 1840

The easternmost pyramid was built with the traditional rooms and corridors found within a satellite pyramid meant to house the King's ka. However, a granite sarcophagus was found within, Leading to the conclusion that it was used as an actual tomb rather than as a symbolic cenotaph.

Drawing on these observations, some assume that this pyramid was first built as a satellite pyramid for the king's ka, before seeing its purpose change to that of a queen's tomb.

Which queen, however, remains a mystery.


亚历山大编辑

希腊法老The Greek Pharaohs编辑

Learn about the founding of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

DTAE Relief - Ptolemy VIII Offering to Amun

Relief: Ptolemy VIII making an offering of maat to Amun

Pharaohs were considered divine incarnations of the gods. As an avatar of the gods living on earth, the pharaoh's role was to preserve fundamental values and universal harmony by removing chaos, isfet, and ensure that justice, maat, prevailed.

The pharaoh, by divine ancestry and through multiple offerings, was the bond that unites the world of men to the world of the gods and allows the maintenance of the cosmic order.

DTAE Ptolemaic dynasty portraits

New presentation in July 2010, row of "dynastic portraits" in the corridor of Pan

The Ptolemaic dynasty reigned over Egypt from 305 BCE to 30 BCE.

The dynasty was called the Ptolemies of the Lagides in recognition of the founder of the Dynasty, Ptolemy Lagos, a Greek general and close friend of Alexander the Great.

While Macedonian, Ptolemy Lagos understood that to be accepted by the Egyptian people, he would have to adopt their traditions. Upon assuming the title of pharaoh he changed his name to Ptolemy I Soter, meaning "savior."

DTAE Alexander the Great Mosaic

Battle of Issus between Alexander and Darius III

Born in 356 BCE, Alexander the Great went through a hasty education in the affairs of the kingdom before integrating into the Macedonian army, where he quickly rose through the ranks.

After his father's assassination in 336 BCE, which some believed was orchestrated by Alexander himself, he became king of Macedonia.

Ruler of a unified kingdom and leader of a large army, Alexander set his sights on conquest. Eager to reclaim Greek cities of Asia Minor, he took on the Persian forces, earning victory after victory.

DTAE Block with Cartouche

Block with cartouche of Alexander the Great or his son Alexander IV of Macedon

Ever victorious, Alexander the Great marched on, laying siege to city after city, until he reached Egypt, where the Persians were defeated yet again.

Viewed as a liberator by the Egyptian people, Alexander decided to become pharaoh in blue form. He traveled to Thebes to make a sacrifice to Apis, then went to the oasis of Siwa, where he was proclaimed son of Ammon.

Officialy pharaoh of Egypt, Alexander spent much of the winter there, and founded the city of Alexandria.

Perhaps not coincidentally, being pharaoh allowed Alexander to spread propaganda to prepare further conquests. He resumed his military campaigns in 331 BCE.

DTAE Ptolemy I Bust

Ptolemy I

On his deathbed in 323 BCE, Alexander the Great gifted the satrapy of Egypt to Ptolemy Lagos.

Perfectly aware of the value of Egypt, Ptolemy ensured not only the stability of the country's borders, but also its economic and military development. At the same time, he worked with the Egyptian elite to maintain the interal order of the country.

By 305 BCE, Ptolemy, well respected both in Egypt and in the Mediterranean, was at the head of the largest fleet of the Hellenistic world.

Ptolemy officially took the title of pharaoh of Egypt in January 304 BCE, on the anniversary of Alexander the Great's death.

DTAE Alexander's Tomb - Jean Claude Golvin

Alexander's Tomb

Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BCE. His remains were placed first in a solid gold sarcophagus, and then within another.

The casket was carried in a an ornate custom wagon, glided and set with precious stones and pulled by sixty-four mules crowned in gold. The funeral procession was diverted to a grandiose temple in Alexandria built in the conqueror's honor, under the orders of Ptolemy I.

DTAE Augustus at the Tomb of Alexander

Augustus at the Tomb of Alexander

Julius Caesar visited Alexander's tomb at the capture of Alexandria, and the Roman Emperor Augustus reported placed flowers there.

However, though many powerful leaders claimed to have visited it, the tomb's location has gone missing from history.

Some accounts do state that the golden coffin was replaced by a glass sarcophagus, probably by Ptolemy X. It is also implied that Cleopatra may have plundered the tomb in a time of financial crisis.

克里奥帕特拉,埃及女王Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt编辑

Learn about Cleopatra, the last of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs.

DTAE Bust of Cleopatra

Head of Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE) / 1st century BCE

Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator ascended the throne in 51 BCE, at the age of eighteen. Though her early attempts to maintain power were often challenged, she eventually prevailed, and became the sole ruler of Egypt.

According to Plutarch, she was the only Ptolemaic pharaoh to speak the Egyptian language. Her intelligence, coupled with a good education and a great political mind, allowed her to make the alliances necessary to maintain the independence of Egypt while Rome was becoming a Mediterranean empire.


DTAE Alleged statue of Cleopatra VII

(Probably) Cleopatra VII / Greco-Roman Era

It is important to understand that Cleopatra's knowledge of Egyptian language and keen understanding of Egyptian language and keen understanding of the culture allowed her to make powerful ideological referents that resonated with ancient Egyptians.

By associating herself with the goddess Iset, the divine mother, great of magic and repository of divine essence, Cleopatra firmly established herself as the Protector of the Two Lands, and legitimized her place on the throne.


DTAE Tetradrachm of Ptolemy XIII

Mint: Tetradrachm of Ptolemy XIII / Ptolemaic Era

Upon his death in 51 BCE, Ptolemy XII Aulos bequeathed his kingdom to his daughter and eldest son: Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII.

As was custom, the siblings were married. The new pharaoh was 10 years old, his sister-wife 17.

The early years of their reign were not easy. Between 50 and 48 BCE, droughts and floods aggravated Egypt's problems. General Achillas and the royal advisor Potheinos kept intervening in the young rulers' political decisions, and eventually colluded to turn Ptolemy XIII against Cleopatra.

By 48 BCE, Cleopatra was in exile.


DTAE Bust of Pompey

Pompey / Roman Empire Era

During Cleopatra's exile, the Roman empire was not without its own internal conflict. Caesar and Pompey were at war with one another, and after his defeat in 48 BCE, Pompey fled to Alexandria in the hope of finding refuge.

This turned out to be an unwise decision. Listening to his advisors, Ptolemy XIII elected to have Pompey assassinated, his head kept as a gift in the hopes of acquiring Caesar's favor.

This gambit backfired. Instead of earning approval, the murder of a Roman greatly angered Caesar.


DTAE Caear Restore Cleopatra to the Egyptian Throne - Pierre de Cortone

Caesar Returns Cleopatra to the Egyptian Throne

Cleopatra, aware of Caesar's anger against Ptolemy for the murder of Pompey, decided to take advantage of the situation.

She returned to Egypt in secret, hoping to establish an alliance with one of the most powerful men of the time.

Outside of the legend where she had herself smuggled into his quarters in a carpet, what exactly happened during that fateful meeting remains a mystery. However, Caesar seemed to see a better ruler for Egypt in Cleopatra than in her young and too-easily influenced brother.

Invoking Ptolemy XII's will, Caesar attempted to mediate peace between the siblings.


DTAE Cleopatra Coinage

Coin; Ruler: Cleopatra the Great / Reign of Cleopatra

Ptolemy XIII was enraged by the turn of events, and his advisors were none too happy to see Cleopatra return. Urged on by General Achillas and Potheinos, the young Pharaoh plotted against Caesar and Cleopatra, resulting in the siege of Alexandria in 47 BCE.

It was in March 47 BCE that Caesar defeated Ptolemy XIII's forces. The young pharaoh drowned in the Nile after having fled the battlefield.

With her opponents dead or powerless, Cleopatra married her other much younger brother, Ptolemy XIV, and finally claimed the throne of Egypt for good.


DTAE Temple of Athor - Cleopatra & Caesarion

Denderah, Tentyris - Temple of Athor... Cleopatra & Caesarion / circa 1851

In June of 47 BCE, Cleopatra gave birth to a son, whom she called Caesarion. Caesar did not accept the boy as his heir, choosing instead his nephew, Octavian.

Nonetheless, on his return to Rome, Caesar invited the queen and her brother-husband to stay in the city. Her presence still drew much disapproval from the senate.

Always a strategist, Caesar left four legions in Egypt, and a man he trusted to direct Egyptian affairs, giving him control of the wheat supplies essential to Rome.

Cleopatra and her entourage remained in Rome until March 44 BCE, when Caesar was murdered.


DTAE Mark Antony at Cleopatra's Feast

Mark Antony at Cleopatra's Feast / Modern era

Caesar's most faithful ally, Mark Antony, often visited the queen of Egypt during his stay in Rome. Unlike most, he recognized the legitimacy of Caesarion, the natural son of Caesar.

Antony knew he would need the riches of Egypt, in order to fight OCtavian and claim the Roman Empire.

Cleopatra, in return, saw a powerful ally. In the winter of 41 BCE, she arranged a sumptuous tour of Egypt by boat, to show Antony the wealth of her country and the power she held as its ruler.

A romantic and political relationship followed. The Roman senate was once against most displeased. To calm spirits in Rome, Antony married Octavia, sister of Octavian.


DTAE Tetradrachm of Cleopatra and Mark Antony

Tetradrachm; Portrait of Queen Cleopatra VII (& Mark Antony) / Reign of Cleopatra

Despite his marriage to Octavia, Antony remained Cleopatra's lover, and she gave birth to their children.

Cleopatra increased her kingdom's territory, and started a political propaganda alongside her lover, in Egypt and beyond. She hoped to create a Ptolemaic federal empire, with Alexandria at its center.

Antony eventually repudiated his Roman wife for the Egyptian queen, much to the dismay of the Roman elite.

However, while Mark Antony focused on Egypt, Octavian carefully gained military and political ascendency over him in Rome.


DTAE Head of Cleopatra VII

(Probably) Head of Cleopatra VII / Ptolemaic Era

Octavian managed his own propaganda campaign, and succeeded. The Roman people hated Mark Antony and Cleopatra. To avoid the censure still inherent in attacking a fellow Roman, Octavian simply declared war against Egypt.

Rome's power still reigned supreme. The powerful Egyptian fleet, led by Cleopatra as well as Mark Antony's forces, were defeated in 31 BCE in Actium.

Octavian arrived in Egypt in 30 BCE, to formalize his victory.

Louis-Marie Baader - Death of Cleopatra

Death of Cleopatra, by Louis-Marie Baader

The following events remain difficult to confirm, due to the many versions and legends around them.

It is believed that after hearing a rumur about Cleopatra's suicide, Mark Antony commited suicide himself. He was brought to the queen, as he slowly passed away.

Knowing that Octavian would have her chained and paraded through Rome in defeat, Cleopatra planned her own suicide.

She most likely killed herself with arsenic, though admittedly the version where she uses an asp to deliver a fatal bite may be considered more dramatic.

What happened to the body of Cleopatra is still a mystery...


亚历山大围城The Siege of Alexandria编辑

Learn about the siege of Alexandria, from Julius Caesar's perspective.

DTAE Civil War by Julius Caesar - 1574 Edition

Civil War, by Julius Caesar (edition of 1574)

Among the collection of writings attributed to Julius Caesar are his descriptions of the siege of Alexandria, the "Gallic Wars" and the "Commentaries on the Civil War".

These archives contain information on different campaigns: the Wars of Alexandria, Africa and Spain. Each of them recount Caesar's military activity from 58 BCE to 45 BCE.

Though Caesar's documents remain a main source of information, it's important to note that the perspective is limited. It is necessary for other historical documents to be taken into consideration to provide a better understanding of events.


DTAE Alexandria Palace Cape Lochias - Jean Claude Golvin

Alexandria Palace Cape Lochias

The siege of Alexandria closely relays the events of the Civil War that lead up to the event, and describes how Caesar was besieged in the palace of the Ptolemies.

other ancient authors have left equally valuable, and sometimes contradictory, information.

DTAE Death of Pompei

Death of Pompei

In the events leading up to the siege of Alexandria, Cleopatra VII and her brother were fighting over control of Egypt. Young king Ptolemy XIII's regent, Potheinos had firm control over the young pharaoh, and an oumaneuvered Cleopatra soon went into hiding.

This set the stage for Pompey's arrival in Alexandria. Having lost his battle against Caesar in 48 BCE, the Roman general turned to his allies the Egyptians for safe harbor.

But, on the advice of Potheinos, Ptolemy XIII had Pompey assassinated in the hopes of earning Caesar's favor.


ACO Caesar in Alexandria - Concept Art

Caesar in Alexandria

Upon his arrival in Alexandria, Caesar was presented with Pompey's head. The sight of a Roman murdered by Egyptians did not sit well with him.

Caesar made his displeasure clear, ordering the return of Cleopatra, and for the siblings to resolve their differences and resume their co-rule of Egypt, as per the will of their father.

Neither Potheinos nor Potlemy XIII wished to accede to this demand. While doing his best to ggravate Caesar, Potheinos secretly plotted against the Roman ruler, and sent word for Egyptian general Achillas to bring his 20 000 men to fight on his behalf.

While Potheinos plotted against Caesar, Cleoptra made a bold move.


ACO Cleopatra meets Caesar - Concept Art

Cleoptra meets Caesar

There are various descriptions of the encounter between Caesar and Cleopatra.

One report states that she snuck into the palace alone at night. Another account claims she was accompanied by an ally, and was brought inside the palace wrapped in a carpet bag.

Though exactly what happened at this fateful meeting is up for debate, what is known is that Cleopatra met with Caesar, and earned his approval.

Potheinos and Ptolemy XIII were most vexed with this turn of events.


ACO Ptolemy in Alexandria Concept Art - Martin Deschambault

Ptolemy / 2016 / Art by Martin Deschambault / Ubisoft

With Cleopatra finally present, Caesar chose to act as mediator between the silblings, in the hopes of a peaceful resolution.

It did not take long for things to sour. During a banquet given to celebrate the reconciliation, there was an assassination attempt on Caesar. It was the Roman leader's own barber who thwarted the attack.

Once it was revealed that the king's regent, Potheinos, had ordered the attack, Caesar had him executed. He then placed the young king under guard.


DTAE Ship Alexandria - Concept Art by Martin Deschambault

Ship entering in Alexandria / 2014 / Art by Martin Deschambault / Ubisoft

Caught within the palace with roughly 4000 troops and with the knowledge that the arrival of enemy forces was imminent, Caesar sent for help from Syria, Rhodes and Cilicia.

he ordered his men to dig a ditch around the palace and build a wall leading to the harbor. This would ensure Caesar's access to the sea.

When Egyptian general Achillas arrived in the city with 20 000 men, the battle for Alexandria began.


DTAE Siege of Alexandria - Concept Art by Natasha Tan

Siege of Alexandria / 2016 / Art by Natasha Tan / Ubisoft

With so few men at his disposal, Caesar could not risk a battle just yet. He sent ambassadors to Achillas, in the name of Ptolemy, to propose a truce.

Knowing that the orders did not come from the young king and angered by the pharaoh's imprisonment, Achillas had the messengers assassinated.

With Caesar confined within the palace, Achillas positioned his troops around the city. Skirmishes broke out throughout the streets of Alexandria, and went on for several days and nights.

Though they were outhumbered, Caesar's men were able to hold the enemy back. This prompted Achillas's next move: capture the Roman fleet stationed in the harbor.


DTAE Alexandria Ship Attack - Concept Art by Martin Deschambault

Alexandria ship attack / 2016 / Art by Martin Deschambault / Ubisoft

Although the palace offered protection, Losing the port meant the end of help and supplies. Caesar knew he had to protect the fleet.

While he and his troops succeeded in regaining control of the port, he knew it would be impossible to sustain.

Caesar ordered the burning of the ships. With passage back to the palace closed off, he headed for the Lighthouse of Alexandria.


DTAE Detailed overview of Alexandria

Overview of Alexandria [Detail] / 1995 / Jean-Claude Golvin

Fighting their way through the Egyptian troops, Caesar and his men eventually reached Pharos island. There they took refuge within the lighthouse.

With easy access to the open sea, Caesar was able to send messages to his allies requesting reinforcements and more supplies.

The island fort also allowed him to control access to the harbor by relying on the chains used by the Egyptians to control ship traffic to and from Alexandria's docks.


DTAE Ship firing fire arrows - Concept Art

Ship firing fire arrows / 2015 / Art by Martin Deschambault / Ubisoft

The exact chronology of events during the war in Alexandria remain imprecise. Conflicting accounts raise questions as to when, and even if, the Great Library of Alexandria was burned down at all.

One account states that during the fighting, docks and warehouses were burned and this was the fire that spread to the library.

In another account, when Achilias cut off the harbor, Caesar had to leave the safety of the palace to defend his ships. As the enemies battled across the port, their arsenals set ships ablaze and this destruction spread to the library.


DTAE Alexandria Center

Center of Alexandria / 2016 / Ubisoft

In either case, the Great Library was not completely destroyed. Experts point out that its location was too far from the harbor, and much later texts refer to the Great Library as being intact.

Warehouses near the harbor contained manuscript copies awaiting export, and itis more likely that these documents were destroyed, than the Great Library.

DTAE Gold Solidus of Theodosius I

Gold Solidus of Theodosius I (379-95) / circa 379-395

The destruction of the Great Library may have been due to a number of fires over the ages. Its end was probably closer to the 4th century CE when the Christian Emperor Theodosius I ordered the closure of all pagan temples.

While some documents survived after being moved away, it remains unclear just what knowledge may have been lost.


Where there are accounts of Achillas being in control of the battle against Caesar, it appears that instead Cleopatra's sister, siding with her brother, had him killed and put her ally Ganymedes in his place.

Ganymedes proved a valuable tactician for the Egyptian side. It was his idea to cut Caesar's access to the harbor thus trapping Caesar at the palace.

During the time of Ptolemy I, canals had been dug throughout Alexandria to provide fresh water.

Ganymedes had his men take control of these canals. After isolating their own water supply, he had his men pour salt water into the canals and cisterns that lead to Caesar's camp.

DTAE Ship Chase - Concept Art

Ship chase / 2015 / Art by Raphael Lacoste / Ubisoft

Panic erupted in Caesar's men. They wouldn't last long without fresh water. Recognizing that the porous limestone could help them, Caesar and his men dug wells to restore their water supply.

Days later, the 37th Legion, comprised of Pompey's soldiers, arrived by ship. Unable to come ashore due to the winds, Caesar risked going out to meet them on the peninsula, Cape Chersonese.

When the enemy learned Caesar's location, they rushed to intercept.

Despite an obvious advantage for the Alexandrians, Caesar, with a Rhodian ship full of skillful sailors, emerged victorious.


DTAE Alexandria ship attack sketch

Alexandria ship attack sketch / 2016 / Art by Martin Deschambault / Ubisoft

With help from the allied ships, Caesar's victory enabled him to push the Egyptians back and secure the Lighthouse.

Gaining control of Pharos island sent the Alexandrians into the sea and swimming back to the city.

However, Caesar's fortification of the island didn't last long.

The enemy regrouped and were set to storm the island.

Panic-stricken, in spite of Caesar's encouragement, many of his men then fled their posts either by ship or jumping into the sea.


DTAE Julius Caesar - Concept Art by Vincent Gaigneux

Julius Caesar / 2015 / Art by Vincent Gaigneux / Ubisoft

Caesar attempted to retreat, but Port Eunostos' harbor was overrun with enemy ships preventing escape.

Reportedly, Caesar gathered his papers and leapt overboard in an attempt to swim to an allied ship farther out.

Historian Cassius Dio claimed that Caesar would've drowned if he hadn't been able to remove his purple garment. Still, he managed to swim the distance and survive.

The Alexandrians recovered the cloak and used it as a trophy to commemorate the Roman debacle.


Unhappy with Ganymedes and wanting their king restored, the Alexandrians approached Caesar with a compromise.

Caesar agreed to release Ptolemy XIII, after entreating him to spare the kingdom and remain loyal to Rome.

Once freed, however, the king defied the agreement and continued the war.

DTAE Pelusium - Jean-Claude Golvin

Pelusium / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

By this time, a faithful ally of Caesar's, Mithridates, arrived in Egypt, clashing with Ptolemy's troops at Pelusium.

Outnumbering the enemy, Mithridates secured the region between Pelusium and Alexandria.

Ptolemy, warned of Caesar's ally marching on Alexandria, sent his troops to prevent passage over the river.


DTAE Ptolemy's Death - Concept Art

Caesar defeats Ptolemy's forces / 2014 / Art by Martin Deschambault / Ubisoft

Mithridates warned Caesar in time, and the two groups confronted the armies of Ptolemy in the Delta.

In the Battle of the Nile, the Romans gained the upper hand, sending the Egyptians fleeing.

In the tumult and panic, King Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile.


DTAE Ptolemy Caesarion - Bas-relief

Ptolemy Caesarion - Bas-relief of Kalabsha Temple (Talmis) / 1850

After the siege ended, Cleopatra VIl married her younger brother, Ptolemy XIV, enabling her to reign over Egypt until 30 BCE.

Under her rule, Alexandria settled into its position within the Roman Empire, and eventually surpassed Athens as one of the most important cities in the Roman Empire.

Julius Caesar remained in Egypt for a short time. He and Cleopatra would later have a son, named Caesarion.


亚历山大介绍Introduction to Alexandria编辑

Learn about the city of Alexandria and the Canopic Way.

DTAE Alexander the Great Mosaic

Battle of Issus between Alexander and Darius III

After conquering Egypt in 331 BCE, Alexander the Great decided to build a new city, which, as per his habit, he named after himself.

After his death, Alexandria quickly became the capital city of the Ptolemaic kingdom, and the most importantly city of the Greek world.


DTAE Overview of Alexandria - Jean Claude Golvin

Overview of Alexandria / 1995 / Jean-Claude Golvin

The city was built between the Mediterranean sea and the Lake Mareotis, which resulted in Alexandria becoming a crucial cultural hub and trading center.


DTAE Alexandria Palace Cape Lochias - Jean Claude Golvin

Alexandria Palace Cape Lochias / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

Sumptuous buuildings could be seen wherever one turned their gaze: the royal palaces, the many temples, the gymnasium, lush public gardens, and large avenues.


DTAE Alexandria Center

Center of Alexandria / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

With its incomparable beauty and advantageous geographic location, Alexandria attracted foreigners, intellectuals and traders.

One of the most cosmopolitan city of the ancient world, Alexandria supplanted even Athens as the most important Greek city in history.


DTAE Obelisk Paris Concorde

Obelisk Paris Concorde / 2016 / Ubisoft

Egyptian obelisks were highly prized by Roman architects. While Roman design previously favored use of a single monument, Egyptian obelisks tended to come in pairs and were generally located at the entrance of temples.

Several ancient Egyptian obelisks are stillin existence today, though many are spread out across the world in locations such as Paris, Rome, New York and London.

All of this shows that Alexandria was significantly influenced by the rich past of Egypt.


DTAE Alexandria Canopic Road - Jean Claude Golvin

Alexandria, Canopic road / 1995 / Jean-Claude Golvin

Alexandria had several main streets. lts most famous artery was the Canopic Way.

It was lined with sumptuous buildings, houses and temples and was roughly 8 kilometers in length.

This street was one of the most important shipping entrances to Alexandria, and often hosted processions and festivals.


DTAE Alexandria Canopus - Concept Art

Alexandria, Canopus / 2016 by Martin Deschambault / Ubisoft

The width of the street, 30 meters, was abnormally large even by Greek standards.

This is likely because Canopic Way was made in a short span of time and based on an urban plan, as opposed to being slowly built over time as was usual for the era.


The Canopic Way originated in the western cemeteries, skirted the gymnasium, and then exited the city to head east through massive doorways towards Kanopos.

This structure was known as the Canopic Door.

亚历山大,一座城市的规划Alexandria: Planning of the City编辑

了解亚历山大城的设计与规划

DTAE Alexander the Great Mosaic

Battle of Issus between Alexander and Darius III

亚历山大建造他伟大城市的计划,源自于荷马著作奥德赛中的一个诗章。

“就在那埃及的前方,那汹涌的海中有座名为法罗斯的岛屿。”

收到这些线索的指引之下,亚历山大大帝将他的未来城市创建在尼罗河三角洲的西侧。


DT AE Site of Alexandria in the Nile

(Delta of) The Nile, Egypt (and site of Alexandria) / 2004

虽然亚历山大认为这是建造他为大城市的理想地点,这里却有着许多挑战。

像是沙尘暴期间难以接近,附近的沼泽有疾病的威胁,石灰岩土壤让农作物难以健康成长。

然而因为受到他的导师亚里士多德的影响,亚历山大大帝认同这里真正的价值是在于它的战略地位。

亚历山大知道如果控制东方的帕路修斯,南方的孟斐斯与他西方的王城亚历山大,他将能创造出一个让他掌控整个三角洲,又能够通往地中海的三角要塞。

DTAE Papyrus Marsh

Papyrus Marsh / 18th Dynasty

亚历山大的高墙也有个卑微的开端。

当初因为缺乏描绘未来城市根基的粉笔,建筑师被迫使用面粉来绘制。成群的候鸟飞下而吃掉了面粉,毁掉了蓝图。

这促使亚历山大去寻求神谕者们的指引,而他们很肯定地告诉大帝他这座未来城市注定会供养着巨大的人口。

DTAE Obelisk of Thutmosis III

View of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III Seen from the Walls of Alexandria

十九世纪时由“天文学家”马哈茂德·贝伊引领的挖掘队,揭露了城墙大约时5.2公里长,2.2公里宽。高度则大概是9米。

DT AE Alexandria Obelisks

Description of Egypt, (View of Alexandria and the Roman Tower) / 19th Century

这些令人仰慕的古老城墙未来会抵御多起攻击,其中包括了在公元前169年挡下了叙利亚国王。

直到公元295年这里才落入罗马皇帝戴克里先手中,而这也是在八个月无间断的攻击之后才达成。

DTAE Alexandria Center

Alexandria Center / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

作为亚历山大主要建筑师的狄诺克拉底,他选择了一个希波达莫斯的格状规划。

格状规划最大化了功能性,设有宽广的直路和流于其下的运河。亚历山大认可了城市设计中的军事价值。

宽广的平行道路是他监视城市的最佳选择,同时也让士兵能毫无阻碍的行军。

DTAE Overview of Alexandria - Jean Claude Golvin

Overview of Alexandria / 1995 / Jean-Claude Golvin

一条中央的道路从地中海那的北方港口,向下延伸到南方的马留提斯湖

这条道路被当作是两个港口之间商业贸易与旅行的畅行连结。

许多道路都被巨大的建筑与公园所包围,其中也包含了卡诺卜大道遗迹它在东侧尽头的壮观大门。

DTAE Rhakotis - Concept Art

Rhakotis / 2014 / Art by Martin Deschambault / Ubisoft

亚历山大很有可能是立基于一个本来就存在的埃及村庄。

随着它的完工,埃及人排斥这座城市,拒绝用它的建设者之名称呼。相对地,他们称之为“Raqed”,也就是“建筑”,以表示轻蔑,而这称呼后来被希腊化为“罗哈克提斯”。

即便如此,亚历山大这名字仍然留存下来。

亚历山大:商业中心Alexandria: A Commercial Hub编辑

Learn about the major economical role of Alexandria during ancient times.

The ports of Alexandria were a major commercial hub, effectively connecting Egypt with the Mediterranean regions and beyond.

À tremendous amount of materials and goods flowed through the city on a daily basis. The large port market was called the Emporion. It was there that the merchandise was traded by the ship owners, called naukleros.

Food and other artisan work streamed out of Egypt; ceramics, glass, golden rings and minted coinage. The local potters, using traditional Egyptian techniques, competed with those from abroad, and the textile industry flourished.

What Egypt did not produce itself was acquired through trade using local resources such as wheat and papyrus. Most sought after was pine wood from Syria, iron and marble from the Greek islands, gold from Spain, and exotic fruits from Europe.

All this commercial activity contributed to the already decadent wealth of the city.

The wood imported to Port Mareotis through Alexandria's seaward ports was used in the nearby shipyards, where most of Egypt's ships were built.

Employing tens of thousands of ship builders, the shipyards contributed to establishing the Egyptian fleet as one of the mightiest of the era.

Any wood not used in shipbuilding was further disseminated through Egypt for various purposes.

(Behind the scenes)

The southern port of Lake Mareotis was the biggest in Alexandria.

Save for a branch angling westward, the lake's size in the Ptolemaic era was roughly 40 to 50 kilometers, from north to south. Its waters were maintained by a steady runoff from the Nile.

In addition to the lake, a man-made canal was created to assist in the transfer of goods from the city to the port using barges, though it is not represented in the game due to its size.

Banking was one of the most distinctive innovations brought by the Greeks to Egypt.

The centerpiece of Alexandria's wealth was the royal systematisation of taxes on almost everything. Basic items such as salt, oil, beer, wheat and linen were heavily taxed.

Às a result, the royal treasury of Alexandria was able to insure the economic stability of most of the administrative areas of Egypt.

By the late 12th century, the channel feeding the lake from the Nile silted up. Lake Mareotis lost its connection to the Mediterranean as well as most of its water, as the lake slowly evaporated to a fraction of its former size.

In modern times Lake Mareotis is being kept alive through irrigation. However, only about 17% of its original size remains.

亚历山大,欢庆之城Alexandria, City of Celebration编辑

Learn about the various forms of entertainment that existed in Alexandria.

Like most Greek cities, Alexandria offered multiple forms of entertainment. Most were related to cults, religious practices and the festivities surrounding those practices.

Among those festivities, the most important ones were the dynastic celebrations instituted in honor of the deified Ptolemaic kings and queens.

These celebrations could go on for many days and included sacrifices, offerings, processions and public banquets.

Games and competitions were organized whenever possible in Locations such as the stadium, the hippodreme and the gymnasium.

The residents of Alexandria favored such events, where athletes, poets and musicians from Egypt and other cities of the Greek world competed.

(Behind the Scenes)

Like all good Greek cities, Alexandria had a theater.

The architecture of this structure is Roman in style. This is because the team duplicated a theater from Cyrene.

Roman theaters were usually semicircular and built from scratch on a flat area with structures designed to enhance oration.

Greek theaters were more oblong in shape, similar to a horseshoe and favored the slopes of natural hills to support their acoustics.

Atthe theater, one could witness the plays of contemporary, comic and tragic authors.

The play you are witnessing below is Menander's Dyskolos, more commonly known as The Grouch, a late and popular entry in the Greek comedies.

亚历山大的教育Education in Alexandria编辑

Learn how young Alexandrians were educated.

DTAE Painted 5th Century BCE Bowl

Bowl / 5th Century BCE

The education of young Alexandrians did not differ from the one generally dispensed elsewhere in Ancient Greece.

At the age of seven, the child was taken in charge by a tutor, who then became responsible for instilling an elementary education, as well as good moral principles.


DTAE Archaeological Site of Olmypia - Gymnasium

Archaeological Site of Olympia (Greece) [gymnasium] / 2007

Teaching was generally done outside, in the open air. In the gymnasium, students were taught not only sports, but also topics such as rhetoric, philosophy, music and poetry - all things deemed essential to ones' education at the time.


DTAE Vase - Dance Lesson

Vase (kalpis) depicting a dance lesson / 5th Century BCE

(Behind the scenes)

Here, both boys and girls are shown attending a class given by one of the rhetoricians of the era.

The team made the choice to show both genders attending class within the context of the game world. Even though it is historically innacurate, the team felt it was not necessary to prioritize historical sexism over inclusive gameplay.


亚历山大大图书馆The Great Library of Alexandria编辑

Discover the history of the greatest library in antiquity and learn about the great minds of the ancient world.

DTAE Alexandria Center (with library)

Alexandria Center (with library)

Near the district of royal palaces and within the Mouseion was the most famous library of all Antiquity.

The Library of Alexandria was built to house all of human knowledge.

At its pinnacle the library was believed to contain over 700,000 parchments.

DTAE Library of Celsus in Ephesus

Library of Celsus (Ephesus) / Roman Period

(Behind the scenes)

Throughout the centuries, fires and wars between Christianity and paganism destroyed the library, leaving nothing behind.

The loss of the building, and more importantly its vast collection, is immeasurable.

As no descriptions are available, the team's rendition of the Library of Alexandria was inspired by the visuals of the library of Celsus at Ephesus.

ACO Alexandria Library Concept Art

Library of Alexandria

While much of the collection was purchased at the government's expense, the library also obtained books through other means.

Any books owned by travelers coming through the city were seized to be copied for the library. The copy would then be returned to the owner and the original entered into the library's collection.

Plato's Academy mosaic

Plato's Academy mosaic

Alexandria offered unrivaled intellectual and cultural attractions. Eminent scholars from Athens, Rhodes and other Greek centers traveled to the city to learn and engage with other free thinkers.

Both the Mouseion and the Library were at the center of groundbreaking ideas, and creative expression.

DTAE Auditorium - Raphaëlle Deslandes

Auditorium

The great minds of antiquity were usually well versed in many disciplines, which were often associated with specific schools of thoughts. The Peripatetics, the Stoics and the Cynics were among the most well-known schools of the time.

It is clear that Alexandria lived up to its fundamental role as a city for intellectuals, nurturing many great minds whose impact reverberates through our modern world.

DTAE Statute of draped woman

Draped woman (Statuette found in Alexandra) / 3rd century BCE

Hypatia of Alexandria was a Greek mathematician, philosopher, astronomer and inventor.

Though born in Greece, she eventually migrated to Alexandria, like many great minds of the time. Itis there that she became the head of the Neoplatonist School of Alexandria.

From most accounts, she was highly respected by her fellow Alexandrians, both as a teacher and a philosopher.

With her death, the age of great ancient scientific discoveries came to an end.

DTAE Marble statue of draped man

Marble statue of a draped seated man (possibly Kallimachos) / 1st century BCE

Kaltimachos was born in Cyrene and educated in Athens. After his studies, he moved to Alexandria to work in the Great Library.

A poet and a critic, he strongly rejected the epic format of Homeric poems, and instead fervently supported a shorter, more judiciously formulated style of poetry.

His epigrams and elegiac poems were emulated by later poets. His work was extremely popular, second only to Homer's own works.

DTAE Potrait of Euclid

Euclid, founder of geometry, 300 BCE / 18th Century

It was in Alexandria that mathematician Euclid, the father of geometry, wrote The Elements, laying out the foundational work of what would become modern algebra and number theory.

Euclidean geometry would become one of the most influential systems in the evolution of mathematics.

DTAE Map of the World

Map of the world by Eratosthenes of Cyrene, circa 240 BCE / 1803

How do you calculate the circumference of the Earth? With a camel, two sticks and shadows cast by the sun.

This is what Eratosthenes of Cyrene, described in his principal work, Geography, while he was director of the Great Library of Alexandria.

He is credited for the invention of the armillary sphere, around 250 BCE.

DTAE Armillary sphere

Armillary sphere made by Jean-Baptiste Delure & Jean Pigeon, Dauphin's Chamber

The eartiest known and most complete armillary sphere of antiquity was the Meteoroskopion of Alexandria, with an imposing nine rings, compared to the three or four of most other astrolabes.

Known as the Zodiac Krikotoi amongst the Greeks, the Meteoroskopion was used to determine the location of celestial bodies around the Earth.

Every self-respecting astronomer of antiquity would have sought to use this tool to better understand the celestial movements.

DTAE Pythagoras teaching

The philosopher Pythagoras, shown teaching / 1463

Pythagoras of Samos was a well-known and respected philosopher and mathematician. He is best known for the Pythagorean theorem.

However, there is proof that the theorem existed in Babylonia and India long before Pythagoras was born, casting some doubts as to who exactly originated the theorem.

亚历山大的缪斯神殿The Mouseion of Alexandria编辑

Learn about the Mouseion of Alexandria and its function within the city.

The Mouseion was a sector of the city commissioned by Ptolemy |, to rival Athens' Academy as an institute of intellectual pursuit.

Dedicated to the nine inspiring Muses, the Mouseion became a great center for philosophical and scientific enlightenment. It welcomed scholars from many kingdoms, inviting them to share knowledge in literature, science and geography.

The Mouseion was designed so that its buildings and grounds would accommodate free thinking, debate and presentation.

Meeting spaces and theaters surrounded a main courtyard.

Expansive gardens were filled with exotic plants that aided in the study and supply of herbs and medicines. A zoo offered the study of animal behavior and physiology.

Also among the Mouseion's many star attractions was its astronomical observatory.

Herophilos was a physician who lived most of his life in Alexandria. He was able to perform the dissection of human cadavers on a large scale due to the permissiveness of the city in such matters.

Among many other discoveries, he learned that the brain was central to the human nervous system. He also extensively mapped the blood system and measured the pulse with the aid of a water clock.

It is reported that in his thirst to understand human anatomy, he performed 600 vivisection on five prisioners.

In order to be free to pursue their research, scholars were fed and housed at the Mouseion at the government's expense.

This freedom provided Alexandria's scholars a meeting space for intellectual pursuits, and a haven for spiritual peace.

Though nothing remains of the original Mouseion, it lives on as the legacy of our modern museums.

亚历山大的塞拉皮斯神殿The Serapeion of Alexandria编辑

Learn about the Serapeion of Alexandria and its function within the city.

DTAE Lageion and Serapeum

Lageion & Serapeum [Detail] - During the Roman era / Jean-Claude Golvin

In a city of numerous magnificent attractions, the Serapeion was considered to be the most beautiful temple of Alexandria.

Located southwest of the city on a small hill known as the Acropolis, the sanctuary was constructed during the reign of Ptolemy III, upon foundations which had existed since the reign of Ptolemy I Soter.


DTAE Serapeion Foundation plague

Foundation plague from the Serapeum in Alexandria / 221-204 BC

Visitors of the Serapeion climbed a hundred steps to reach the courtyard.

Libraries were installed in the porticoes surrounding the square building, with its roof and columns adorned with gold and gilded bronze. Pharaohs were generous to the temple, as were several Roman emperors after Egypt's conquest.

An inner temple housed the statue of Serapis, dedicated to healing the sick.


DTAE Bust of Serapis

Serapis bust with Kalathos from Alexandria, from the Serapeum / 2nd century BCE

Since the 26th dynasty, Greeks in Egypt had gradually integrated the Egyptian cult of the Apis bull to their own rituals.

With the establishment of the Ptolemaic dynasty, the cult of Apis was further integrated into Greek religion.

During his rule, Ptolemy I chose to merge Egyptian and Hellenic gods into a syncretic divinity named Serapis. This name was the result of the amalgamation of Osiris and Apis.

With this new deity, the Ptolemaic dynasty managed to accommodate similar belief sets for two different cultures, bringing about a new dynastic cult.


DTAE Pendant with Serapis, Isis and Harpocrates

Pendant with a scene with Serapis, Isis, a snake and Harpocrates

Serapis was also associated to other deities, including Asclepius, a Greek god of healing.

It is possible that as with the Serapis temple of Kanopos, the sick would visit this sanctuary, sleeping there overnight in the hopes of being healed within its hallowed halls.

法罗斯岛The Islands of Pharos编辑

Learn about the Islands of Pharos, and the monuments located on the islands.

DTAE Port of Alexandria - Jean-Claude Golvin

Alexandria - View from the Mediterranean Sea

The Heptastadion was a bridge-like causeway connecting the island of Pharos to mainland Alexandria.

Its name is based on the Greek terms of measurement: hepta meaning seven and stadion, which is a measure of length of roughly 180 meters.


DTAE Canopic Way Heptastadion - Jean-Claude Govin

Alexandria - Canopic Way (Detail on Hepstastadion

Since its construction would seperate the Grand Port to the east and the Port of Eunostos to the west, it was designed with channels at each end.

These openings allowed passage from one port to the other.

DTAE Map of Alexandria 1575

Map of Alexandria / 1575

Along with creating seperate harbors for the commercial and military shipping, the causeway served as a main aqueduct for the island's inhabitants.

Its presence also helped protect the island its ports from rough wind and sea currents.

At the end of antiquity, the Heptastadion disappeared under layers of slit and soil, which formed an important sedimentary deposit.


DT AE Alexandria Obelisks

Alexandria and its environs. View of the Obelisk known as the Needle of Cleopatra & The Tower of the Romans

While the Serapeion was the most celebrated of the temples in Alexandria, many other temples were built within the city.

Most of these structures have been completely erased over time, and there is no way to discern how many existed.

However, research of ancient papyri offer tantalizing hints as to the possible location of at least some of the temples.

DTAE Statue of Fortuna

Statue of Fortuna / Vatican Museum, Rome

Both papyri and coins reveal evidence of many temples built for the gods.

Poseidon, the god of the sea, likely had an edifice in his honor west of this island, as well as on the main land.

This temple next to you is dedicated to Iset Pharia, the divine protector of the lighthouse. This location hosted annual celebrations in the month of April known as the Sacrum Pharia, in connection to the lighthouse.

In her incarnation as Iset Fortuna, the goddess carries a rudder and a cornucopia, both symbols of good luck for navigators.

DTAE Statue of Isis Pharia

Isis Pharia (divine protector of sailors)

Considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Lighthouse of Alexandria was a source of great pride for the inhabitants of the city.

Construction began under Ptolemy I's reign and lasted fifteen years. It was completed during his son's rule.

Once completed the lighthouse was dedicated to the gods, for the salvation of those who sail the sea.

Built on the island of Pharos, the stone structure was three tiers set on top of one another in a step formation.

The second floor consisted of an octagonal tower and the top floor was a cylindrical tower topped by a statue.

The interior provided space for staff rooms and a ramp, which allowed the transport of fuel to the upper floors.

DTAE Lighthouse of Alexandria - 16th century drawing

Tower. Alexandria Lighthouse

Essential to safe navigation through the rifts and shallow waters, the Pharos was a functioning lighthouse, with a beam reported visibl 50 kilometers away.

It's unclear what kind of fuel was used, or how much. Any other details of how the light worked remain a mystery.

DTAE Lighthouse of Alexandria currency

Alexandria currency under Hadrien. Lighthouse

For several centuries the Pharos was one of the highest monuments ever built by man. It measured roughly 110 meters in height, compared to the Pyramid of Giza which was 140 meters tall.

Gradually the structure was eroded by earthquakes, and then completely destroyed in 1480 CE when a fort was built over it.

Archaeological excavations on the seabed have uncovered many blocks from the ancient building.

潘神殿The Paneion编辑

Learn abouit the Paneion of Alexandria.

DTAE Seated Statue of Pan

Pan, seated / Graeco-Roman Era

The Paneion was a temple built in honor of the god Pan, divinity of nature.

This Greek god, often represented as a half-man, half-goat with a beard, horns and goat's hooves, was considered the protector of shepherds and herds.

Pan's attribute was his namesake musical instrument: the pan flute. His temples were usually located in caves and on high mountains, and were frequented by shepherds.

It is likely that Mediterranean cults adopted the imagery of Pan to symbolize the Christian devil.

To give proper honor to the god, Alexandrians built an artificial hill upon which they housed his temple, to compensate for the flat relief of the city.

The artificial mound had the shape of a spinning top or a pine cone, which was accessed by a spiral staircase. The top had a panoramic view of the entire city.

Only such heights would be fitting for a mountain god.

亚历山大赛马场The Hippodrome of Alexandria编辑

Learn about the events held at the hippodrome.

DTAE Lageion Serapeum

Lageion Serapeum / 2012 / Jean-Claude Golvin

The main hippodrome of the city was called the Lageion, in honor of Lagos, the ancestor of the Ptolemies.

Alexandrians were great lovers of horse racing. They were fascinated by the rivalry of these races, the agôn as it was said at that time, that every competition brought.

It was a struggle for glory.


DTAE Campana

Relief known as a campana: circus scenes, quadriga race / Roman Empire

The most important chariot race was the tethrippon. Using four horses, with the quickest harnessed to the front right, the charioteer would race for twelve laps, with sharp turns at either end of the hippodrome.

The victors were crowned with garlands of olive and received prize money, but the most sought-after reward was to be acelaimed by the works of poets such as Kallimachos and Pindar.


DTAE Vase - Chariot Winner

The winner of a chariot race / Pre-Classic Period

“Ye hymns that rule the lyre! What god, what hero, aye, and what man shall we loudly praise? Verily Zeus is the lord of Pisa; and Heracles established the Olympic festival, [...) while Thêrôn must be proclaimed by reason of his victorious chariot with its four horses, Thêrôn who is just in his regard for guests, and who is the bulwark of Acragas, the choicest flower of an auspicious line of sires, whose city towers on high, (...) bringing wealth and glory to crown their native merits.”


每日生活编辑

欧西里斯,第一具木乃伊Osiris, The First Mummy编辑

Understand the significance of the mummies for ancient Egyptians.

The oldest mummies recovered date from the Old Kingdom, though Egyptologists believe that mummification was in use much earlier than that.

At first, the body was mummified through environmental desiccation, by leveraging the dryness of the environment and the heat of the climate.

Earty experimentations in mummification were conducted with the use of resin made from tree sap. Strips of linen were only used on some superficial parts of the epidermis of the hands, or jaw.

Ideologically, the will to preserve the body is not explained in any way until 3600 BCE. This is when the Egyptian belief that the body housed the soul was finally documented for modern Egyptologists to eventually decipher.

Itwas not until the arrival of the myth of Osiris in the Egyptian religion, around the 5th Dynasty, that mummification was thoroughly conceptualized. The practice was thereafter grounded in both a mythological and ideological point of view.

Osiris was mainly known as the god of the dead, and the god of resurrection.

The most well-known genesis myth concerning Osiris is that of his dismemberment.

It is Plutarch who gives the most simplified and complete summary of the story.

Within Egyptian mythology, Osiris represented the first king to rule Egypt. Jealous of his power, his brother Seth attempted to usurp his throne.

After several unsuccessful attempts, Seth succeeded in killing his brother by dismembering him, and scattering the pieces of his body all over Egypt.

Iset, the Great of Magic, traveled all over Egypt in search of the pieces of her husband's body. After a long search, she recovered all the pieces, save for his manhood, as it was eaten by a fish.

Iset then reassembled the body of her husband by binding it together with strips of linen.

Aided by her sister Nephthys, another powerful magician, they gave Osiris the breath of life. This not only brought him back from the dead, but also allowed him to recover his virility long enough to impregnate Iset, thus insuring his succession before, once more, dying.

Thus, Horus was born.

The ritual used to bring Osiris back to life essentially depicts how he became the first mummy.

It is why, on the sarcophagi of kings, we often find Iset and Nephthys represented as the magicians who restore life to the deceased.

古埃及的木乃伊Mummies of Ancient Egypt编辑

Learn about the process of mummification in Ancient Egypt.

The mummification process used by Ancient Egyptians was highly ceremonialin nature.

The different types of mummification took into account the social Level and richness of the deceased, and even included animals.

The most expensive was that reserved for the pharaoh and the royal family, as well as some of the wealthiest members of the court.

The first step was cleaning. Once bodies arrived at the mummification site, they were placed on inclined tables while the bodily fluids drained away.

They were then cleaned by priests, until they were deemed ready for the purification process.

The purification of the body began with a libation from sacred water. The priests then fumigated the body with terebinth resin.

After the ritual cleansing, priests used oils, spices and all kinds of essences to further purify the body of the deceased. Finally, all body hair was meticulously removed.

Once the body was properly purified, embalmers removed the organs, following very specific procedures.

First, the brain was extracted by inserting a spoon through the nostril to break the ethmoid bone. Then, using a spatula, the pieces of the brain were removed as thoroughly as possible. What matter remained was extracted after a process of liquification achieved through the use of a caustic liquid.

The cranial box, once emptied, was rinsed and disinfected with palm wine, and then stuffed with strips of linen cloth and liquefied resin.

After taking care of the brain, embalmers made an incision on the left flank and carefully set aside the viscera.

The inside of the body was also rinsed with palm wine. Then, the embalmers filled the belly with pure myrrh, cinnamon and other perfumes and sewed it shut.

The removed viscera were washed in palm wine, and packed in crushed herbs before being placed in canopic jars.

Canopic jars were placed close to the sarcophagus, or kept in a chest nearby.

At first, the viscera were wrapped in tissue and placed in the vases. As the ritual requirements became more elaborate, ointments, spices and even water and natron were added to the process.

Towards the middle of the New Kingdom, canopic jars assumed the appearance of the four sons of Horus.

They were known as the protectors of the viscera. These protectors had their own guardians, each a goddess of the dead.

Imsety, the human-headed god, protected the liver, and was protected by the goddess Iset. Hapi, the baboon-headed god, protected the lungs, and was protected by the goddess Nephthys.

Duamutef, the jackal-headed god, protected the stomach, and was protected by the goddess Neith.

And finally Kebehsenuef, the falcon-headed god, protected the intestines, and was protected by the goddess Selket.

Natron is a naturally occurring mineral found in evaporite. These sedimentary rocks are made up of mineral salts, and were generally mined from lakebeds in Egypt.

Embalmers used natron as a desiccant, to dry the flesh and stop the corpse's putrefaction process.

Once the body was cleansed and eviscerated, the deceased was covered in natron for about forty days.

Once desiccated, the body was prepared to be wrapped in strips of linen.

Once the body was fully desiccated by the natron treatment, embalmers oiled, painted, and sometimes even added hair extensions or a wig.

They often used a henna-based antiseptic preparation to give the body a more colorful and lively appearance, while preparing it to resist molds and fungi.

Next came the phase which gave mummies their most well-known appearance: the wrapping.

Originally, each part of the body was wrapped separately. Men had their arms crossed on their chests, while women had the right arm folded over their breasts, and the left arm stretched along the body.

However, techniques evolved over time. Eventually the body as a whole was wrapped with limbs alongside the body, and increasingly sophisticated and different techniques of weaving flax bands were developed.

In addition to the jewelry and amulets arranged on the skin of the deceased, amulets were also carefully inserted into the weaving of the linen strips.

Each amulet was linked to a myth or to an ideological belief related to rebirth.

Masks were an important part of a mummy's finery. Early wooden funeral coverings were very expensive, however, and soon replaced by masks created through a technique known as cartonnage.

Masks fashioned with this method were created by laying several layers of linen or papyrus pulp on a base made of mud or straw.

Cartonnage was used for more than funerary masks. Ornaments and the animal coffins of the Late Period were also made in such a fashion.

Cartonnage evolved to cover the entire body of the mummy during the 22nd Dynasty.

The mummies were placed on a board inside a rigid envelope of cartonnage, which was laced at the back with a string.

Extremely cost effective and visually pleasing, this technique was very popular through all layers of the society.

Cartonnage envelopes were usually covered with inscriptions and polychrome decorations specifying the names and titles of the deceased, scenes depicting daily life, or decorations specific to the funerary world.

This was a true gift for Egyptologists eager to study the funerary rites of the ancient Egyptians.

Once the mummy was properly wrapped and adorned, the embalmers proceeded with the ceremony of the Opening of the Mouth.

A vital step of the funerary process, this ceremony was meant to bring back to life the deceased themselves, or an object representing the deceased.

There were no less than seventy-five different stages for the Opening of the Mouth.

It required the application of the same coils, ointments, spices, and perfumes used during the mummification process. Make-up was sometimes part of the process as well.

The last stage of this long ritual was the act of touching the mouth with the adze to symbolically allow the breath of life to infuse an inert body.

Its performance was reserved for a very specific set of people: priests who wore the mask of the god Anubis, a close relative of the family or by the heir to the throne.

木乃伊的重要性The Importance of Mummies编辑

Understand the importance of mummies for ancient Egyptians.

The first hieroglyph for embalmer appeared in pyramid texts of the Old Kingdom.

It is likely that embalming was a trade that progressed alongside the evolution of ancient Egyptian funeral practices.

While we still know nothing of how embalming came to be a profession, we do know that embalmers had a hierarchy, and that each embalmer specialized in a specific phase of the mummification process.

The mummification techniques were jealously guarded by embalmers from generation to generation.

Despite their efforts, Herodotus and Diodorus discovered their methods in late Antiquity, but historians were sceptical about the validity of the texts.

It remained a mystery until two teams of modern medico-legal scientists confirmed the process in 1994, and again in 2011.

The ouabet, meaning the pure place, was where the embalmers mummified the bodies of the deceased.

Until the end of the Middle Kingdom, it was located in tents at the edges of the city due to the smell of decomposition. In the New Kingdom, however, the ouabet was located within the city limits, though stillin open-air spaces.

In the same way that the practices and techniques of mummification evolved, so possibly did consideration towards embalmers within ancient Egyptian society.

The pharaoh had access to the most elaborate of mummification rituals. The richer citizens of Egypt also enjoyed complex embalming options, though none of them allowed for the removal of the brain or viscera.

After purifying the body, embalmers injected a liquid through the rectum, sealed it, and allowed the mixture to settle. They then plunged the body into natron for up to forty days.

Once the body was dried the seal was removed, and the entrails flowed out with the injected liquid, leaving the skin and bones of the deceased to be wrapped in linen and returned to the family for burial.

The least costly embalming option was for the embalmers to simply inject a product called surmaia, and immerse the body in the natron for up to forty days before handing it over to the family.

For all those who could not afford any embalming process, desert burials offered a pauper's alternative to preserve the bodies of the dead.

Egyptian civilization has always appealed to Westerners, even before the Greek and Roman invasions.

As early as the Middle Ages, mummies discovered by travelers were often sent back to Europe. Curio cabinets dating from the 16th and 17th centuries usually included pharaonic artifacts in their collections.

The Egyptomania phenomenon was heralded by Napoleon Bonaparte's Egyptian campaign, which lasted from 1798 to 1802.

The following years were marked by a resurgence of interest from rich enthusiasts and scholars, who exposed Egypt to the general populace.

Many research societies focusing on Egyptology were founded during those years.

By 1868, mass tourism began in Egypt, under the aegis of the Cook agency.

The rich would indulge in Leisure trips to Egypt, and bring back mummies. Upon their return, they would organize evenings that consisted of unpacking mummies, and removing strips of linen and amulets layer by layer. These were considered the shining cultural events of the season.

The Egyptian collections of many a museum were founded as a consequence of this mass pillaging.

Thanks to those dubious parties, the fantasy of a mummy coming back to life seeking revenge on its defilers was born.

The mummy malediction myth has remained steady in popular culture ever since, particularly in written media and cinema.

Amulets & Rituals编辑

Understand how magic and religion was an essential aspect of ancient Egyptian life.

Ancient Egyptians believed the world was a chaotic place, filled with supernatural forces. They knew that art and words gave life and power to things.

Carved with images from hieroglyphs or in the shapes of gods, amulets were highly personal objects that warded off dangers and disease while attracting success.

Some amulets were temporary, intended to solve a specific problem, while others were meant to be worn forever into the afterlife.

Priests would infuse amulets with magical energy during religious ceremonies, imbuing them with protective magic to safeguard against supernatural powers.

The wealthiest of Egyptians could obtain a divinely ordained pendant, in which was hidden a magic formula inscribed on a piece of papyrus. It would act as a unique spell tailored to the owner.

Religion was so important to ancient Egyptians that it permeated every aspect of their daily lives.

Since water was the source of life and had the symbolism of purifying the body and the soul, all daily routines began with ablutions.

Personal prayers to the gods were sometimes written or spoken, with family prayers passed down through generations.

There was a complete calendar of each of the religious days, both good and bad, illustrating the appropriate daily rituals.

Along with wine, milk and ointments, offerings to the gods consisted of small amulets to life-size statues and family shrines.

During the Greco-Roman period offerings to the gods consisted of mummified animals. Cats for Bastet, dogs for Anubis, and birds for Thoth.

Deemed messengers of the gods, oracles offered guidance and judgment for all Egyptians, regardless of status.

Crucial advice was offered on everything from day-to-day farming management to a pharaoh's decision on whether to start a war.

Oracles were often used to decide legal issues. If the accused refused the judgment of the god, another god could be consulted in hopes of a more favorable reply.

Itwas oracles that guided the Greek sailor Battos to the coast of Libya where he founded a colony known as Cyrene.

During Alexander the Great's campaign to conquer Persia, he consulted the oracle at the temple of Ammon within the oasis of Siwa, and was subsequently ordained a divine being.

护身符与仪式Amulets & Rituals编辑

Understand how magic and religion was an essential aspect of ancient Egyptian life.

Ancient Egyptians believed the world was a chaotic place, filled with supernatural forces. They knew that art and words gave life and power to things.

Carved with images from hieroglyphs or in the shapes of gods, amulets were highly personal objects that warded off dangers and disease while attracting success.

Some amulets were temporary, intended to solve a specific problem, while others were meant to be worn forever into the afterlife.

Priests would infuse amulets with magical energy during religious ceremonies, imbuing them with protective magic to safeguard against supernatural powers.

The wealthiest of Egyptians could obtain a divinely ordained pendant, in which was hidden a magic formula inscribed on a piece of papyrus. It would act as a unique spell tailored to the owner.

Religion was so important to ancient Egyptians that it permeated every aspect of their daily lives.

Since water was the source of life and had the symbolism of purifying the body and the soul, all daily routines began with ablutions.

Personal prayers to the gods were sometimes written or spoken, with family prayers passed down through generations.

There was a complete calendar of each of the religious days, both good and bad, illustrating the appropriate daily rituals.

Along with wine, milk and ointments, offerings to the gods consisted of small amulets to life-size statues and family shrines.

During the Greco-Roman period offerings to the gods consisted of mummified animals. Cats for Bastet, dogs for Anubis, and birds for Thoth.

Deemed messengers of the gods, oracles offered guidance and judgment for all Egyptians, regardless of status.

Crucial advice was offered on everything from day-to-day farming management to a pharaoh's decision on whether to start a war.

Oracles were often used to decide legal issues. If the accused refused the judgment of the god, another god could be consulted in hopes of a more favorable reply.

Itwas oracles that guided the Greek sailor Battos to the coast of Libya where he founded a colony known as Cyrene.

During Alexander the Great's campaign to conquer Persia, he consulted the oracle at the temple of Ammon within the oasis of Siwa, and was subsequently ordained a divine being.

古埃及的神殿与仪式Temples & Rituals of Ancient Egypt编辑

Learn about the importance of the pharaoh and of the priests in ancient rituals, and understand the influence of temples in ancient Egyptian society.

During rituals and festivals, the god was carried on a solar barge between the areas of a temple, or the temples of different cities.

Funerary carvings and paintings covering thousands of years as well as the Book of the Dead, depict the same ship and oar design.

Solar barges have been uncovered near or within several pharaohs' tombs.

They were intended to carry the pharaoh into the afterlife.

Ancient Egyptians believed that Ra, the sun god, traveled the skies in a boat known as the solar barge.

The solar barge was believed to cross over to mythological lands.

The god Ra believed mankind was conspiring against him. He ordered Sekhmet, the lion-headed war goddess, to kill all humans.

To his chagrin, Ra quickly realized that with all humans gone there would be no one left to worship him.

In order to stop the rampaging Sekhmet, beer was brewed and dyed red with pomegranate juice to resemble blood.

Sekhmet drank every drop of the brew she could find, eventually passing out drunk. When she awoke, she was calmer, and her lion visage had changed into Bastet.

The Festival of Drunkenness was celebrated in honor of that myth.

Unlike the daily rituals that took place in the temple and were performed by priests, festivals allowed the entire population of the city to participate.

Festivals helped mark the passing of the seasons in the agricultural calendar.

In reflecting the cycles of life, festivals offered a sense of consistency and structure for the regular citizens, thus reinforcing the sense of order that pharaohs were to provide for the citizens of Egypt as part of their godly duties.

The importance of these festivals is demonstrated by their longevity. Records show that Osiris festivals occurred for more than 2000 years.

Some festivals served to reinforce state control, and promote the king's reign.

Both the Opet and Sed jubilee festivals were specifically intended to celebrate the renewal of the king's power.

The temple hierarchy consisted of high priests, several types of priests, scribes and servants.

The high priest was known as the prophet. Some divinities had up to four prophets, and they were the ones to perform the most advanced and complex rituals.

Egyptian priests were not confined to solely religious tasks, and in fact had crucial roles in Egypt's administration, most of which served to reaffirm the pharaoh as the proper vessel for the gods.

Their focus within the temple was centered on the proper conduct of daily divine rituals, rather than as custodians of dogma or the indoctrination of individuals.

Scribes were custodians of the sacred sciences. Some priests were associated with the funeral rites and were considered the group with medical knowledge.

The servants of the ka were low-ranking priests who carried food and offerings in funerary rituals.

Lector priests were distinguished by their ability to read, and their main duty was to recite specialized religious texts in both temple and funerary rituals.

Priests and all the officials who served the temple worked only three months a year, with each period separated by a quarter of inactivity, at least within the temple compund.

Each outgoing group handed over the temple and their tools to the newcomers.

Only the high priesthood remained in permanent office within the temple.

(Behind the Scenes)

The most sacred part of the temple was referred to as djesr djesru, the “holy of holies.”

The most sacred inner sanctuary was where the shrine to the temple deity was located.

Only priests were allowed within. Offerings were given, and rituals unseen by even the pharaoh were performed.

While the team chose to allow any character access to this space in some game temples, normally it was reserved for priests alone.

Pharaohs and their priests often chose the site of these sacred temples because of some mythological connection, or an alignament with the cardinal points and certain stars. Once selected, a foundation ritual was performed.

The pharaoh was required to complete 10 steps in the ritual, which required a mix of offerings as well as specific construction techniques.

Once the temple was complete, construction of the chamber containing the shrine, or naos, began.

The naos was where the god statue stood. The representation of the deity was usually in stone or wood and decorated with gold, silver and precious stones.

Smaller temples had only one naos, while larger complexes such as the temple of Karnak had many chambers to honor gods such as Amun, Ptah, and Osiris.

Each statue was believed to be a receptacle for the presence or essence of the god's ka, enabling it to take a physical form.

Through the statue, the god came to the shrine to eat, drink, and communicate with the pharaoh, or with the priests standing in for the pharaoh.

神殿与祭司Temples And Priests编辑

Learn about the influence of temples in Egyptian societym and the role of the pharaoh and priests in ancient rituals.

From its foundation, the city of Memphis favored worship of the god Ptah.

The main temple of Ptah was known as Hut-ka-Ptah, meaning palace of the ka of Ptah.

The name of the temple, translated into Greek as Aegyptos, would eventually evolve into the modern name: Egypt.

Temples were the center of religious, political and economic life in ancient Egypt.

These sacred places were viewed as the literal home of the gods and goddesses. As such, every aspect of them required care and reverence, all of which was accomplished through elaborate ritual.

Located in the center of Memphis, the temple of Ptah was the most prominent and imposing building in the city.

The long walkway leading toward the temple, known as the dromos, was guarded by rows of sphinxes.

The entire sacred area was designed to keep the statue of the god protected deep within the sacred enclosures that surrounded it.

The dromos opened into a courtyard, with a surrounding portico graced with columns carved to resemble palm trees.

During special festivals the general population was allowed to enter this location, but under no circumstances would they be allowed into the sacred spaces beyond the courtyard.

The Memphis Alabaster Sphinx was discovered in 1912, almost completely buried in water and sand.

Eight meters in height and weighing in at roughly 90 tons, it is still mounted on its original pedestal.

Though it is called the Alabaster Sphinx, it was in fact carved from common calcite rock, which is similar in appearance and texture to alabaster.

Erosion has destroyed the original engravings, making it difficult to determine when it was created.

Egyptologists believe that its facial likeness resembles Amenhotep Il, and so it could have been sculpted somewhere between 1700 and 1400 BCE.

Itis believed that this monument once stood outside of the temple of Ptah, and was integrated into subsequent extensions to the complex.

The size of the imposing sculpture reflects the importance it had to the temple during the New Kingdom.

This sphinx is one of the few remaining artifacts from the ruins of Memphis to survive.

In Egyptian culture some animals were associated with gods, while others were considered to be Living gods.

The Apis bull was believed to be a divine entity. The earliest mention of the Apis bullin ancient Egypt goes back as far as the 1st Egyptian dynasty.

Originally the symbol of fertility, the Apis bull was linked to the god Ra, with the image of the sun carried between its horns.

Later it was associated with Osiris, the ruler of the underworld, thus becoming the funerary divinity Osorapis.

During the 18th Dynasty in Memphis, the Apis bull's association with the city's deity earned it the title “Herald of Ptah."

The Apis bull was so revered that even Alexander the Great, upon his arrival in Memphis, gave honor to Apis.

The Apis buil lived with its harem in a sacred barn located in an enclosure in the temple of Ptah.

Each bull bore twenty-nine signs representative of it's divinity. Among them, the bull had an eagle-shaped mark on its back, a double tail hair and a scarab-shaped mark under the tongue. The signs were intended to correspond with the lunar cycle.

After its death, Egyptians would search for its reincarnated form among the livestock.

Like other living divinities, the mortal incarnation of the Apis bull was prayed to, and when it died, it was given a luxurious funeral which included mummification.

Until the reign of Ramses II, the Apis bulls were buried in individual graves in Saqgara.

During the 26th dynasty, the bodies of the bulls were buried in enormous stone vats in the underground corridors of the Serapeum of Memphis.

Ancient Egyptians believed that temple rituals were essential to maintain order in the cosmos, and allow communication between humans and gods.

The pharaoh was required to bring offerings, as part of a twofold promise made to the gods: to remain a just ruler, and to prevent chaos from entering Egypt.

Details of the ceremonies found on temple walls provide a thorough overview of the stages of the daily ritual.

Performed three times a day to mirror human meal times, each step of the highly symbolic ceremony was accompanied by specific recitations, many of which referred to mythical events.

The high priest would first awaken the sleeping god with a chant.

Then the seals of the shrine's doors were broken, and the bolts drawn back.

The act of swinging open the doors was a symbolic gesture, where sight was granted to the deity.

The priest would then bow, and kiss the ground.

The god was then washed with incense-infused water, and its mouth rinsed with mineral salts. The cleansing was followed by adorning the statue with jewels and royal garments.

The final ritual required the priest to sweep away any footprints in order to prevent evil from approaching the god.

Heredity was the primary source of new recruits. Rarely was an outsider allowed this position. At the top of the temple hierarchy was the high priest. Each temple dedicated to a god had at least one high priest devoted to its care and service.

During the Ptolemaic dynasty, one family held the position of High Priest in Memphis for almost 300 years.

High priest candidates made their way up the ranks of the temple hierarchy. The one chosen to occupy the lofty position of high priest was usually confirmed by the pharaoh.

Several of the high priests were also important officials in the government. Families sharing the highest priesthood titles tended to make many alliances, thereby gaining more land and wealth.

Shifting balances of power sometimes resulted in more or less open conflicts between the priesthood and the pharaohs.

In the 21st dynasty, Thebes became the capital of an almost entirely theocratic government. The city was headed by king-priests who spoke and governed in the name of god Amun, in open opposition to the ruling pharaohs.

These kings-priests caused a massive decentralization of power, known as the Third Intermediate Period.

The educational institution in ancient Egypt was known as the House of Life.

Attended by the offspring of the elite and the clergy, it was a place tailored to the social status of its attendees.

The eartiest references to this type of institution date back to royal decrees of the Old Kingdom.

Only two known centers have been uncovered, one in the abandoned city of Akhetaten and one at the temple of Ramses II, on the west bank of Thebes.

Inscriptions uncovered in those locations mention the names and titles of people who were connected with the House of Life, such as a chief physician and many scribes.

Itis presumed that by the Late Kingdom, every temple had a House of Life.

The House of Life offered training for the elite destined for occupations such as astronomers, doctors, veterinarians, diplomats, architects, translators or theologians.

Some institutions focused on specific disciplines, making them a central hub for the country.

Not limited to instruction for young students, the House of Life was a source of reference for many scholars, with rooms dedicated to papyri of many disciplines.

Because papyri were preserved there, the Greco-Romans referred to the House of Life as a library.

Ancient Egyptian economy was based on an unequal system of redistribution of goods.

The state of Egypt collected the crops, and the temples distributed them throughout the provinces.

Since the only people capable of counting and ensuring a fair redistribution were the educated scribes, this meant that the temples played a pivotal role in this process.

There are records of pharaohs making offerings of large tracts of land and animals to temples in order to maintain their favor. Ramses Ill offered generous gifts to the temple of Amun in Karnak in such a manner.

Palaces, warehouses, and granaries were built inside the temple compound to better control the redistribution of goods.

The size of the recorded numbers of goods combined with every other function filled by temples only serves to confirm their might as economic, religious and political centers of power within Egypt.

打造古埃及Building Ancient Egypt编辑

Understand the different techniques used by ancient Egyptians to quarry stone blocks, and build their monuments.

Constructed with bricks made of mud, most ancient Egyptian buildings were not permanent.

Only religious temples and funerary monuments were meant to stand the ravages of time.

For these very important structures, Egyptians used limestone, sandstone, and harder materials such as granite, quartzite and travertine. These heavy stone blocks were so prized that they were often transported from quarries located hundreds of kilometers away.

Limestone was common and easy to extract from quarries on the east bank of the Nile.

This particular limestone had marine fossils in it however, preventing it from being easily decorated and polished. Used as the main building material, the structure would then be finished with a finer limestone that was polished smooth, and decorated as needed.

Limestone was used for the building of the first pyramids, and for most of the religious buildings of the Old and Middle Kingdoms.

Ancient Egyptians preferred to use sedimentary rock beds, or layers like sandstone and limestone, because they were often easier to extract.

The common method used to extract stone was the open pit quarry. Stone cutters would find quality stone, shape and dig it out on site. Open pit quarries enabled many workers to work simultaneously on many blocks, which allowed for better productivity.

Workers would draw a large grid directly on the stone's surface, taking care to leave a space between the blocks. This allowed them to isolate the different blocks and create a trench that would make the extraction easier.

Stone workers used iron chisels for hard rock, and bronze or copper tools for softer rocks such as limestone.

Removing material between each block created a trench line. In some quarries, that trench was wide enough to accommodate a worker, who would then cut the block entirely on site.

For harder rocks like granite, workers cut a series of holes and hammered wooden wedges into them. They then soaked the wood until it swelled and caused the rock to split.

The gallery extraction technique was used when the desired rock was buried under layers of rubble.

This method was often necessary in order to find the whiter and finer limestone required for a smoother finish.

The first step was for the stone workers to create an access pit that would allow them to reach the desired wall of stone. Once a wall of quality stone was exposed, workers could then cut out smaller blocks.

This pit required a descending platform. Designed like a stairway, it allowed them to free multiple galleries of blocks.

To cut the stone, they created a longitudinal kerf, or slit, and then cut the rock at a 90-degree angle.

The lower side was determined along the geological layers or by using a horizontal cut.

Wooden wedges were inserted in the rock and hammered in. Shock waves were then generated using hammers, fracturing the blocks at the seam.

To maintain the stability of these mining pits over the course of quarrying, workers would leave support sections of unexcavated rock.

In every quarry, dedicated shrines were established to offer protection for the workers.

In particular, Serket, the scorpion goddess, was considered a very powerful deity among quarry workers.

Every mine and quarry of ancient Egypt included a scorpion charmer, who was said to use magical powers to ward off the dangerous insects and keep the workers safe.

工人与运输Workers & Transport编辑

Understand who were the people involved in the creation of ancient Egyptian monuments, and understand the techniques used to quarry stone blocks and transport monuments.

Whether workers were employed for the pyramid construction or at the quarries, the government supplied food and housing.

Workers for the pyramids and royal necropolises were housed in more permanent villages such as the famous Deir el-Medina. Quarry workers had more temporary lodgings.

Al skill levels were needed and utilized, from basic workhands to prepare the gypsum, to brick makers and sand carriers, to skilled stonemasons to shape the blocks.

Skilled architects and engineers were employed year-round, while support labor were often farmers who worked on the quarries or construction during the Nile's flood season.

The basic laborers were hard-working and versatile. Many may have been farmers who joined the construction during the off-season. Hieroglyphs found in the work villages listed assigned job titles.

Archeological research shows that no food was stored or prepared on site, but instead workers received abundant rations of bread, beer and meat.

These rations were taken care of by an administration outside the village.

Medical treatment was also available for those who were injured.

While some quarries were closer to the Nile, others were located across the desert and required long expeditions.

These expeditions were sanctioned by the state. They involved complex logistics, and required many participants.

Transporting a block by land meant that workers had to overcome the weight and friction of the load.

To solve this, they first dug a track in the ground. This path was sometimes reinforced with rails upon which a sled used to ferry the blocks would be pulled.

Whenever possible, blocks were toppled from a higher elevation onto the sled.

Workers then poured water onto the clay at the front of the sled, creating a slick surface to more easily move the load.

It wasn't until the New Kingdom that animals were used to tow the burden.

During flood season, the Nile was at its largest and deepest, which allowed the transportation of the heaviest and biggest loads.

Quarries close to the river had troughs dug out to deliver the stones to the shoreline.

Harbors and wharfs situated at the river's edge allowed the transfer of materials and supplies. Harbor warehouses accommodated additional stocks of stone so that they were available for the winter sailing season.

The Ouadi el-Jarf papyri detail a limestone load intended for the Khufu pyramid that weighed in at 70-80 tons, or thirty blocks.

One papyrus is a fragment from a foreman's notes taken while working on the Great Pyramid. It details the transportation of limestone blocks from the Tura quarries to the construction site of the pyramid.

The other papyri are shipping logs containing archives of the sailors assigned to sail the Red Sea and the Nile.

Stone cargo generally weighed 15 tons per boat, amounting to roughly six or seven blocks per trip.

For heavier Loads such as obelisks, monolithic pillars or gigantic statues, larger boats were used. These transports are the ones typically showcased on temple walls.

River transportation was the most efficient way to ferry stone blocks between the quarry and the construction site.

Blocks were transported by flotillas of several types of boats.

The most detailed illustration of transport by river is a relief of Queen Hatshepsut's barge with an accompanying flotilla.

农业与季节Agriculture & Seasons编辑

Learn about the basic agricultural food production techniques, and understand how the Nile was at the center of Ancient Egypt wealth.

While crops were cultivated in different cases around the desert, most of the arable lands were near the Nile.

Two types of cereal grain were cultivated: barley, and an ancient wheat known as emmer.

These two key ingredients contributed in establishing bread and beer as the staple of the Egyptian diet, and the basis of its economy.

The Ptolemaic era created an agricultural revolution with the introduction of advanced agricultural techniques and new grain types such as rice, durum wheat and pearl millet.

The resulting agricultural mass production greatly increased the economy of ancient Egypt. It also prompted the development of storage and transportation, allowing long-distance trade with other regions.

Both bread and beer rations were part of a system of barter payment. The state used those goods to pay wages for those who worked in the quarries and at the construction sites.

Beer was so important to ancient Egyptians they had a goddess of beer brewing: Tenenet.

Tenenet is seen in many paintings and sculptures with beer, and women are depicted as the primary beer makers.

In order to increase agricultural production, fertile land was divided into plots, and large agricultural villages were encouraged.

The state and temples were the biggest landowners. Depending on the region, fertile land was managed by civil servants, or rented to individuals.

Ancient Egyptians relied on rudimentary tools for land cultivation. Soil was broken down with hoes, and wing plows were used to make furrows.

The three seasons known as Akhet, Peret and Shemu corresponded to a specific phase of the agricultural process and the river's natural changes.

Akhet, was the time of the flood, beginning with the appearance of the star Sirius in July.

Peret was the time when lands were cultivated, plowed and sown. This fell between October and November.

Shemu ran from May to September, and was when harvesting and taxation began.

The pharaoh's duty was to uphold order against chaos, and provide for his people. Priests and local governors also wanted to appear as protectors of the people.

However, any variation in the Nile's seasons could cause water shortages. This had devastatingconsequences on wheat and barley crops.

The pharaoh, administrators and priests knew they needed to demonstrate their ability to prevent such a catastrophe from happening, and so they invented the story which would be inscribed upon the Famine stela.

The story begins with the pharaoh worried for his people. The Nile hasn't flooded in years and his people are starving. In search of the origins of the flooding, Djoser seeks out Khnum, the protector god of the region and the source of the drought.

Djoser gives the god offerings and orders his priests to restore the temple of Khnum. These offerings please the god, and the floods are restored.

This story was intended to highlight the importance of the deity in everyone's daily lives, while also demonstrating the crucial role that the priests and the king played in feeding and protecting the people of Egypt.

古埃及耕种方式Ancient Egyptian Cultivation编辑

Learn about the ancient Egyptian agricultural techniques.

The new grain types of the Ptolemaic period required a great deal of water. Farmers needed to ensure they had effective, consistent irrigation. The Nile's rising and receding waters naturally irrigated most of the crops. Areas where the Nile didn't reach, such as gardens and vegetable plots, required an irrigation tool known as the shadoof.

The shadoof allowed easy transport of water from its source. It consisted of a tall wooden frame with a long pivoting pole and suspended bucket. The system could be raised and lowered with little effort.

Later a sakia, or water wheel, was invented. The sakia needed animals to turn the wheel, which rotated buckets through the water.

It drew the water to an elevation of 3.5 meters, and enabled a great deal of control over the irrigation process.

This improvement supplied larger areas and thus resulted in larger harvests.

The threshing process separated the grain from its husk.

Workers would spread the ears on clean ground. Oxen, cows or donkeys were then guided back and forth to trample the grain. This continuous movement worked the grain loose while preventing the animals from eating it.

Unwanted chaff and straw were swept away, or gathered and added to the mud used to make bricks, to make them stronger.

Winnowing was the stage where workers used wooden scoops to throw ears in the air. The wind carried off the chaff, leaving the heavier seeds to fall to the ground.

This action was repeated until the undesired materials were sifted out.

Grain waste was mixed with manure or other organic substances to produce brick-shaped dung toaves that could be easily burned.

A standardized brick size enabled Egyptians to mass produce this byproduct, and use it as a commodity.

Transporting large amounts of grain required ships equipped to carry heavy loads. These goods were moved during the Nile's flooding season, when the river was deep enough for large ships.

The transports stopped at checkpoints to accommodate customs and police controls, as well as for technical requirements and weather conditions.

Having reached Alexandria's inner harbor, the wheat was unloaded under the supervision of a civil servant in charge of wheat management.

Portions were distributed to Alexandria's city market, and the remaining stockpile was either exported or stored in warehouses.

Grain storage facilities were located across all of Egypt.

Temples and institutions had large silos, while individual houses had storage sheds.

In some houses, arched cellars were built into the foundations. These watertight chambers were accessible from the ground floor, through a trapdoor.

Royal granaries acted as the storehouse and distribution centers, and managed state payments to civil servants, soldiers and the police.

Though plastered on the inside, silos weren't completely sealed and so remained susceptible to mice infestations.

When the grain was ready for processing, it was poured into bowis and pounded into a coarse flour.

That flour was then passed through a sieve to make it a finer quality, and further ground between stones.

Ancient Egyptians did not stock flour. Instead, fresh grain was portioned out each time to produce flour as it was needed.

The sieves used by Ancient Egyptians were unable to filter out sand and stones. Grit often passed into the flour, causing long-term tooth abrasions among all classes of Egyptians.

古埃及的家畜Domesticated Animals of Ancient Egypt编辑

Learn about the various domesticated animals of ancient Egypt.

Agriculture and domesticated livestock were introduced 6000 years ago. Archaeologists have found traces of cattle, donkeys, pigs and dogs.

Dromedary are thought to have been introduced during the Persian invasion.

Pets were deeply cherished in ancient Egypt. Many illustrations of children often include a pet in the depiction.

One of ancient Egypt's most iconic animals, the cat, wasn't adopted into their daily Life until the Middle Kingdom.

Since they were so highly capable of killing snakes and rodents, cats were present throughout every period. However, they only became pets sometime during the Middle Kingdom.

Prince Thutmose, son of Amenhotep III, had his cat Ta-miu laid to rest in its own sarcophagi.

The earliest reference to dogs dates back to 5000 BCE. They were popular pets, as they helped hunters and protected herds.

They were closely linked to Anubis, the jackal-headed god.

Baboons, monkeys and even falcons were tamed as pets. Each was mummified and buried with as much ceremony as any family member.

古埃及药物Ancient Egyptian Medicine编辑

Learn about the balance of science and magic that was ancient Egyptian medicine.

Evidence of advanced medical procedures have been found on mummies, and ancient Egyptians left detailed medical writings, from diagnosis to follow-up treatment.

One of the oldest known surgical studies is the Edwin Smith Papyrus. It's one of the first documents in history that notes an association between the integrity of the brain and cognitive functions, including cases of ocular complications and paralysis following head trauma.

Vinegar-treated marble stone from Memphis was used as an anaesthetic.

Another similar document, the Ebers Medical Papyrus is over 20 meters long and 30 centimeters wide. It details treatments of forty-eight surgical cases and contains 877 paragraphs describing various diseases.

Alongside accurate and factual scientific approaches, the papyrus has more than 700 magic formulas and incantations to ward off demons and disease. This demonstrates how ancient Egyptians believed in a harmonious balance between religion and science.

Remedies were considered as medicine, and carried by doctors and priests. Village doctors often had another job, alongside their medical duties and the preparation of medicines.

A cure for blindness was made of fermented honey, ochre and kohl. The science behind it was that honey functioned as an antiseptic and antibacterial, while ochre would reduce the swelling.

All of their knowledge did not always suffice. Ramses II died of an infection caused by an abscessed tooth.

古埃及的皮革与麻布Leather & Linen in Ancient Egypt编辑

Learn about the uses of leather and linen in ancient Egypt.

Tanning, a process which dates from prehistoric times, was present although not highly valued in Egypt due to the heat.

Leather was reserved mainly for things such as sandals, leather bags, dagger sheaths, quivers, and other similar items.

Leopard hides, unlike regular leather, were highly valued and usually worn by priests.

Valued for its coolness and freshness in hot weather, linen was the fiber most commontly used for fabrics and textiles. It was produced from flax, which was plentiful in Egypt.

Fibers were usually dyed before weaving. While color was used in the production of textiles, dyes weren't commonly used for clothing and most Egyptians wore white. The color represented spiritual purity, a goal to reach for every day of one's mortal life.

Various shades were achieved using woad, a dye produced from the leaves of Isatis Tinctoria.

The plant was cultivated for this purpose within the Nile Delta, and allowed for the creation of various colors. For example, different maceration times of the leaves would result in colors ranging from red to green, while adding in limestone shifted it to blue.

During the Greco-Roman period other ingredients were found, resulting in a wider range of colors.

(Behind the Scenes)

This area's style is strongly influenced by the dye baths and tanneries of modern day Fes, in Morocco. This helped Ubisoft envision what such locations might have been like in ancient Egypt.

While this tannery is within the city walls, back then they were often found outside the city boundaries. The tanner's trade was considered off-putting by the Greeks, as all these operations resulted in noxious smells.

古埃及潮流Ancient Egyptian Fashions编辑

Learn about ancient Egyptian fashions.

Learning what life was like for ancient Egyptians presents many differences, and yet also, surprising similarities to how people might live today.

Understanding the daily lives of regular citizens so many thousands of years ago is, ultimately, what connects us as human beings.

Jewelry was a popular item among ancient Egyptians of all social standing. Both men and women wore earrings, rings and bracelets. Status determined how much jewelry a person wore, and what it was made of.

Common folk wore pearl necklaces, simple bracelets and leather bangles. Brightly colored earthenware and glass paste were a favorite enhancement.

The jewelry of the elite was made from gold, silver and other precious stones. Because gold never lost its shine, it was considered akin to the flesh of the gods.

Wide jeweled collars were a favorite. Made with rews of beads formed into patterns of animals or flowers, the soft chiming sounds they made were thought to appease the gods.

Though idealized, tomb paintings are a catalogue of the changing fashions of ancient Egypt from the Old to the New Kingdom.

Egyptians took appearance and cleanliness very seriously and were diligent about their fashion, hair and jewelry as well as their grooming habits.

The fabric of ancient Egyptian clothing was almost entirely made from various grades of linen.

Linen was commont!y white, draped over the body and cinched at the waist, though some garments were sewn or tailored.

Wealthy men wore long tunics, loincloths or kilts, while poor men only wore loincloths. Women wore long dresses, with differences residing in the quality of the fabric depending on social status.

Egyptians commonly went barefoot, but could also wear sandals made from papyrus fiber or leather.

Cosmetics, including concoctions to prevent body odor and bad breath, were an integral part of everyday life for Egyptians.

Used by both men and women, cosmetics were used as moisturizing ointments and sun protection as much as for beautification.

Red ochre, a natural clay, was the most readily available cosmetic to tint lips and cheeks. Henna was used on nails and Lips, and as hair coloring. It was also favored by richer women to decorate their palms and the soles of their feet.

Egyptians believed kohl had magical powers, wearing it as black eyeliner to protect their eyes from the sun and to prevent eye infections from particles in the flooded Nile river.

A special green kohl, made from ground malachite, was worn for ceremonies and religious rituals.

Women and teenage girls wore their hair long, and often braided. Wealthier women included carved combs or hairpins.

The length of men's hair rarely dropped past the shoulders. They were mostly clean-shaven during the Dynastic Period, a trend began by the elite and soon adopted by the general populace.

Queen Hatshepsut donned an artificial beard when she became pharaoh.

Wigs were very popular. Used for special occasions, or to conceal grey hair or baldness, they were fastened in place with beeswax.

The most expensive wigs, were made from human hair and reserved for royalty. Other wigs were composed of linen, wool or animal hair.

Prepubescent children generally had their heads shaved. Young girls kept some strands intact, while young boys had a braid worn on the side.

古埃及的工匠Artisans of Ancient Egypt编辑

Learn about the daily life of artisans in ancient Egypt.

It was under the watchful eye of Ptah of Memphis, the god of craft and architecture, that ancient Egyptians developed the unique rendition of the world they lived in.

However, it is vital to understand that their view of art, and those who created it, was likely very dissimilar to the modern concept of the word.

Instead of artists, the creative culture had skilled and respected artisans. The most significant categories of specialties for crafters were drawing, painting, sculpture and metalworking.

Ancient Egyptian craftspeople created both art and a wide variety of mundane, everyday tools. Every item created had a specific purpose and was produced by anonymous artisans who worked alone or with a team.

Most crafts such as pottery and metalworking were utilized for everyday items. Luxury goods and artwork illustrations served temple rituals, and were not meant for public display.

Artisans rarely signed their names to the work, though they were clearly aware that they possessed a unique skill and talent for the task.

Art in all of its forms has offered not only a practical insight into the way ancient Egyptians lived, but in how they viewed the world and their place in it.

The balance of order and chaos was crucial in both the physical and the metaphysical universes. As a result, their art appears to follow a strict set of stylistic conventions that supported this worldview.

From households and palaces to temples and tombs, pottery, papyrus and textile items were essential to the everyday life of ancient Egyptians.

In ancient Egyptian culture drawing was used as ilustration, such as seen in the Book of the Dead.

It was also the first step in the creation of a relief, painting, or statue.

Two-dimensional representations were concerned with order and form, and were intended to honor gods and promote the transition of the soul to the afterlife.

Stylistically, Egyptians were concerned with the depiction of the human form's inner self.

As such, artistic representations were not concerned with realism, but rather with idealized youth, and perfectly harmonious visuals.

An exception to this were scenes depicting hunting and battle, where the environment and enemies moved in lively, even chaotic ways.

Animals and foes were depicted piled up as if describing chaos, with Egyptians standing in solemn, disciplined poses, bringing order to the scene.

Reliefs could be either in high relief, or low relief. Either method required a surface suited to the desired technique.

Preparation of the surfaces differed depending on the quality of the rock.

A quarried block only needed a simple smoothing. Rough-cut rock monuments such as those found in tombs, required more work. Often the surface was coated in plaster before being sculpted.

For reliefs, preliminary sketches were drawn in red, then framed with a red grid to position the elements of the scenes.

Corrected sketches were in black and once approved, the scene was ready to be carved.

This method likely explains the name given to relief-makers: the one who draws the outlines.

Statues were believed to be vessels for the souls of the deceased, or deities. That is why a sculptor was called “the one who makes it live”. This divine duty earned them the utmost respect.

As with a relief, creation of a sculpture began with a drawing.

Most statues were made of quarried blocks of stone, primarily limestone, though sometimes harder stones such as quartzite were also used.

In ancient Egypt, the profession of crafter was organized and relied on a specific hierarchy. Most artisans depended on an institution to provide them with raw materials.

There were three working levels for craftsmanship: domestic, large estates and within palace and temple workshops.

Some royal workshops, at their largest, covered an area of about 2.8 square kilometers in size.

At the domestic Level, most Egyptians were craftspeople to a greater or lesser extent. The ability to repair tools was a daily necessity. Crafted everyday items could also be bartered for at the local market.

Artisans with skills but lacking in resources worked at large estates, where the elite provided them with space to work and raw materials.

The most skilled artisans were employed in royal or temple projects, and benefited from a special status. They were provided with good work spaces, and considered to be highly skilled.

An ancient text known as the Satires of Trades has a number of descriptive summaries that offer teasing glimpses into how artisans were perceived.

A coppersmith was said to stink and have fingers that resembled crocodile droppings, while potters were said to be like those who lived in bogs.

This view was likely exaggerated in order to highlight the most enviable position of all: that of the scribe.

Located near the Valley of the Kings, Deir El-Medina was a settlement created by order of the king to honor the most skilled artisans. lts name translates as "the monastery of the city.”

Allocated a house on the initiative of the king, these craftsfolk were regarded with respect, and referred to as the royal artisans.

Those who lived there worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings, and its surrounding temples.

Archaeologists believe the site was home to skilled and respected artisans for over 400 years.

It is considered one of the most important discoveries relating to Egyptian daily lite.

While much of the focus of Egyptian archaeology was on its kings and queens, it wasn't until the excavation of Deir El-Medina that Egyptologists were given a valuable window into the community life of ancient Egyptian artisans.

古埃及的陶艺演化Evolution of Pottery in Ancient Egypt编辑

Learn about the pottery and its various uses in ancient Egypt.

Excavations all over Egypt have uncovered enormous quantities of pottery vessels of all shapes and sizes.

The production of pottery was mainly confined to the outskirts of settlements due to the materials required, and to keep the kiln smoke away from inhabited spaces.

The function of the product determined the selection of the raw material, its treatment, its form as well as the finishing of the surface.

Pottery was essential to ancient Egyptians' daily lives. It was used in all aspects of life, from the storage of grains and liquids, to containers within the tombs of necropolises.

The most common pottery was made from Nile silt that resulted in a reddish-brown clay. Limestone clay, which made for more attractive pottery, was only found in Upper Egypt.

Early pots were made from pinched or coiled clay. Chopped straw, ashes and other minerals were added, and the mixture was then smoothed and decorated before being put in the oven.

Pots were fired in bonfires, or enclosed within a brick kiln.

The potter's wheel was utilized during the Old Kingdom.

Pottery became smoother and more polished, similar to river stones. it was decorated primarily in red pigment, with the black color achieved by exposing it to smoke.

Pottery workshops were attached to palaces or temples, and around the late period specialized workshops began to appear.

Quartzite particles, which created the rich blue or green glazing, became common during the New Kingdom.

Mediterranean motifs and tin-based glazing came with the Greco-Roman era.

Potsherds could be found anywhere and were the most common canvas for writing or drawing, in comparison to the more expensive papyrus sheets.

Named after their Greek description, Ostraca contained daily life records, letters or could be drawn upon. Artists drew sketches for temples and tombs or simply for leisure.

埃及家庭The Egyptian Household编辑

Learn about the family life and homes of ancient Egyptians.

In pre-Greco-Roman culture, women were considered equal to men in many matters.

They owned property, testified in court, could divorce and inherit. Until the Greeks and Romans restricted their rights, Egyptian women could take over their deceased husband's trade.

Marriage contracts included mentions of allowances and items of value brought to the marriage by the woman, which would forever belong to her.

Certain professions were open only to women, such as weaving or professional mourning, while others were available to both genders, including working as servants for the rich households.

Social status did have an impact, though; the higher in status, the easier it was to obtain education, and access different professions.

Homes were generally composed of three rooms. First there was the entrance, furnished with a small bench of brick, probably intended for a statue and protective divinity.

Then there was the ceremonial room, meant to receive guests. The last room was either a bedroom or kitchen.

Furniture consisted of basic chairs, chests and storage. Tables were not used for family dinners. Instead each individual had a small table of their own.

Marriages were a social contract rather than a religious construct.

Family was vitally important to ancient Egyptians, and children were considered a blessing from the gods.

The father, mother and their children were the nucleus of the family, and cohabitation sometimes extended to mothers-in-law, sisters, aunts and sisters-in-law.

Status and wealth played a large role in the style and size of ancient Egyptian homes.

Commoners' houses were built with sunbaked mud-bricks.

Wealthier homes were often painted in white, and decorated with various motifs.

Town officials and the rich lived in mansions with numerous rooms that were luxuriously decorated.

Only temples and tombs, meant to last for all eternity, were built with stone.

Funeral stone inscriptions focused on the main member of a household. Encircling this person would then be a spouse, parents and children, possibly even siblings.

These stones were so structured because there were no surnames in ancient Egyptian culture. Parents and children were a sort of family tree, which allowed for the identification of the deceased.

面包与啤酒Beer & Bread编辑

Learn about the production steps of brewing beer and bread making, and their importance in ancient Egyptians' lives.

While the Mesopotamians invented beer, including using a straw to avoid the sediments and herbs, Ancient Egyptians perfected the brewing method.

Egyptian beer's quality was determined by alcohol strength, color and flavor.

During the Pharaonic era, beer was the most commontly used and important alcoholic beverage. The state and temples used it, along with bread, as payment to workers and it was included on the Lists of food offerings to the gods and the deceased.

Beer was the popular drink of ceremonies and festivals. The Festival of Drunkenness was even dedicated to it.

Considered to be quite nutritional, beer was also significant in the day-to-day lives of ancient Egyptians.

Egyptian adults and children consumed beer with all of their meals, and medical texts include hundreds of remedies that contain beer.

It remained the most popular alcoholic beverage until the Roman era.

Recipes for beer varied over time, and depended on the quality of the materials.

Bakers and brewers typically worked alongside one another at the same workshop or house. Many families often produced the quantity appropriate to their own consumption, with better quality beers produced for festivals and other special occasions.

The most basic recipe used malted cereal as the main ingredient. Fruit such as dates were added along with honey and spices.

Once baked, bread would be crumbled into the brew to start the fermentation process. Adding grain enzymes would break down the starches, turning them into sugar and creating a thick mash.

Once ready, the bread and grain mixture was compressed, and then strained through a sieve with water into the mix of malt beer.

Once fermented, the beer mash was transferred to large containers and again compressed, by foot or with pestles.

Once smooth, the beer was stored in pottery jars and sealed with a clay stopper. It probably couldn't be kept for long and likely had a thick, pasty appearance and texture.

Very little was wasted. Leftover grains were reused to make sourdough bread, or combined with the next batch of beer.

While there are many ancient accounts for making bread, most of the knowledge known about ancient Egyptian brewing comes from an account by the alchemist Zosimos, over 300 years after Cleopatra's reign.

More recently, Dr. Delwen Samuel, an archaeobotanist, has proposed alternate antique techniques to brew beer.

However, experts are unable to replicate an authentic beer since not all of the techniques and ingredients used by ancient Egyptians are known yet.

Food was prepared on the floor until the Middle Kingdom, when cooking benches were introduced.

The introduction of durum wheat improved bread quality, meaning that the upper and middle classes ate better.

The poor, however, still made do with a diet consisting of a gruel made of vegetables, softened bread or barley.

Dough was kneaded by hand or foot and when sufficiently blended, additional items were added such as fruits, nuts, honey and spices. To leaven the bread they added sourdough or leaven from beer brewing.

Ovens were circular or beehive shaped and made with clay or brick. If there was no oven at all, a bread maker used the hot sand to bake flat bread, a technique stillin use by some Berbers today.

(Behind the Scenes)

Ancient Egyptians always had to fight off the omnipresent sand particles that were blown towards them.

Despite their best efforts, sand regularly made its way into their food. Additionally, particles from the grain-grinding stone tools and ovens they used also contributed to attrition and prematurely worn teeth.

The team tried to portray this through toothache animations and commoners sweeping sand off.

古埃及的红酒Wine in Ancient Egypt编辑

Learn about the origin, production and storage of wine in ancient Egypt.

When the god Horus lost his eye in a war with Set, the ancient Egyptians believe the eye turned into a vine, and the vine's tears became wine.

Early texts dating back to 3150 BCE contain the hieroglyph for wine.

Regarded as extremely valuable, wine was highly sought after by the elite. It was also an essential part of many religious ceremonies.

A millennia-old tradition, grape cultivation and wine production was regimented in the way typical of ancient Egyptian bureaucracy.

Egyptians kept careful records of winemakers, which they clearly identified on labels.

Every land owner with a modicum of self-respect usually kept a vineyard. This held particularly true in the regions of the Faiyum and the Nile Delta.

Documentation shows that only certain craftsfolk were allowed to provide the containers required to store and transport wine.

That and rigorous quality control checks established for every step of wine production shows that ancient Egypttians knew that the quality and longevity of wine could easily be affected by any number of variables, which they paid careful attention to.

Egyptians had different kinds of wines, most of which ranged in quality from good to very good. The sweet shedeh, to which honey had been added. The soft nedjem, obtained by drying the grapes in the sun. The maa, reserved for religious cerimonies.

And finally there was the paour, the mediocre-rated wine, resulting from the second pressing of grapes and reserved for a less discerning palate.

古埃及的油Oil in Ancient Egypt编辑

Learn about the cultivation and use of oil in ancient Egypt.

(Behind the Scenes)

Castor, sesame and moringa were the source of the most common oils in Ancient Egypt.

Oil was used for various purposes: cosmetics, medical treatments, nutrition, perfume, athletics, and rituals, to name a few.

The team decided to use oil as an explosive to add more gameplay opportunities for the player.

Ancient Egyptians originally used castor oil in wick lamps, but also for cosmetics, such as facial and hair treatments. There is mention in some papyrus of castor oil being prescribed to treat constipation, and help pregnant women.

Castor beans were found in ancient Egyptian tombs as early as 4000 BCE.

Castor oil was made by pressing the beans from the plant of the same name.

Olive trees were present though scarce in ancient Egypt's earty history, and olives were mostly imported from Syria and Palestine.

Their use and cultivation remained uncommon untilthe mass arrival of Greek settlers during the reign of the Ptolemies, when demand increased sharply.

Olive trees were normally found in the region of the Faiyum and the lands surrounding Alexandria.

罗马人编辑

罗马军事装备Roman Military Equipment编辑

Learn about the military equipment typical of Rome's armies.

DTAE Tiberius Cup

Skyphos: Tiberius' triump & preparation of a sacrifice

The strength of Rome was directly dependent on its military supremacy, and fundamentally militaristic society.

Regular citizens, comprised mostly of farmers and herders, joined to protect their land and families.

In return for their service, members of this civic army were allowed to vote.

Trained to be highly disciplined and obedient to superior officers, citizen-soldiers developed a deep sense of loyalty to their city.

DTAE Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus - Relief

Relief, base of Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus: iurator conducting a census

The quality of the armor of a Roman foot soldier was intrinsically linked to his social status and wealth. Chainmail was the most commontly used type of armor. Scale armor, made famous in today's media, came into use after Caesar's time.

Foot soldiers carried large and oblong shields, while the cavalry used smaller ones of Greek origin.

Soldiers were expected to carry their own kit, including the tools required for the construction of forts and tents.

DTAE Marching Roman Soldier

Marching Roman soldier, with gear

Roman soldiers used the same types of weapons. The stomach and face were the most targeted parts of the body. As such, a legionary was equipped with two close-combat weapons: a dagger and a short sword known as a gladius.

One of the most ingenicus Roman weapons was the javelin. Its pyramid-shaped tip pierced the body, while its iron shank was designed to break upon impact, stopping the enemy from throwing it back.

DTAE Trajan's Column - Relief

Trajan's column

During their conquests the Romans regularly transformed enemy technologies to add to their own formidable arsenal.

After capturing a Carthaginian vessel, the Romans adopted its better features and constructed a superior fleet of ships.

Adapting heavy artillery designs from Greek modeis aided the Romans in building catapults and ballistae. The latter became an iconic symbol of Roman warfare.

罗马要塞Roman Forts编辑

Learn about the structure and operation of Roman forts.

The size of a Roman military camp, known as a castrum, varied significantly depending on how many soldiers it needed to accommodate. However, they all shared common characteristics in design and construction, such as this fort before you, located in Cape Chersonesos.

Rectangular in shape, the forts were heavily fortified by ramparts and a ditch system.

The walls were reinforced with parapets, essentially an extension at the roofline which allowed a protective barrier for patrolling soldiers.

Depending on the availability of materials, some forts were built with stone, timbers, stacked turf and, particularly in the eastern part of the Empire, baked brick.

Access doors on all four sides were each flanked by guard towers.

The commanding officer was positioned in the middle of the camp, giving him a clear view of the troops and the main gate.

Along with sleeping barracks for the soldiers, the fort also had a granary that was expected to hold rations for a year or longer.

To ensure the health of the soldiers, every camp was equipped with medical staff and a hospital. A clean water supply with conduits for a bathhouse and latrines was included in the construction of every fort.

昔兰尼加的要塞The Forts of Cyrenaica编辑

Learn about the fortifications discovered in Cyrenaica, and their purpose.

DTAE Village near Cyrene - Jean Claude Golvin

Village near Cyrene

Cyrenaica was a Libyan region under Roman control, gifted to Rome by one of Cleopatra's ancestors.

The remains and foundations of ancient fortifications were discovered in the 19th century in the south-west of Cyrenaica, as well as a Roman garrison dating back to the first century CE.

Evidence shows that these forts were of Libyan origin, rebuilt and modified by Roman engineers when Cyrenaica was part of the Empire.

(Behind the Scenes)

Stone was the most commontly used material to build forts in Egypt and Cyrenaica.

Though no real proof of a fortress similar to the one before you has been uncovered in that region, the team chose to add it as a worthy and awe-inspiring end of game challenge for the player.

DT Map of the World - Mediterranean

Map of the world. Made by Eratosthenes of Cyrene, 240 BCE

(Behind the Scenes)

The forts of Cyrenaica were intended to prevent invaders from gaining access to the main route that lead to the country's five most important cities. These forts were built close to coastal plains and deserts for added defense.

Three of these cities were recreated by the team: Balagrae, Apollonia and Cyrene.

Had it existed, the fort before you would have protected the road leading to Balagrae.

Other than reference to an attack around 404 CE and a military reorganization by Emperor Justinian during the 6th century CE, we still know little of the Roman military presence in Cyrenaica.

罗马水道桥Roman Aqueducts编辑

Learn about the aqueducts and water management in Cyrenaica.

DTAE Pont du Guard Aqueduct - Hubert Robert

Painting of the Pont du Gard, by Hubert Robert

Water management was taken seriously by the Romans. Cyrenaica benefited greatly from Roman administration, with the construction of aqueducts and canals.

The source of water varied depending on the location.

Many aqueducts were built at the foot of the mountains, offering greater flow from the melting snow.

DTAE Cairo Aqueduct - Edme-François Jomard

View of the aqueduct near old Cairo, by Edme-François Jomard

The ability to transport water over a greater distance increased agricultural production.

Some aqueducts were reported to be over 7 kilometers in length.

Where the Greeks of Libya originally focused mainly on olive trees and figs, which required less water, the advent of Roman aqueducts allowed for a far greater crop diversity. Every farm's water use was carefully scheduled.

DTAE Roman leveling tools

Roman leveling tools

The engineering methods used to create aqueducts were constantly reviewed, with a clear focus on exploiting the local environment. Materials, water usage, cleaning regulations and a deep understanding of how to exploit gravity itself were all important concerns.

Several fortresses were built to protect the aqueducts, basins and cisterns.

DTAE Aqueduct of Segovia

Roman Aqueduct of Segovia

Additional water was collected with wells and cisterns, but aqueducts were the main supply of fresh water.

The water was distributed based on the collective needs of the city, before the private needs of an individual.

Almost all aqueducts ended in a fountain where the water circulated to clean the streets, and supply bathhouses and latrines, thus improving the cleanliness of Cyrenaica's cities.

十字架刑Crucifixion编辑

Learn about crucifixion, the most severe form of Roman capital punishment.

In terms of the severity of Roman justice, crucifixion was at the top of the list of corporal punishment, followed by death by fire and decapitation.

The upper class considered crucifixion unworthy of their position. Those lucky enough to have Roman citizenship were also exempt from such treatment.

DTAG Decimation - William Hogarth

Decimation, by William Hogarth

Easily accessible, crucifixions were popular entertainment among the citizenry.

Unlike throwing victims to wild animals, which required an arena, crucifixions did not require any particular setting.

DTAG Martydom of Saint Andrew

The martyrdom of Saint Andrew

Those subjected to crucifixion were almost always slaves, traitors and lower class citizens.

Roman deserters were crucified because the betrayal of the soldiers was perceived as endangering the lives of Roman citizens.

DTAE Statue of Spartacus

Spartacus breaking his chains

In 71 BCE, a major slave uprising in Italia was repressed by the Roman army.

This resulted in the crucifixion of 6000 men including their leader, a slave and former gladiator known as Spartacus.

可用人物编辑

Image Name Description
ACO DT Bayek
锡瓦的巴耶克 Medjay. Husband to Aya of Alexandria.
ACO DT Aya
亚历山大的艾雅 Trained as a medjay. Wife to Bayek of Siwa.
ACO DT Julius Caesar
尤利乌斯·凯撒 Roman politician and general.
ACO DT Cleopatra
克里奥帕特拉七世,笃爱父亲者 Descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter. Queen of Egypt.
ACO DT - William Miles render
威廉·迈尔斯 Modern day mentor. Father of Desmond Miles.
ACO-DT Layla
蕾拉·哈桑 Technical engineer. Former employee of Abstergo Industries.
ACO DT Ptolemy XIII
托勒密十三世,笃爱父亲的神 Brother-husband of Cleopatra VII Philopator. Pharaoh of Egypt.
ACO DM Khemu
锡瓦的卡慕 Son of Aya and Bayek.
ACO DM Shadya
尤赫梅莉亚的夏迪亚 Egyptian. Daughter to Hotephres and Khenut.
ACO DM Reda
商人瑞达 Egyptian. Nomadic merchant.
ACO Hasina
亚姆的哈席娜 Daughter of Menehet, an old friend of Bayek.
ACO DT Actor
演员 One of the famed actors of ancient Egypt, in costume.
ACO DT Egyptian Woman
埃及女子 Wearing clothing typical of the common Egyptian folk of the era.
ACO DT Egyptian Nobleman
埃及贵族 Wearing clothing typical of the nobility of Ancient Egypt.
ACO Egyptian Noblewoman
埃及女性贵族 Wearing clothing typical of the nobility of Ancient Egypt.
ACO Roman Soldier
罗马士兵 Wearing clothing typical of Roman soldiers of the era.
ACO DT Greek Nobleman
希腊贵族 Wearing clothing typical of the Greek nobility of the era.
ACO DT Greek Noblewoman
希腊女性贵族 Wearing clothing typical of the Greek nobility of the era.
ACO DT Greek Man
希腊男子 Wearing clothing typical of the common Greek folk of the era.
ACO DT Greek Woman
希腊女子 Wearing clothing typical of the common Greek folk of the era.
ACO Ptolemaic Soldier
托勒密士兵 Wearing clothing typical of Egyptian soldiers of the era.
ACO DT Bayek Hedj
Bayek with Egyptian Hedj Wearing hedj clothing, a more distinguished though still practical outfit. Hedj means "white".
ACO DT Bayek Irtyu
穿搭埃及蓝的巴耶克 Wearing irtyu clothing, favored by the nobles. Irtyu means "blue".
ACO DT Bayek Narok
穿搭神恩化身的巴耶克 Wearing the robe of an elder Maasai warrior.
ACO DT Bayek Persian
穿搭波斯卫兵的巴耶克 Purple is the color of leaders, feared by their enemies.

时间轴编辑

画廊编辑

参考与来源编辑

  1. This Month in Assassin's Creed: Origins – February. Ubisoft (01-02-2018). Archived from the original on 7月 17, 2020. Retrieved on 2月 2, 2018.

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