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发现之旅:古埃及Discovery Tour: Ancient Egypt)是一款可下载的教育工具,它允许玩家在不受战斗和游戏限制的情况下探索不同的世界。

该模式于2018年2月20日在《刺客信条:起源》中发布。它免费提供给拥有游戏的玩家,同时也作为个人电脑上的独立版本发售。它引入了一种允许玩家在游戏的地图上自由漫游,并通过一批导游来了解古埃及的历史的模式。[1]

目录

旅途[]

埃及[]

埃及的主要地区[]

了解埃及的主要区域

The Nile, Egypt / 2004

埃及的生活集中在尼罗河的沿岸,并且分为两个区域。

下埃及位于接近地中海的尼罗河三角洲,而上埃及在深入非洲的南方。

因为距离地中海较近,下埃及的温差没有上埃及如此极端。

Relief of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II and the Goddess Hathor

直到公元前3100年埃及统一之前,每个地区都有自己的法老与王冠的象征。

下埃及的王冠是红色的,由莎草纸与蜜蜂的符号所标记。

上埃及的王冠则是白色的,由莲花与莎草的符号标记。

Temple of Ptah, Memphis

两个区域各有相竞争的主要城市,特别是下埃及的孟斐斯,以及上埃及的底比斯

两个区域之内都有不同的信仰教派,各自崇拜着他们的主神。

Perfume burner, composite, with stand

许多神殿都被设计来代表两个区域,而仪式经常会让上下埃及同时进行。

尼罗河,生命之母[]

了解尼罗河及其在古埃及文明发展中的重要性

尼罗河

埃及人将尼罗河的暗色沃土称为“黑地”,而周围的沙漠被称为“红地”。

肥沃土地对比贫瘠沙漠的鲜明差异对于文化仪式形态,神话与宗教有着深远的影响。

尼罗河

尼罗河对埃及文明有着相当大的决定因素。举例来说,尼罗河的季节变化非常有一致性,古埃及人根据它来指定历法。

泛滥期或称阿克赫特是当洪水从适合耕种谷物的土壤褪去之时,接下来将伴随着种植期与采收期,被称为佩瑞特与施姆。

这些规律的季节加上大量的野生生物和肥沃的土壤代表埃及居民有办法养育自己,并确保他们的国家在贸易上的实力。

Memphis

尼罗河从南流向北,恰好横越通过上下埃及。

所有埃及的重要城市都沿着这条生命的窄带建造。

由被敌人当作是天然屏障的山脉与沙漠保护着,并由尼罗河的植物与野生生物供养,埃及文明享有超过4000年的经济与文化的蓬勃发展。

The Nile, Egypt

古埃及人与古希腊人在各自的语言中都将尼罗河称为“大河”。

绵延超过6700公里的距离,尼罗河是世界上最长的河流之一。它由南向北流动,横跨今天的11个国家。

尼罗河发源自呀赤道带的大湖区域,包括世界上最大的湖泊之一,今坦桑尼亚附近的维多利亚湖。

The Nile

大河流经非洲大陆赤道附近的森林,沼泽,火山地带,干草原与沙漠,分岔开一小段,带着各地区不同的沉积物并将它们一路带至埃及。

它的主要河道被称为白尼罗河,在喀木土与青尼罗河会合。它在此地与会通过富含泥沙与滋养物的沉积层,并将这些物质纳入自己的波澜之中。

View of the second cataract, from Nubia

尼罗河由南到北流经六座瀑布,在不同的河流区块间创造天然屏障。

瀑布是大约100公里的长型地区,充满气泡和激流漩涡的河水在无数的石堆与陡坎的硬石间湍急地向前流动。

View of the first cataract, from Philae

在通过努比亚和第1座瀑布后,大河正式地在亚斯文回归埃及。

在它抵达开罗和三角洲之间仍然还有一千公里的距离,将生命带给那些居住在它河岸边的生物,直到它最终流入地中海。

The Nile, Egypt

古埃及的灌溉与一般用水都集中于尼罗河。然而,他们也有办法取得溪流,河川和几座大湖的水。

三角洲坐落在尼罗河的北端尽头,也被称作下埃及,是一处大型的灌溉区域,大河在该处分岔成数条支流。

Menna and Family Hunting in the Marshes, Tomb of Menna

三角洲有几座大型的近海咸水湖,水体被细长的条状陆地与海洋切割开来。

参杂着深浅不同的水域,咸水沼泽和沙洲平原,这些湖泊是大量物种的栖身之所,也富含水和陆地植物。

偶尔可以在此处发现抢匪掩蔽在浓密的芦苇之中,等候着粗心的旅行者。

埃及的沙漠[]

了解涵盖94%埃及的沙漠

Wadi Al-Hitan (The Valley of Whales), by Véronique Dauge

自苍翠繁茂的尼罗河向两侧延伸的是严酷干燥的西部沙漠与多山的东部沙漠,它们涵盖将近94%的埃及。

这两座沙漠都拥有各自的微气候,并包含数座拥有特殊动植物的小型沙漠。

鲸鱼化石在撒哈拉沙漠深处被发现,被称为鲸鱼谷,此地点是海洋曾经覆盖过该区域的证据。

在撒哈拉沙漠东北方的白色沙漠的名称是来自于它的白色石灰岩,与黄沙形成鲜明对比。

风将白色沙漠中的岩石侵蚀成蕈状岩,其中最著名的被称为上帝之指。

DTAE Desert.png
大沙海是一座大型且不间断的沙漠,从西边的埃及延伸至东边的利比亚。

这是一种被称为利比亚硅玻璃的独特地质学构成物之产地,这个暗淡的黄绿色物质从小卵石大小的碎片到粗糙大圆石大小的玻璃石块都有。

卡塔拉洼地[]

了解埃及西北方的卡塔拉洼地

Dust Storm in Egypt

卡塔拉洼地位于埃及的西北部。

面积达到18,000平方公里,洼地位于海平面下133米并被盐所覆盖着。

它是非洲第二低点,仅次于阿法尔洼地。

该地气候十分干燥,平均温度达到摄氏36度。

著名的锡瓦绿洲就位于受到保护的西南地区。

现今,卡塔拉洼地被利用来进行原油钻探。

锡瓦Siwa[]

了解锡瓦绿洲的地理位置与其重要性

锡瓦鸟瞰图 在古时代,亚格米山,可见阿蒙神殿以及总督宫殿。

锡瓦绿洲在埃及的西方沙漠之中。

地理上来说,锡瓦绿洲位于低于海平面20米的漥地。它的天然泉水和温暖气候促成丰富的椰枣树产量。

尽管明显受到某种程度的埃及与非洲文化的影响,该地区的孤立环境造就了独特的社会与语言。

虽然他们敬仰相同的神祇,锡瓦神殿的建筑与传统埃及神殿有所不同。

锡瓦绿洲全景图。

由于它独特的地理结构,古王国的埃及人将绿洲称之为大锅。

绿洲对于游牧部落与商队至关重要。没有它们,在如此恶劣的里环境中根本没有机会存活下来。

因此,绿洲迅速成为交易中心和政治管控的地区。

尼罗河,埃及。

因为干燥的气候,绿洲能获得的降雨量非常少,反而地下河流在天然的盆地中涌动。

由于许多绿洲与尼罗河平行呈现南北向,有些地理学家提出它们可能曾经是这条巨大河流的直流。

有证据指出古埃及人尝试要创造出一些绿洲。

在埃及沙尘暴时 西方绿洲的景色

利比亚绿洲是最有名的,因为它们在地理上与文化上与尼罗河河谷和三角洲有所联系。

这些西方的绿洲有着与其他埃及地区截然不同的地理外形。

最知名和最重要的几座绿洲是哈里杰,达克拉,法拉夫拉,拜哈里耶和锡瓦。

锡瓦绿洲,凯森·锡瓦拉,马特鲁省,埃及。

太阳之泉是锡瓦的诸多热源之一,并拥有连克里奥帕特拉都会在其中沐浴的特质,因此获得了这个名字。

地下热源的存在早在公元前5世纪时就被希罗多德证明,当时绿洲被昔兰尼希腊人称作“阿蒙奈恩”。

Zeus Ammon on a throne

神谕者预测未来,传递或多或少难以理解的预兆并提供神性的指引。

锡瓦神谕者被认为是古代世界的三大权威之一,与 德尔菲和多多尼的神谕者并列。

由于希腊在昔兰尼加的几处殖民地,神殿将宙斯与对阿蒙的崇拜结合。

亚历山大大帝法老。卡纳克阿蒙神殿,让·比诺特所摄。

这也难怪亚历山大大帝会踏上冒险的旅程到锡瓦来征询神谕者的意见,效法传说中英雄的行为,就像是海克力斯珀尔修斯

这项举动获得了神谕者的认同,并认可了他成为埃及法老的要求。

他被证实是阿蒙之子,授予了他迄今在所有埃及的外来入侵者中最正统的权力。

锡瓦神谕殿 古时代,从后往前看的剖面图

有权势和有钱的人们会送礼或是旅行很长一段距离,借此确保自己能通过锡瓦神谕者的祝福而获得好运。每次成功的祝福都会提高预言者的名望。

奔跑者尤巴斯塔是著名的昔兰尼公民,他咨询了神谕者来知晓自己会不会赢得公元前408年的第93届奥运会赛跑。他拿下了胜利,并在过程中增加了锡瓦神谕者的名望。

保护塔哈尔卡国王的阿蒙巨像。

Behind the scenes
阿蒙神谕殿由法老雅赫摩斯于公元前6世纪建造。

在游戏中,它的入口被公羊头狮身像们看守着,着是代表阿蒙的动物。它们的灵感来自位于大英博物馆的一座十分类似的圣殿。

另一个选项会是受到希腊化的宙斯-阿蒙表现:有角的狮身人面像,这样的宙斯-阿蒙表现十分流行于锡瓦。

法尤姆[]

了解法尤姆的地理位置与其重要性

工具。来自埃及,法尤姆沿着位于法尤姆与吉萨金字塔群之间的路。

法尤姆绿洲是西部沙漠中的庞大盆地,借由尼罗河的泛滥而形成。因此,它不被认为是真正的绿洲,尽管它是该地区名称的来源,并涵盖了摩里斯湖。

绿洲藏有某些该地区最古老的考古学遗物,这代表从新石器时代开始就有猎人与采集者居住在该地区。

摩里斯湖

法尤姆绿洲的水会流入摩里斯湖。摩里斯湖是一座辽阔的淡水湖,但在某些时候会变成咸水湖。

在第12王朝,古埃及人使用一座水坝将水流转向,将湖泊当成他们的水库并挖掘出一条供给水道。

灌溉系统让他们能够在整年都持续种植无花果,葡萄和橄榄作物。

药物之屋:尼罗河景色,侏儒狩猎

芦苇船,风帆船,三列桨座战船与驳船是埃及内陆水域最常被看到的船只。

它们被使用作不同的目的,范围包含日常捕鱼,贸易,战争和旅行,到摆渡用来修建伟大埃及建筑的巨大石块。

哈瓦拉迷宫

最令人赞叹的金字塔可以追溯至古王国时代,并可以在吉萨的旧址中找到,萨卡拉和代赫舒尔。

然而,有一座在当代尤其出名的金字塔坐落于别的地方。在中王国时期间,有些法老选择法尤姆当作自己最终的安息地,其中的一名统治者是阿蒙涅姆赫特三世。

他的金字塔对古老编年史家留下深刻的影响。他们将它称作“迷宫”,主要是因为在金字塔底端的庞大丧葬神殿结构。希罗多德提到他观察了12座庭院和超过3000座金字塔房间,但他也以喜欢使用夸饰法闻名。

法尤姆,金字塔与迷宫位置平面图,莱普修斯,梅西厄,罗艾罗特以及卫登巴哈所制。

阿蒙涅姆赫特的金字塔在建设时使用了一块石砖核心并覆盖着石板,设计让人无法侵入。墓室是使用单一块沙岩所制成,它的设计十分特别。

理乍得·莱普修斯和弗林德斯·皮特里都探索过该金字塔遗迹,占地385米乘158米,并辨认出此处就是迷宫的所在地。

他们的研究条件十分艰困,因为大部分的遗迹都被附近的水道给淹没了。此外,建筑体的石头与金字塔的外罩都早已被开采走了。

Ubisoft决定要为据说是献给神圣的鳄神索贝克的许多地下土窖,以及这座失落的历史遗迹重新赋予生命。

Krokodilopolis

创建于第5王朝,此地在第12王朝中十分热闹,被称为“谢德埃”。

在托勒密时代,这座大都会被希腊人称为“鳄城”,以表示对鳄神索贝克的敬意。

在希罗时代中,属地公民也就是退伍后居住于该地的托勒密士兵将灌溉系统进行扩张。灌溉和供水分布让可耕种的土地成长为三倍,并让这座城市成为富饶和富有的地区。最高峰时期有27000名居民住在辖区中。

城市地点在战略上控制着许多与主要运河相连结的小型水道,进而掌控至尼罗河。

Stele of Aamerout worshipping the crocodile god Sobek

这个地区主要的教派是谢德埃的索贝克,一名跟水与沃土相关的神祇,这两者对于依赖灌溉的地区至关重要。

许多当地的村子将“索贝克之镇”这项称号加入他们的官方名称之中。

在节庆期间,古埃及人吟诵赞美索贝克的诗歌,请求他显现神威。

希腊移民和之后的罗马人若是采用了当地的防腐丧葬仪式就会协助促进索贝克神殿的经济繁荣,他们的石棺有着美丽的彩绘并有极为真实的画像当作装饰。

Krokodilopolis pond

和孟斐斯的圣牛教派十分相似,一只活生生的鳄鱼被奉养在鳄城主要神殿的范围内。

埃及人称之为索贝克,希腊人称之为苏库斯。根据斯特拉波的记述,祭司用肉,酒与蜂蜜牛乳来喂食它。

他们将它的身体盖满珠宝与黄金。在它死后,它被进行防腐处理并和其他数千只木乃伊化的鳄鱼一起放置在鳄鱼洞穴中。

孟斐斯城[]

了解孟斐斯城与其在古埃及不同时期中的地位。

Figures of various gods

在古埃及所有是其中的城市都有一项相同的特点,它们都坐落于尼罗河畔。

城市的功能往往是用作治理或敬神,主要城市拥有数座神殿以供奉为数众多的男神或女神。

埃及人将他们的城市组织称作赛帕特,或是之后的波斯语词汇,诺姆。下埃及有20个赛帕特,而上埃及有22个。

古埃及的首都对着世纪经历过多次变更。

Khonsou temple, Euergetes gate, Karnak

其中一座最大的城市是位于下埃及的孟斐斯。它是宗教神殿的重要中心之一,包含着他们最终要的神祇,创造之神卜塔。

底比斯位于上埃及,它媲美着孟斐斯并将且被当作政治与宗教的中心。两座重要的神殿卢克索和卡纳克建造于该地。

塞易斯王朝较小型的首都为塞易斯城,这是埃及最后的原生埃及人之首都。

Memphis

在第三王朝期间,在法老左塞尔的统治下,孟斐斯变为埃及的第一座宗教与行政首都。

甚至当埃及的政治首都自身份权的时候,法老都会在这座神圣的城市中进行加冕来宣布他们登基称为君王,直至并包括亚历山大大帝。

尽管今日于开罗南方之保留了少部分的遗迹,我们依然能够推测出城市的结构,它延伸之多5公里长与2公里宽。

Cult Image of the God Ptah

孟斐斯也被称作“百门之城”或“白墙”,这些名称与围绕城市的城墙有所关联。

在工匠之神卜塔的保护之下,这座城市是繁荣的宗教与经济枢纽。

重新发现埃及Rediscovering Egypt[]

了解现代考古学的起源

Saqqarah / 19th century

19世纪随着观光于挖掘情形大幅增加以及来自其他国家的非法倒卖,都威胁着埃及的考古遗产。

埃及人本身也参与了这场破坏行动,洗劫遗址中的古物来转卖,从遗迹中搬走巨石与肥沃的古老泥块来自行利用。

François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette, Egyptologist

为了保存埃及的遗产,一项主要政策于1858年成立,埃及总督创建了文物理事会。

在外国学者团队的支持下,奥古斯特·马利特在理事会上实施了严格的管制。他带着着使命前往埃及各处,甚至去了努比亚,在几乎所有大型考古站都介入过。

意识到要将尚未出土的文物留在埃及的必要性,马利特在1858年要求创建一个博物馆以达到这般要求。这博物馆正是埃及博物馆的前身。

Portrait of Gaston Maspero

加斯东·马伯乐是马利特的继任者,同样扩展并重整了文物理事会,发起律法限制文物的输出。

法国学者们持续主导者理事会,直到1950年代才转移给了埃及。

在19世纪中,埃及学快速称为私立学府以及知识协会所认可的学科。

Archaeologist Jean Claude Golvin in June 2002

一名法国建筑师,考古学家以及前研究者,尚-克洛德·高尔文现在专注于以美术重现古代城市与遗迹。

直至今日,他已经创作了超过800幅画作,当中包括三册专注在重现古埃及原貌的画册。

他的作品表现出非常精致的细节,同时可以在全世界的图书馆以及书本中当中看到。

City of Krokodilopolis

制作团队也很兴奋能与尚-克洛德·高尔文合作来重新构筑游戏中的埃及。

在这他特地为制作团队绘制的19张水彩画中,高尔文使用科学数据作为基本来推测,借此为古埃及的许多地点与以及提供了完整的诠释。

早期草图以及完整演算的图片被制作团队用来作为打造《刺客信条:起源》世界的参考。

尽管古埃及丰富的信仰文化以及丧葬遗迹仍被深入研究中,埃及学的主要学派则转移了目标。

与其单纯取得惊人的文物,埃及学家们今日倾向于提升对于埃及的知识。

在过去,考古挖掘会直接在实地执行,虽然现在仍然也是这么做,但是许多有关埃及学的研究都转移到了图书馆或数据库当中。

时至今日,埃及的考古学仰赖着跨学科的接触,现在不同领域各种学科的科学家们互相协助埃及学家,找出全新,非入侵式的技术。

GPS数据,卫星影像遗迹透地雷达让考古学家能够在开挖之前先知道地下埋藏着什么。

泡碱Natron[]

了解泡碱的使用以及在古埃及是如何开采这项原料

Bag of Natron from Tutankhamun's Embalming Cache

泡碱是无色的盐类,被古埃及人用作食物保存,清洁产品和玻璃制作,它也会在木乃伊化制作过程中被使用。

Mummy of a woman, 3rd century BCE

在正式的防腐仪式中,祭司会将遗体泡入泡碱当中来除去所有的水分。

当遗体被彻底脱水后,他们可以开始进行包裹。

Natron Lakes

泡碱是在泡碱溪谷中进行开采。主要的开采方式包含在湖床干涸时将它一片片切下,或是在涨潮时耙过矿物饱和的水域来收集矿物盐。

Natron mines

两种技术至今都仍被采用,并赋予制作团队灵感来在位于孟斐斯西北方的山脉中重现这些矿脉。

古埃及的动物Fauna of Ancient Egypt[]

了解古埃及的动物

Eyeshadow palette, decoraed with hyenas or lycaon from the Neolithic Period

早在第一王朝时,家禽与野生动物就出现在埃及的浮雕中。

除了多元的生态能够作为可靠的食物来源以外,这也同时影响了文化以及神话。

Gazelle figurine from the 18th Dynasty

埃及的地形让他们有非常多元的动物,包含了豹,犀牛,大象以及不同种类的羚羊。

Figure of a hippopotamus, nicknamed "William" dating from the 12 Dynasty

尼罗河也是许多鱼种的栖身之所,同时还有河马跟鳄鱼。

Wood and bronze statuette of Ibis from the Ptolemaic Era

各种不同的鸟类栖息在河岸,从猛禽与水鸟到鸣禽都有,并全都被记录在埃及的圣书文符号中。

与众多爬行类和昆虫接触,像是眼镜蛇,蝎子与圣甲虫,都对圣书文与艺术产生影响。

Artist's sketch of a pharaoh spearing a lion from the 20th Dynasty

虽然所有的动物都有各自神圣的意义,而狮子在古埃及特别象征着力量与忠诚。他们对法老来说意义非凡,在埃及内被猎杀到几乎快要灭绝。

古埃及的植物Flora of Ancient Egypt[]

了解古埃及的植物

Sennedjem and Ilneferti in the Fields of Iaru, painting from the 19th Dynasty

尼罗河三角洲的气候与独特地理特性,造就了多元的植被。

许多植物都被古埃及人作为生计来源,同时也作为交易用的作物。

尼罗河三角洲规律的季节变化,让埃及可以维生数世纪之久。

Crafting of papyrus boasts: relief from Niuserrer's chamber of the seasons from the 5th Dynasty

植物之中最有用的大概是莎草,这个高立的莎草科植物沿着尼罗河的水边丰富的滋长着。

虽然最常被用来造纸,古埃及人还找到了许多不同的用途,包含了编制绳索,拖鞋以及地毯。

有莎草花装饰的船只是用植物座的,这种植物也在画作与浮雕中会看到,同时也被用在进行仪式。

Relief: Hand clutching an Olive Branch, from the 18th Dynasty

沿着尼罗河岸有着许多不同的树种,像是椰枣,角豆树以及柽柳。

最早被用来种植的水果树是无花果树,接着则发展到苹果,石榴而最终在新王国时期发展到了橄榄树。

芒果的种植则是源自于中世纪来自亚洲的进口。

Neskashouty, Scribe, Counter of Grain in the Granary of Divine Offerings of Amun, dating from the 21st Dynasty

有些树木也与诸神有所联系,例如刺槐就与荷鲁斯相连结。

托特与塞沙特两位神祇则被描述会将国王的治理刻入酪梨树中。

赖特氏鼠尾粟则与女神伊赛特相连结,她也是生命仪式的守护神。

古埃及圣书文Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs[]

了解圣书文,它们如何随着时间演化,以及它们可以如何教导我们了解古埃及文化。

圣书文被视为神圣的文字,出现在遗迹,雕像和神圣莎草纸上,形似圣书文的符号最早可追溯到公元前4000年的陶器上。

这类风格的标志和图画是从古代起源一直流传到法老统治结束的唯一书写方式。

古埃及人则把圣书文称为诸神的书写。

圣书文是个困难的语言,它原本为法老,贵族以及祭司所用,而且只会用在仪式,古墓以及政府记录中。

因为只有少数埃及人才能阅读古老的圣书文,为这语言在他们自己的文化中添增了一层神秘面纱。

Agricultural Scenes, Tomb of Nahkt

圣书文的结构为我们提供理解埃及文化的管道,不单只是翻译出来的内容,还包括这些符号的形成过程。

古墓墙上,石棺上,雕像以及陶罐上都看得到它们的身影,也一丝不苟地记载在无数个古老莎草纸中。

在许多神殿当中,祭司会举行仪式以及每日祭品。

在陵墓壁画当中,圣书文以惯有的方式来吟诵。这些口语代表着符咒,为了让死者在永恒之终能从供品中受益。

符咒与祭品同时也会用在活着的人身上,借此强化药效并治疗疾病。

最著名的古埃及文档莫过于“死者之书”了。

以圣书文与僧侣文书写的这份文档,描写出了重要的符咒与仪式。

这些符咒是为了确保生命到死亡之间能有平稳的转变,并让逝者能够安全地穿过死后世界的危险。

尽管成功解读之后,因为可以从许多方向读起的关系,使得圣书文的阅读依旧困难。

根据符号的方向,圣书文可以从左到右,从右到左,或者水平和垂直阅读,但绝不会是从底部往上阅读。

要从哪个方向阅读起的线索就在于象征符号所面对的方向。如果一个象形文字往右看着,这就代表读者必须从右边开始读起。

莎草纸上的文字则从右侧开始,然后从每列的上方读往下方。

古墓中书写的文字则类似于漫画中的结构。

文字可以放在角色的前方,后方或上方,而它的符号则与角色面对的方向一致。

另一个线索则是神的名字,或者象征诸神或国王的圣书文,它们总是写在描述文字之前。

与字母语言相比,埃及圣书文拥有更多符号。

为了解决缺乏元音的情况,埃及人发明了一种符号类型,当这些符号放在单后缀端时,它们能定义该单字的意思。

举个例子,一只狮子的画像可以代表狮子,同时也有因为狮子常与危险或强大联想在一起的抽象概念。

中埃及圣书文的符号略超过七百个,到了希腊罗马年代尾声,符号数量更是达到了一万个。

埃及学家,艾伦·加德纳爵士创建了一个用来分辨常见圣书文符号与变体版本的列表。

古代埃及语言与亚洲和非洲语言有着许多相似之处。它们皆与埃及文书写法有着类似的演变。

这些语言属于闪含语系。埃及语言有着五种明显的演化,每种都有自己独特的结构。这些语言被称为古埃及文,中埃及文,晚埃及文,世俗文与科普特文。

科普特文时唯一存活的语言,让语言学家们能够找出元音结构并区分不同的方言。

虽然圣书文和僧侣文让我们大略得知古埃及语言的构造和写作方式,但是它的发音方式至今仍有争议。

制作团队选择了英文作为口语交谈,人物们则使用古埃及和希腊单字与口音。

背景人群所使用的语言主要是基于艾伦·加纳德爵士的埃及文法。

为了重现着个已经失传的语言,我们向埃及学家和对话教练咨询并设置了目标发音,接着找来拥有阿拉伯,希伯来和非洲背景的配音员们赋予游戏生命。

在亚历山大大帝来到埃及并创建起他的政权后,希腊文成为了政府机构使用的语言。

无法阅读圣书文使得希腊人感到愤愤不平,而为了缓和这紧张的情势,才有了罗塞塔石碑。

基督教的扩散为法老文化画上了句号,也导致了非基督教建筑的破坏。

这点同时也让圣书文的写作与理解彻底失传。

尚-法兰索瓦·商博良Jean-François Champollion[]

了解如何辨识以及解译圣书文

The long-desired fulffiled knowledge occult alphabets, attributed to Ibn Wahshiyya

从公元5世纪到文艺复兴时期,关于圣书文的知识完全失传了。

许多热衷于此的人们接受了解译此语言的挑战,然而几乎没有进展。在不同研究人员确定名字与部分文法结构下,一些基础知识由此而生,并确认了王名圈代表着王家名称的标记。

他们仍然缺少信息的重要片段,而这关键部分的解谜都要感谢罗塞塔石碑的出土。

Rosetta Stone / Ptolemaic Era

罗塞塔石碑在1799年被拿破仑军队中的一名士兵,布夏德发现了。

这块石板可追溯自公元前196年,上头以三种文字书写着而古埃及文与希腊文:包括圣书文,世俗文以及希腊字母。

随着拿破仑·波拿巴在1801年战败之后,英国人取得了这块石碑的所有权。从1802年开始,它就在大英博物馆展示至今,也是该博物馆有史以来最多人探访的古物。

Portrait of Jean-François Champollion, Egyptologist

1803年,第一段被解译出来的时希腊文的部分。里面详细记载了托勒密五世的法老诏书,提醒着国民,他们的法老领导者埃及迎向繁盛的世代。

二十年后,以摹本研究的尚-法兰索瓦·商博良完全翻译了整块石碑。

"La Grammaire egyptienne" Autograph manuscript by Champollion

在他对石碑的研究中,商博良成功观察到一个能够解开谜团的关键要点。那就是圣书文不仅是表意文字,更是音标符号。

圣书文由音标符号,单字符和语标所组成。本质上来说,它们是语音,字母以及完整单字的组合,整体上则形成了一种语言。

Foundation plague from the Serapeum in Alexandria, showing the Greek and Egyptian inscriptions

商博良在研究石碑的时候,意识到同一个单字,圣书文的字符数量与希腊字母的数量有所不同。这使他相信圣书文必定具有语音特质。

这也就是解开罗塞塔石碑秘密的第一步。

Inscription fragment of Ptolemy I's cartouches

为了证明这个理论,商博良开始辨识历代埃及统治者的名讳,接着将它们的语音发音与希腊版本进行比较。

例如,基奥普斯就是古代编年史作家们给大金字塔主人,胡夫的希腊名。

Temple of Iset, Island of Philae / circa 1880

商博良接下来就是确认他的方法能被验证,因此他使用了菲莱方尖碑作为额外参考。

方尖碑上刻有以埃及圣书文和希腊文书写的两则碑文。他在这些碑文中确认了托勒密和克里奥帕特拉的名字后,并在罗塞塔石碑上找出了相同的语音规则后,商博良知道他的方向没有错。

"La Grammaire égyptienne" Autograph manuscript by Champollion

商博良开始解译罗塞塔石碑时早已精通数种古代语言。他用他的科普特文知识来辨识方尖碑上的日盘圣书文实际上是“拉”的拼音写法。

进一步的翻译让他的结论更加屹立不摇。埃及圣书文的字符环绕在语音和限定词的使用上,这意味着符号其实就代表了单字本身。

创建昔兰尼The Founding of Cyrene[]

了解昔兰尼城

Map of the world by Eratosthenes of Cyrene, circa 240 BCE

昔兰尼加横跨了非洲西北方的海岸。在古代这里被称为“五城”,与希腊殖民期间有五座大城市成立有所关联。

绿山的茂密平原上也就是现今的利比亚的位置,希腊殖民者在公元前630创建起了昔兰尼这座城市。

昔兰尼的人口成长地很快,扩散到整个高原的梯田上面,让它称为了第一个也是最大一个的殖民地。

Arcesilaus II, king of Cyrene, supervising the weighing and storage of silphium.

昔兰尼这座城市是由巴图斯·亚里斯多德德尔菲神谕者领导下建成的。

过度拥挤又遭遇干旱,巴图斯的家乡,锡拉之岛无法供养所有人的生活。巴图斯向神谕者咨询,并得知它们必须前往北非海岸寻找可耕作地。

在前面两个世纪当中,许多国王统治过这座城市。然而,一场叛乱彻底终结了君主制度,从此以后,这座城市由贵族治理。

Agora of Cyrene

昔兰尼的主要特点就是奉献给诸神的神殿:例如阿波罗狄蜜特宙斯,以及托勒密王朝的伊赛特塞拉皮斯神。

广场则定义了市中心所在,在西部外围则创建起了著名的卫城

公元2世纪末期时港口周围新建了一道防御城墙。随着城市逐渐发展,越来越多的建筑物开始修建在城墙外围。

Two-faced bust, likely Aristippus of Cyrene and his daughter, Arete

在罗马的影响下,昔兰尼成为一个经济强势的城邦,在整个地中海中占有一席之地。

除了希腊城市科斯岛之外,昔兰尼的医学院与各地不相上下。

古代数学,天文学和地理学的一些伟大思想家出生于此或在城里的各个学派中受到启发,其中包括由苏格拉底学生阿瑞斯提普斯所创立的哲学学院。

Statue of a draped woman, acephalous

从公元115年到公元117年,犹太区发生了一场反叛,给昔兰尼带来严重的损伤。

长久下来,一连串的战争,差劲的罗盘草耕种管理和地震,对城市造成不可复原的伤害。

它在公元365年时被完全废弃了。

阿波罗尼亚

附近的阿波罗尼亚港有着理想的地理位置,天然海湾,由两座岛屿和岩石庇护的出入口。

搭建起灯塔之后,这港口后来还扩建码头和仓库,以乘载不断增加的航运流量。

Apollonia Ruins On Landscape Against Cloudy Sky

凭借着成功作为一个商业贸易港口,阿波罗尼亚超过了昔兰尼,最终称为了五城的首都。

数次地震使得城市逐渐偏移,造成原有的大部分结构下沉,至今仍能在水中看到它的部分遗址。

广场与温泉浴场The Agora & Thermal Baths[]

了解亚历山大的共有公共空间与其在其他城市中的功能

Cyrene Agora / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

昔兰尼的广场是城市的公共集市与政治中心。

它有着露天的中央庭院,摊贩群集而商店立于周围,有些甚至恰好塞得进有长屋顶的柱廊之下。

和其他希腊城市中相同,广场有一座中央炉灶,被称作公共会堂。此处时昔兰尼的官方使馆,用来款待造访城市的宾客。

Prow Monument, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Libya) / 2003

(Behind the scenes) 一尊代表着海战胜利的无名雕像是广场上的中心摆饰。

雕像的女性形象可能代表着尼姬,胜利女神。

它可能与萨莫色雷斯的胜利女神非常相似,该女神像目前存放于卢浮宫博物馆,并被制作团队用作参考。

Possible Tomb of Battos, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Libya) / 2003

昔兰尼广场上也陈列着许多神殿与纪念碑来庆祝它的创建人巴图斯国王和城市的诸神。

有两座圣坛与阿波罗神殿有所关联,并有座大理石雕像基地供奉着利比亚女神。

城市的建筑群包含一座法院,并附带着一座文件馆。文件馆收藏了法律文献和其他城市治理上不可或缺的文档。

残存建筑物被火损坏的痕迹显示它可能在公元115年的一场犹太人团体的叛乱中被摧毁。

Hadrian's Baths, Sanctuary of Apollo [Detail] / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

公共澡堂在罗马与希腊城市中十分常见,而昔兰尼也遵照这项传统。

两座来自不同时代的热水澡堂在遗迹中被发现。

在其中一座澡堂门口的刻字被推测可能归咎于其拥有者,它证明了此建筑物是存在希腊化时代。

Mosaic of the Nile / 1st Century

马赛克原先是基于很实际的原因所创造:对于防水地板的需求。

由希腊人从埃及和昔兰尼加引进,设计上象征着日常生活,海洋动物与神话生物。

出了传统希腊图样,他们同时结合了特定的埃及文化概念,像是莲花。

不过,至今马赛克复原的最佳范品却是来自亚历山大。

Venus Anadyomene [Excavated at the Baths] / 2nd century BCE

昔兰尼澡堂被安置在一座地下陵墓之中,陵墓的年代约在公元前8至6世纪之间。

澡堂座椅是直接刻入石头中而成,进而提供更舒适的洗澡环境。

如同许多的公共建筑物,热水澡堂也会被精心装饰。像是阿芙萝黛蒂或是弓箭手厄洛斯的雕像,就在其中被发现。

凉室,也就是冷水池,是来宾第一间进入的房间。随后会进入温室或是温水区,并接着是热水房,称之为热室。

热水澡堂的水源来自于天然的泉水,发热的石块被放置在水中来制造所需要的蒸汽。

流动的泉水最终会来到一座水槽与喷泉,被称为奥古斯塔水池。

较晚的罗马澡堂是在图拉真皇帝时期建造的,并接着在哈德良时期整修。

在公元365年的一起地震后,它们被采用拜占庭设计的澡堂给取代,并在重建中使用到旧热水澡堂的石头。

制作团队通过描写图拉真时期所建造之澡堂的历史文档来创造出游戏中可进入的场所。

昔兰尼的宙斯神殿The Temple of Zeus in Cyrene[]

了解位于昔兰尼的宙斯神殿

面朝东方日出伫立着一座供奉宙斯教派的神殿,它是在公元前5世纪中的某些时候被建造的。

长70米并有着46根多立克式的圆柱,这座雄伟的建筑物是在非洲被建造的最庞大的希腊神殿。比帕德嫩神殿以及奥林匹亚的宙斯神殿略大一些。

外部使用多立克建筑常见的装饰元素进行设计。

柱子们有着不同的尺寸,让造访者观看建筑物的各面向时都可以给予独一无二的感受。

在神殿于犹太人叛乱期间被摧毁后,哈德良皇帝将它进行重建。他选择不重新建造外柱廊,但用大理石修复了新的科林斯柱。

神殿后来在马克·奥里略统治下完工。

在奥古斯都时期,一座十分相似但是较小的奥林匹亚宙斯神殿之模仿建筑被使用来敬神。

哈德良接着比照奥林匹亚的宙斯神殿建置了新的12米高雕像,它是使用凿刻的大理石制成,并在头,手臂与脚部分使用圆雕技巧。

考古学家确定这座神殿中有一座纪念性的宙斯雕像,然而专家们对于它到底是属于宙斯还是更特定的宙斯-阿蒙教派之神祇仍抱持着不同意见。

基于认识到昔兰尼在希腊地中海地区是宙斯-阿蒙的扩张核心,制作团队决定将此教派的雕像放置在这个地点。

昔兰尼的重要名胜Important Monuments of Cyrene[]

了解阿波罗神殿以及昔兰尼的圆形竞技场

阿波罗神殿坐落于昔兰尼高原的一处突出边缘,眺望着地中海。

它可以借由阿波罗尼亚的路通过冥都而入,或是采用神圣的方式,自城市的广场进入。

城市内遍布的大量神殿与雕像反映出受到希腊与埃及教派数世纪影响的现象。

供奉阿波罗的神殿,昔兰尼和宙斯立于那些托勒密诸神诸如塞拉皮斯与伊赛特的旁边。

许多喷泉被装饰来代表其他的神祇们,包括城市的命名典故,昔兰尼。

一座被称为普罗皮莱们的门廊标记着它的入口,并有着显眼的阿波罗的喷泉。

太阳与守护之神阿波罗对希腊与罗马都是一名重要的神祇。

为了向他敬奉所建的神殿被认为是十分神圣的。

壮观的神殿建筑有着自然的壁带,伸展超过200米的长度并大约有50米的宽度,而且被大量的多立克列柱给环绕。

由考古学家发现的片段指出针对柱子的修复工程大约发生在公元115-116年之间。

祭坛位于神殿的前方,它们被估计出自相同的时期,但是在不同的时间被进行修复。

每年都由许多公牛在祭坛以敬奉阿波罗的名义被献祭,为了绑住动物在环形物上的石头留下的痕迹在今日依然可见。

在罗马化时代所雕刻出的“阿波罗与七弦琴”于神殿附近被找到,它被认为是一项重要的考古学发现。

阿波罗的雕像在被发现时是破碎的状态。令人惊讶的是,大部分的碎块都被寻找到,而修复后的雕像现今位于大英博物馆。

制作团队根据目前的部分重建推断出雕像的最后样貌,并将它放入神殿中来表现出该时代的守护神。

昔兰尼的圆形竞技场位于被称为莫陶沙台地的地方,就在阿波罗神殿旁边。

它在2世纪时建于一座老旧的剧场之上。

原本作为舞台使用,这座剧场在罗马的角斗士娱乐活动来到这座城市最后变成的圆形竞技场。

入口被设置在圆形竞技场的两侧尽头,一座墙取代了前两排的看台作为当成对厂商大批野生动物的保护措施。

用来让野兽与角斗士游走行进的通道环绕着竞技场,和罗马竞技场的通道不一样,它是位在圆形竞技场下方。

地下室和回廊用来容纳角斗士与动物,还包括将陷阱提升至竞技场中心的升降机。

由于原本的剧场十分靠近悬崖侧壁,扩建工程无法提供一个完美的圆形,反而是接合了半圆形的结构来让竞技场成为椭圆形形状。椭圆形的结构依然能确保在每个角度都能得到很好的视野。

制作团队因为技术原因决定创造一个完美圆形的剧场,并采用罗马剧场的结构来当作他们的参考来源。

昔兰尼的卫城The Acropolis of Cyrene[]

了解昔兰尼城的卫城区

Position and plan of Cyrene by Beechey & Walker, in Proceedings of the expedition to explore the northern coast of Africa / 1828

位于城市的西方边缘,昔兰尼的卫城比希腊的还要小,但它的制高点为城市提供保护。

在它的入口只有单一扇门,并在侧面有两座塔。一段至今清晰可见的铭文表示城墙与要塞在奥古斯都时期被修复。

Portrait of Berenice II, (found in Hermopolis Magna, Egypt) / 246 - 221 BCE

遗址中有挖掘出数座小雕像,其中包括贝勒尼基,昔兰尼国王马格斯之女。马格斯是托勒密二世同母异父的兄弟。

在东北塔处,有一座由两座小神殿和门廊构成的圣殿,并有着一座被认为是塞拉皮斯与伊赛特的圣坛。

当神殿被发掘时,考古学家发现火焰损害的痕迹,然而没有任何迹象显示这场火灾是什么时候发生的。

在20世纪中,一座防御工事建造在整个地区之上来对抗来袭的军队。

它完全涵盖了附近罗马房屋的古代遗迹,而考古学家尚未将它们完全挖掘出。

角斗士竞技场The Gladiator Arena[]

了解罗马共和国内的角斗士竞技场

Lamp: Gladiators fighting / 1st Century

(Behind the Scenes) 尽管角斗士一直到之后的罗马时代才会在昔兰尼进行打斗,但制作团队决定要加入角斗士竞技场的原因有二。

第一,他们觉得去描写这方面的罗马人生活是很重要的;和第二点,他们感觉这会为游戏体验增加有趣的可能性。

Gladiators fighting / 4th Century

第一批进入竞技场的角斗士是战争中的俘虏。

这是展现人与野兽之间暴力交锋的壮观场面,持续了将建一千年。

Figurines of gladiators / Hellenistic Period

到后来自愿者开始上场。为了地位与财富,大量更有技巧的战士也提升了娱乐质量。因此,角斗士这项职业出现了。

受到角斗士雇主合约的约束,斗士们在营房内用餐,训练并被看守。

Helmet of a gladiator / 1st Century

角斗士被分成重装与轻装的斗士,各自拥有特定的护甲和武器配置。

举办者通常会让受到观众支持的两组派别在战斗中对上彼此。

Gladiators fighting / 4th Century

比赛筹备相当完整,决斗时将会有背景音乐以及裁判监督。

死亡,不论是经由战斗或是被判决的结果,并不一定是落败方的唯一出路。

有些人因为他们的表现而被释放,并成为恶名昭彰的名人。

昔兰尼的主要出口物品Major Exports of Cyrene[]

了解昔兰尼主要经济财富的来源

Cypriote ring based juglet; [the inverted poppy shape] suggests that the jars once held opium, which is made from the sap. / 18th Dynasty

昔兰尼的经济财富之主要来源为种植并出口罂粟花和罗盘草

尽管罂粟花产出的鸦片油也是出口项目之一,跟这项作物有关的信息并不多。

关于种植罗盘草的信息反倒对我们来说更容易取得。

Cyrene, Silver coin. Head of Ammon. (reverse) Silphium, c. 435-375 BCE / 1889

罗盘草和它黄色的花朵,被当作是太阳神的赏赐。

只在地中海周遭的区域生长,罗盘草的提取物被高价出口并对于昔兰尼加的财富至关重要,因此它被雕刻在他们的钱币上。

Vase of Aphrodite and Eros / Classical Antiquity

罗盘草的根部会产生一种树脂,而希腊人与罗马人都会在药材中使用它来治疗咳嗽,发烧,消化不良和许多其他病痛,它也被当作避孕药使用。

在来自公元前4世纪的食谱汇集中,该草药在各种各样的食谱中被提及,包括一道红鹤菜肴。

Arcesilaus II, king of Cyrene, supervising the weighing and storage of silphium

高需求量,过度滥采和也许某次气候的变迁造成罗盘草的最终灭绝。

最后一次关于它的提及是在公元4世纪,而从此之后就再也没有发现过这种植物的记录。

金字塔Pyramids[]

金字塔的起源The Origin of the Pyramid[]

了解古埃及的早期墓葬以及以及如何进化到现今广为人知的金字塔建筑

Heliopolis [Detail on Benben] / 2016 / Jean-Claude Golvin

“金字塔(pyramid)”这个词的来源具有争议性,大部分人相信它来源自希腊文的“puramis”意思是圆锥形的面包。

古埃及生与死的概念源自太阳的周期变换,金字塔光滑面的完美形状被联想成法老在死后转化成为一道太阳光芒的象征。

金字塔代表着奔奔石,赫利奥波利斯创世神话中的原始之丘,这些故事或多或少掺杂在埃及人生活中的每个面向。

Mummified body / 3rd Millenium BCE / Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy

在前王朝时期中,丧葬习俗的发展会因为居住者位于上埃及下埃及而有所不同。

早在金字塔出现之前,就存在有墓葬冢。

在下埃及的迈里姆德贝尼萨拉迈有一处地点,我们在哪里找到最古老的墓葬地点,可追溯到公元前5000年。

对于陵墓的研究显示死者的尸体会被存放在不深的坟墓当中,呈现胎儿的姿势。尽管在这些坟墓中发现了一些物件,但它们无法让我们判断那些存放于其中之人的社会阶级。

Reconstruction of a man's tomb / Prehistory

在上埃及,前王朝的习俗较容易探究,但是显示出较复杂的丧葬仪式。它们被分成两种文化时期:拜达里那加答

拜达里时期是从公元前4400年到公元前3800年,在村落外围发现的小型冥都都证明某种丧葬教派的出现。

死者的尸体被向下放入椭圆形的坟墓,并使用山羊或瞪羚皮覆盖,日常用品会被附加在尸体旁。

在三个那加答时期中,从公元前4000年到公元前3510年,丧葬习俗发展得更加复杂。

陵墓的形状从椭圆形转变为矩形,以模仿生者房屋的羊毛。墓地的增大,而丧葬物品变得更多且具装饰性。

陵墓变得更加复杂,会使用砌体结构,木制饰皮肤或砖块来强化结构。

随着时间经过,具有社会阶层区分的冥都开始出现。举例来说,在希拉孔波利斯,社会精英与平民有着各自的冥都。

A mastaba in Gizeh / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

石室坟墓这个词在阿拉伯方言中代表着“庞大的长凳”是指一种在埃及远古时期到中王国时期所出现的丧葬建筑。

作为一种墓葬冢的演变,石室坟墓通常由两个部分所组成。一座在地面上建筑的结构,形状是庞大的矩形并有阶梯状的墙壁,还在其下方的地下墓室。

小型的石质坟墓时常会围绕在大上许多的国王陵墓附近,这些坟墓通常存放着国王亲戚与朝臣的遗体。

Model of the Tomb of Perneb / 5th Dynasty

石室坟墓底部构造的配置在古王国时期发生演变。

第五王朝之后,石室坟墓通常会有复数房间作为底部构造,有时会多达30间房间。此外,装饰的数量与质量显著地提高,就和在其中发现的雕像数量一样。

West6 wall of the chapel of Kaemsenu with niches for Iretnub, Kaemsenu and Werdjedptah / 5th Dynasty

第六王朝能够见到艺术被展现至极限,整个石室坟墓的表面会被日常生活的景象覆盖,说明这些有幸在法老金字塔附近舒适地度过永生的人们是多么地富裕成功。

这类石室坟墓中最好的里斯是围在萨卡拉梅里鲁卡坟墓。

左塞尔的阶梯金字塔建筑群[]

了解第一座由人类建造的石造遗迹,左塞尔的阶梯金字塔建筑

阶梯金字塔位于一个被建物围绕起来的中心处,建物群包含神殿,宫殿模型与其他人造建物,全是为了法老左塞尔的死后世界而建。

这个埋葬站址本身就涵盖了十五公亩,同时也位于萨卡拉高原的最高点。

从这个站址的细节与规模中可以明显看到,这个站址在当时来说是个技术性的奇观。

唯一关于站址设计图的数据,被发现在一面印有一间地窖规划草稿的石块上。

阶梯金字塔是第一个建造在石头上的纪念碑,垂直60米高,是当时最高的建物。

这座4700年前建成的建物,原先只是要作为一个石室坟墓,也就是平顶的长方形古墓设计。它著名的建筑师伊姆霍特普,可能认为这样的设计对伟大的法老左塞尔来说太卑微了,因而增加了阶梯设计。

阶梯金字塔站址收到一个1600米长,10米高的围墙围起来。

这个巨大的墙壁是用白色石灰岩制成的,而方向上是沿着南北向。

虽然有着14道门,但是只有东门使用来让生者通过的。其余假门是用来让国王的“卡”通过使用。

与假门相同地,还有模仿御敌城墙的棱堡,鉴定设计的墙壁。

这些设计要素的配置,显示出它们与赫卜赛德节有所关联。

唯一真正能进入站址的入口要通过一个狭长的廊道。

这个室内空间有着被雕塑来模仿原木的石质屋檐。

在通道的末端是个巨大的开口。由于用意是要模仿成门廊,那里雕塑这永远敞开而无法被移动的大门与枢纽。

这个廊道布有二十对最高六米的柱子,个别都是由石块堆栈而成。完成品的表面是用来模仿一束束芦苇捆。

在这些柱子上可以发现红色颜料的踪迹,而支撑的墙壁有着黑色的颜料。这很有可能是要让墙壁混入阴影中,给予红色柱子独自立起的错觉。

在两侧的柱子都存在着石室,而这些被认为是用来代表上,下埃及各行省的空间。

根据一些埃及学家的说法,这些房间的配置可能具有仲裁与审判的象征。

这座古墓受到一条雕刻出来的蛇形所保护着,它位在庭院的南方。墓室就在它的下方,隔着一个30米深的竖井。

这个有着低矮天花板的石室与石室坟墓相似,而它也相对于未来的墓室显得比较完整。

这座古墓是由粉红色的花岗岩所制成,然而有证据显示这里曾是打磨过后的石灰岩。由于这里对于遗体来说显得太小,有可能这座古墓的用意是要给国王的“卡”使用,也可能是放置国王器官的卡诺卜坛。

后来埋葬传统则是会将卡诺卜坛与遗体放在相同的石室中。

一个从古墓延伸出受过打磨的石灰岩楼梯,向西引往地底下的居所。

其中一些房间是要让国王与他的家人在死后世界使用。里面发现了大量的陶罐,其中甚至还贮藏着啤酒,牛奶以及油。

其中虚假的门廊上,装饰着国王参与仪式的浮雕。

在这些浮雕中,可以看到他携带着农用工具奔跑着,并且进行着一个复活死者的仪式。

建筑师伊姆霍特普选择使用石材作为建材,以让这座站址能够长久保存。

随着最开始的石室墓穴完成时,伊姆霍特普设计出了一个规模更具野心的埋葬处。他决定要将坟墓彼此堆栈。

通过阶梯上额外的且很,证据显示金字塔被增建了两次,而最终的高度是62米,底部长宽则是121米与109米构成。

允许法老进入诸神世界的楼梯,则是借由阶层堆栈的矩形金字塔呈现,完全包起了原始的石质坟墓。

这个金字塔本身是个实心的建筑,它所有的石室与走道都是在建物之下。

法老神圣的左塞尔是第三王朝的创立者,他统治了19年。

在他的统治期间,他以荷鲁斯·尼特杰里赫特为名,意指“诸神的躯体”。他在死后数个世纪之后作为敬意的象征被给予了左塞尔的名字,而他也经常被认为是埃及最伟大的法老之一。

有一部以他为名的伪经在托勒密时期被写成,当时距离他的死亡已经是两千五百年后。

左塞尔被连结为天空之神荷鲁斯的人形化身。一座接近于阶梯金字塔的基座写着他的名字,并且连结着荷鲁斯。

他也是第一个住在孟斐斯的法老,让该地成为附近区域的政府中心枢纽。

在萨卡拉的站址以前,左塞尔也以建造许多神殿和纪念碑知名。

该种埋葬站址是同种建设的首例,而它也是左塞尔最伟大的建筑成就。

这个埋葬站址的建设上模仿着左塞尔宫殿,其中有着模仿逆转,树与芦苇而刻制的石头。

要在一个硬质岩石上创造出这些细节与细微的纹路,是个非常费时且费力的任务。

而这座站址的许多设计是为了进行赫卜赛德节,以让国王能够在死后世界也能有办法巩固他的统治。

在角落的是个被称之为“T”的神殿。这座神殿是整个站址中最为神秘的建筑。

它的外部立面是平整的,同时其中却使用复杂的节德柱与雕刻物所装饰。

很有可能这个地方是要让国王的“卡”实体化的场所,从死后世界象征性地拜访赫卜赛德庭院的平台。

赫卜塞德节能够让法老维持整个世界的秩序,并且更新他的神力。

通过如跳舞,献祭以及拜访诸神圣域等一系列的试炼与宗教仪式,统治者的生命力与神性就能被确认。

这些庆祝的用意是要代表统治者的周年纪念,会每 30 年举行一次。然而期限也不是每次都会被遵守。

最早已知的仪式日期可以追溯到第一王朝。

在左塞尔的站址之中,金字塔的东南方有一个专门用来给国王在死后世界执行必要的仪式的空间。

赫卜塞德庭院布满了假的房舍,同时也装设着一个高台,其旁连接着两个楼梯个代表着上,下埃及。

在庭院之中,也有两个被认为代表着上,下埃及宫殿的亭子。

它们是矩形的,而这两个相同的建筑彼此相对。立面与赫卜塞德仪式的房舍相似,柱顶有着看起来像落叶的刻纹。

由于赫特弗内布缇王后与伊内特卡伊丝王子的名字被发现在基座附近的石碑上,学者认为这些埋葬房舍是为他们而建的。

Within this temple was the pharaoh's serdab or cellar. It is a small enclosed space with one wall sloped to match the first step of the pyramid. 埋葬神殿位于站址的北边,面对着被认为逝去的统治者死后会前往的群星。

在这座神殿之中,有着法老的暗室或是地窖的空间。那是个有一面墙斜<LF>符合金字塔第一阶的狭小封闭空间。

北方的墙壁有两个观测用的孔洞。

一尊左塞尔的雕像被放置在王座之上,穿着披风,配戴三方假发以及一个以法老头饰为名的王冠。

这象征着国王的“卡”,这尊雕像会通过观望孔洞注视着庭院,让国王可以在死后世界中看着仪式进行,并且收受供品。


左塞尔阶梯金字塔内部[]

了解左塞尔的阶梯金字塔以及伊姆霍特普对金字塔建筑演化的影响力

Statuette of Imhotep / Late Period

阶梯金字塔的建筑师伊姆霍特普对于法老左塞尔是非常重要之人,对于整体古埃及人也一样。

一座左塞尔雕像的基底在1926年被发现,它颂扬伊姆霍特普是木匠,雕刻家,制石者和先知领袖。

我们对于伊姆霍特普每日的生活所知甚少。虽然他在写作医疗文字上提供了贡献,不过他作为建筑师这个角色却最为人所知。

The Step Pyramid of Djoser / 2012

从金字塔的设计到建物本身内含的元素,伊姆霍特普打算要创造能够使他的国王获得永生的东西。

作为一项建筑学的成就,阶梯金字塔是使用石块而非泥块所建造。这是埃及人第一次建造这么高的纪念建物。

伊姆霍特普明确地想要使用石头来反映出天然的材料。

左塞尔的墓葬群在接下来的数百年与数千年都十分著名,而它的伟大建筑是伊姆霍特普在晚期被古埃及人给神化。

Vertical section, looking west..., in The Pyramids of GIzeh, from actualy survey and admeasurement, by J.S Perring (Detail) / 1839-1842

除了在中央为左塞尔所建造的地下宫殿,还有11座井被挖掘。每座井都有33米深,并与延伸约20米的水平长廊连结。

前五座长廊都是提供给王室家族的成员使用。

Square of the pyramid..., in Reise zum Tempel des jupiter Ammon... by Heinrich Menu von Minutoli / 1824

有两条通道通往地底并查分成三个方向进入不同的仓储长廊。

这个庞大的地底空间容纳着贮藏区块与典礼供品。

其中一条地道从金字塔的东侧起始,容纳着40000个石质器皿,其中许多原先属于国王的祖先。

Pyramids of Saccara: Sections of apartments &c., in the Pyramids of Gizeh

左塞尔的墓室位于一座28米深的竖井底部。

根据埃及学家尚-菲利普·洛埃,此房间原本是使用磨亮的石灰岩块所制成,而它的天花板使用五角星来装饰。

然而在某个时间点,石灰岩块全部都被粉红色的花岗岩取代,只剩下作为星星装饰的石灰岩块碎片。

Pyramids of Saccara: Vertical section, looking west..., in The Pyramids of Gizeh

在房间的最底部有着许多通往各方向的地道。这座由地道,长廊与房间组成的迷宫横跨了超越五公里。

有一定数量的死路与假门,它们可能是为死后世界而设计,而非愚蠢的窃贼。

French Egyptologist Jean-Philippe Lauer on the site of Saqqara in 1939 / 1995

不像吉萨或孟卡拉的大金字塔,左塞尔金字塔没有任何被窃贼挖开的额外通道。

不需要用到这些通道,由于要进入这些地道与长廊十分容易,窃贼一旦进入神殿后既可以轻易的将它搬空。

左塞尔木乃伊被偷走的时间是未知的,所剩部位仅有左脚,由法国埃及学家尚-菲利普·洛埃在1934年发现。这名建筑师用他的一生致力于周密地探索这座建物,并相信它是属于左塞尔的。

Encrustations, architectural elements, plague (Djoser Netjerikhet ?)

法老的房间也被称作蓝室,使用蓝绿色砖瓦来进行装饰,这是为了要模仿他的宫殿中覆盖着墙壁与窗户的芦苇席。

石块被小心翼翼地弯曲并涂色以看起来像是敞开门口和窗帘的卷起草席。

有两个长形房间,沿着南北轴并靠在一起。

南方房间有使用时半分隔开的假门,而北方房间是一条走廊来通向其他的房间。

Pyramids of Saccara: Sections of apartments &c. in The Pyramids of Gizeh

门框使用上等的石灰岩制成,并刻有国王的名字。

而在南方的陵墓,门框上刻有浮雕。这些浮雕显示国王无止尽的进行仪式以及拜访圣所。

它们的内部装饰是制作团队附加的虚构内容,来增加陵墓的惊奇感。

从这个建物的精巧细节与规模可以明显看到,这个丧葬纪念建物在当时来说是个技术上的奇观。

斯尼夫鲁的第一座金字塔Sneferu's First Pyramid[]

了解斯尼夫鲁位于美杜姆的金字塔

在第4王朝首任国王斯尼夫鲁的长期统治之下,埃及之丧葬纪念建物建设的最杰出与最具创造性的时期就此展开。

丧葬纪念建物设计从阶梯金字塔转变成了光滑表面金字塔,这些实际的建物正是演进的证明。

此设计的最初尝试是美杜姆的金字塔。

当斯尼夫鲁的七阶金字塔纪念建物开始建造时,它在后来的纪念建物成八阶的结构。建造的最后阶段可以看到突出的台阶,并使用了外盖来让表面变平顺。

然而光滑处理的墙面没有提供足够的黏着力,而外盖并没有被支撑在坚固的地基上。因此,四面外墙的基底无法承受,导致墙壁下滑并坍塌。

虽然美杜姆金字塔因为设计上的瑕疵而被放弃,但它展现了其他革新并影响了未来的金字塔设计。

就像是光滑的坡面,这次首次有礼仪用途的铺路被建造,从山谷导向至金字塔的神殿。另一项革新是和墓室有关,它不在位于井的底部,而是在地表以上。

这项改动推进了三寝室系统的开始。

代赫舒尔的曲折金字塔[]

了解代赫舒尔的曲折金字塔

在美杜姆金字塔的建造失败后,斯尼夫鲁将他的居所与官方冥都转移至代赫舒尔。在哪里他开始了他在建造丧葬纪念建物的第二次尝试。

完工的建筑被称为曲折金字塔,这样的形状在埃及只有它一座。

虽然该金字塔被证明不稳固并被放弃,它象征着一次记述上与建筑商的突破。宣示着一项非常重要的设计变革即将发生,曲折金字塔展现了从阶梯金字塔到实用的滑面金字塔之变革。

曲折金字塔的特别之处是拥有两座不同的入口:一座是在背面,而另一座在西面。

在这座金字塔中的房间太小而无法将人类埋葬其中,它原先可能是要埋藏用来储藏“卡(死去国王的“生命之灵”)”的雕像。

有了曲折金字塔,建筑师们成功地实现出一种全新的想法:用渐进水平设计的方式将安置的大石块作为核心来建造金字塔。

如此一来,各个建造阶段都可以在单次工期完成,让建筑师可以完全掌控每一项设计元素。

不幸的是,这些预防措施并没有阻止金字塔内部房间的下陷或破裂。斯尼夫鲁放弃了纪念建物,并又开始建造另一座金字塔。

代赫舒尔的红色金字塔[]

了解代赫舒尔的红色金字塔

红金字塔建在曲折金字塔以北两公里处,它的名字来源是建造时所用到的微红石灰岩。红金字塔的高度达到105米。

虽然红金字塔的地表层比曲折金字塔的还要低,它们的高度实际上差不多相同。

这次的任务是要让金字塔成为几何上的真实平面金字塔,因此催生了另一项新的设计构想:外罩石块的使用。

金字塔的下行窄道可由北面进入并会抵达地面层,该处存在两间有南北对齐的高天花板的壮观房间,并由水平的短通道相连结。

由楼梯进入的第二间房间的南面墙壁,另一条窄道会通往最后的房间,它是金字塔本身的是在建筑中建造,并向东西对齐。

红金字塔的附加物包含了一座小丧葬神殿,位于东边。一条甬道据推测从东边的神殿开凿而来,但它尚未被挖掘出来。

红金字塔在结构上十分稳固,于完工时在设计方面留下了非凡的里程碑。

在多次尝试后终于成功为自己建造了一座合适的丧葬纪念建物,斯尼夫鲁知道他在死后的未来已经不须操心。

中王国的金字塔群[]

了解中王国的各种墓葬纪念建物。

在中王国时代期间,第 12 王朝的有权统治者恢复了精心制作金字塔陵墓的传统。

举例来说,阿蒙涅姆赫特一世在利什特建造了墓葬群,而森沃斯勒二世选择位在法尤姆的拉罕。阿蒙涅姆赫特二世和塞索斯特利斯三世却对代赫舒尔展现出喜爱。阿蒙涅姆赫特三世在搬迁至法尤姆的哈瓦拉之前也在该处建造了一座金字塔。

在乱世间的盗墓行为促使中王国的建筑师在建造时要想出越来越复杂的安全防护手段。

尽管如此,哈瓦拉金字塔的建筑计划却比在代赫舒尔的还要简单,用来保护它不受洗劫者侵袭的手段变得更加精巧复杂。

除了使用隐蔽的走道和隐藏的陷阱门之外,建筑师指望着一套会在建造结束时滑至定位的石板系统,这些巨大的石板是刻意用来永远阻隔通往墓室的通道。

第 13 王朝的国王们开始在马兹赫乌纳建造他们的金字塔,就在代赫舒尔的南方,并接着移到法尤姆与阿拜多斯。

然而第 17 王朝的国王们却对于在他们自己洞窟陵墓的顶端使用原始砖块打造的小金字塔感到满意。

第 18 王朝的国王们完全放弃采用金字塔的形式作为王家陵墓,他们在帝王谷中选择一座有着金字塔形状的山,并在那里挖出自己的坟墓。

直到第 25 王朝的努比亚人法老,国王们才再次被葬在金字塔的陵墓之下。事实上在现今世界,古努比亚的地区也就是现代的苏丹,在纪录上包含着 220 座已知金字塔,相较于埃及的 138 座。

尽管它们在使用上与质量上缓慢衰退,金字塔依然持续地令所有人着迷,直到罗马时代。

它们作为法老为宗教所奉献的精神与古埃及的奇观留存至今日。

吉萨冥都概观[]

了解拥有古埃及最著名冥都的高原。

Pyramids of Gizeh / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

The Giza plateau is located on the West Bank of the Nile, and was considered by ancient Egyptians as the domain of the dead.

The pyramidal complexes found there were built over the span of three generations, during the reign of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.

Temple and Sphinx (detail) / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

现今因它的三座金字塔而闻名,吉萨地区是更广泛的墓葬群中的一部分。在该时代的统治者通常决定要葬于此地区。

整个地区的中心焦点是孟斐斯城,它在古王国初期被选定为埃及的首都。

Topographic Plan for a Part of the Memphis Necropolis (detail) / 19th Century

吉萨历史遗迹的布局位置(尤其是金字塔)是按照实际又严谨方式的对齐排列。首先它们将重点放在方位基点上,然后它们针对高原的自然地理环境做出应对。

人面狮身像的谜题[]

了解吉萨的人面狮身像,以及在漫长时间洪流中所经历的变化。

Karnak. (Dromos) Alley with ram-headed sphinxes / 1st Dynasty

人面狮身像原本是要被作为国王的化身。

带着法老王冠的人头与狮子的身体融合了,因此获得了强大动物所拥有的价值。主要是指狮子的力量,流畅的攻击与其至高的权力。

考虑到这些特性,它也被认为是个保护的象征。而毫不意外地,人面狮身像也会放在神殿<LF>道的沿途中,作为诸神前往神殿道路的保护者。


Pyramids of Gizeh - Sphinx / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

横跨着数个世纪以来,热衷的人们与历史学家都同等好奇……是谁建造人面狮身像的?是为了什么目的?而它又代表着谁?

这些问题仍未得到解答。有许多理论能加以诠释,而其中有些可信度比较高。

其中一个说法认为雷吉德夫为了彰显父亲胡夫的敬意,因而建了这座吉萨的人面狮身像。

而人面狮身像东面的石制神殿,则是日后由他的弟弟弟兼继任者哈夫拉所加的,借此强化对于他们父亲的崇拜。这也是第一个朝太阳而筑的埃及神殿。


Royal Head (Didoufri), (also known as Djedefre) / 4th Dynasty

另一个说法则认为人面狮身像由哈夫拉所建,是用来代表他自己的。

支持这个假说的理由,是根据人面狮身像根基使用的石灰岩床,<LF>哈夫拉河岸神殿在地理上与建筑学上相似的事实而来。

有人认为是胡夫自己建了人面狮身像,而后续由他<LF>继任者雷吉德夫与哈夫拉完工。

这些论点则是基于刻痕的风<LF>,法老头饰的分类以及建造时并没有胡子。

Temple Sphinx / 1997 / Jean-Claude Golvin

虽然作为古埃及整体来说,留下的纪念碑与雕像看起来很单调,然而要知道在远古的时代,所有东西都曾经上过漆。

日晒吞噬了颜料的颜色,而沙子,气候以及时间的轨迹很不幸地摧毁了吉萨人面狮身像美妙的颜色。

来自十二世纪阿拉伯埃及学家阿布德·厄尔-拉提夫·巴格达迪的文档中显示,在他的年代还看得到红色的颜色。

然而今日唯一留下的只有人面狮身像接近耳朵的红色踪迹,以及法老头饰上隐约的蓝色与黄色,也有该类头饰的传统颜色。

红色颜料是手工制作的,借由混合如陶土,石英砂以及碎得非常精细的赤铁矿等不同产物混合而成。


Guardian Figure (wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt) / circa 1919-1885 BCE

(Behind the Scenes)

红色在古埃及具备强大的象征性。它同时是生与死的颜色,它也能代表沙漠之沙或是太阳的荣光。红色同时也与复仇与毁灭的神塞特有所关联。

古埃及称呼红色的词汇“dSr”同时也是表示沙漠的词汇,或者是下埃及的王位。

于艺术方面,红色也是用来涂绘男人身体的颜色,与此同时女性则是用黄色表现。

在克里奥帕特拉掌权的六百年前的塞易斯时代,可能曾经有尝试进行色彩复原的工作,这部分在 1858 年由奥古斯特·玛丽特所发现的存货石碑中有所注记。

因此开发团队才决定要完整展现人面狮身像的色彩,虽然它的色彩很有可能在克里奥帕特拉统治时已经褪去。


Side view of the Sphinx of Gizeh, Auguste Mariette papers / 1853

大约建于公元前 2600 至 2500 年左右第四王朝的吉萨人面狮身像,是我们已知最古老也最巨大的人面狮身像。

它是由天然露出的石灰岩刻制而成,人面狮身像的高度有 19.8 米,长度是 73.2米,而宽度则是 14 米。


Sphinx of Khafre, with the pyramid of Cheops on the horizon / circa 1919-1885 BCE

(Behind the Scenes) 为了要让壮观的纪念碑能够更加精细,在原先的建造阶段过后又添加了数块的石灰岩。在那之后,还多次尝试维护。

在游戏中呈现的光彩样貌,也融合了一些现代的复原计划规划。开发团队做出这个决定,是想要呈现给玩家更具代表性的吉萨人面狮身像版本。

今天人面狮身像被称之为“令人恐惧的存在”,这个名称是翻译自它的阿拉伯名称“Abu'l Hôl”,而这名称其实也是从古埃及语的“Balhouba”转变而来。


Gizeh: Sphinx / 19th Century

人面狮身像是在原地刻制的,是从一个天然隆起的岩石刻出的。

它的头是在穆卡塔姆高原的一个石灰岩峰建造出来的,而其身体是直接由其下的岩层所塑造而成。

人面狮身像的劣化是受到风蚀,以及建造过程中所用石灰岩质量不一所导致。紧邻岩石的地底水流钠含量也是其中一个因素。


Gizeh. Sphinx & Great Pyramid of Cheops / 1909

人面狮身像背后倾斜的天然岩层,也与周遭的石灰岩相似。

"L'encyclopedie", Diderot & d'Alembert, tome 12 / 1762

自古以来,人们就认为人面狮身像底下深处有着一个隐匿的古墓。

早在第一中间时期就有过企图掠夺人面狮身像的纪录。

在这之后,有许多人尝试要发掘出人面狮身像的秘密,因而在纪念碑上留下了难以抹灭的疤痕。


(Behind the Scenes)

在法老时代有个十二米长的切口,在人面狮身像背后的这入口引发人们好奇。 虽然图特摩斯四世试着要将之封闭,然而可能在之后又被财宝猎人给挖开。而这个入口被哈沃德·威瑟再次发现,而在更近期由马克·莱赫纳所勘测建模。

这个人面狮身像背后的入口,随着深入雕像身体地底每数米就领向了几个不同的洞穴。开发团队利用这个机会做了更多发挥。

虽然在近几年对于吉萨的人面狮身像没有什么重大发现,却有更多的理论与假说持续浮现。

然而因为缺乏考古证据的验证,这些论点都未能被证实。

Recumbent Anubis / circa 664-30 BCE

第一个关于吉萨人面狮身像的众多理论之一,是认定人面狮身像原本是要作为阿努比斯神的巨大象征。其中主要的论点是说人面狮身像的头部,和它的身体大小显得不成比例。

第二个理论认为在图特摩斯四世的石碑上的两个人面狮身像图标,可能代表着遗址还存在着另一个石制的人面狮身像,甚至可能是对称于尼罗河而在对岸。

然而,没有任何理论能够得到验证。

Montage of different versions of the sphinx during the development of the game / 2016 / Ubisoft

(Behind the Scenes)

在过去数十年,许多运用新技术的科学计划都付诸实施。

最重要的一个计划是由马克·莱赫纳与他的团队所带领,他们特长于研究与调查吉萨高原,其中也包括了人面狮身像的遗址。

这个建模技术能够观测出建造人面狮身像的原料,分析不同层面的风化,并能借此判断出最需要受到保护的脆弱部位。

在用艺术风格来呈现人面狮身像的几次尝试之后,开发团队反而决定要使用写实建模,借此真实地重现人面狮身像的样貌。

Sphinx of Amenhotep III, possibly from a Model of a Temple / circa 1390-1352 BCE

吉萨人面狮身像在其建造之时代表着什么,而新王国时期的埃及人对于人面狮身像有什么看法,这是两个非常不同的问题。

起初,这是个国王的象征与狮子的力量之结合;而后人面狮身像被直接视作最为神圣的存在。

有理论显示新王国时期的国王认为吉萨的人面狮身像,是认可并合法化埃及统治者的存在。

因此,虽然在阿蒙霍特普二世统治期间吉萨人面狮身像一半被埋黄沙中,但是他仍知道这个纪念碑有着很大的重要性。

Scarab Inscribed with the Throne Name of Amenhotep II (featuring a shpinx) / circa 1427-1401 BCE

阿蒙霍特普二世建造了第二个神殿来献给形同赫瑞马克黑特的人面狮身像,以对先王胡夫与哈夫拉表以敬意。

于是对于这个王朝,王室在人面狮身像附近花上点时间变成了常见的习惯。

于是这个圣域也以“Setepet”为名,意指“被选中之处”。

Ramses II, making an offering of incense and water to the Great Sphinx Harmakhis

埃及学家马克·莱赫纳认为阿蒙霍特普二世建造了一个自己的雕像,并安置在人面狮身像的脚掌之间。这很有可能是为了合法化他的统治权,而旁边也放着一个由塞利姆·哈桑所发现的石碑。

这个朝代中的许多其他法老如图坦卡门和拉美西斯二世,也都用相似的方式留下了自己行经的痕迹,有时甚至从邻近的神殿与金字塔拆石头来用。阿蒙霍特普二世的儿子兼继任者的图特摩斯四世就经常这么做。


Djizeh necropolis of Memphis - Sphinx & pyramids / 1851 - 1852

在沉眠于人面狮身像脚掌之间时,未来的图特摩斯四世梦到了赫瑞马克黑特神宣称他即将能登基到两土之王位。

而这当然了,有着要求他将覆盖着的沙子从人面狮身像上去除的条件,因人面狮身像是作为神的化身守护于此,而不该受到沙漠的黄沙所吞噬。


Pyramids of Gizeh (Works of Mr Mariette. Stela at the base of the Sphinx, excavated by Mr Mariette; Dec 1852, Egypt, Gizeh) / 1854

这座图特摩斯建来纪念他梦境的十五吨重“记梦碑”,是由意大利埃及学家乔瓦尼·卡维利亚于 1818 年挖掘出来了。当时他接受了要将人面狮身像从沙中解放的任务,而沙子又再一次的埋住了它。

卡维利亚当时正在寻找进入人面狮身像的入口,然而却发现了一个开放式小屋以及脚掌之间的石碑。来自仪式的灰烬仍然存在,受到了群沙的保护。它们可能是从罗马时代最后的仪式而来。


The Great Sphinx of Gizeh / 19th Century

而在同一年,卡维利亚发现了人面狮身像的胡子碎片,这可能是在新王国时期添加的。

许多这些碎片都展示在开罗的美术馆中,其中一个碎片则展示在大英博物馆,一旁<LF>随着人面狮身像头饰上的一块蛇形装饰。

很多人相信这块胡子的碎片可能是由<LF>阿蒙霍特普二世的雕像而得以固定住,因为那座雕像理论上位于人面狮身像的头部底下。


Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, by Jean-Leon Gerome; circa 1868

一个很热门的文化传说表示吉萨人面狮身像的鼻子是在拿破仑·波拿巴时代失去的,认为是训练中的法国士兵炮击造成的。

然而在那时代之前的版画早已描绘着缺少鼻子的人面狮身像,代表鼻子应该在法国行军前就遭受移除了。

其中最可信的假说是立基于德国历史学家乌尔里希·哈曼的研究上。

在 1980 年代时,哈曼整理了数个由阿拉伯作家所写的中世纪史料。在这个过程中,他发现人面狮身像曾经被视为是个吉兆,是协助带来充满营养沉积物的洪水与耕种作物的神。

在 1378 年左右,有一位名为穆罕默德·萨依木·阿尔-达尔的苏菲派穆斯林,他因为无法忍受看到这座纪念碑,而在破除迷信的行为之中破坏了人面狮身像的鼻子。根据文字记载,他在那之后因为自己的罪刑而受到绞刑,并被在人面狮身像的两腿之间被烧死。

胡夫的墓葬群[]

山谷神殿是人们进到墓葬群时第一个看到的建筑物。

这里被认为式通往古墓的正式通道,同时是神殿<LF>是门廊。

胡夫<LF>山谷神殿显示玄武岩铺设的证据,让我们知道门廊的位置在结构中的何处。

这样的划分同时被认为代表着死后世界中地底与太阳的方位。

胡夫甬道从泛滥平原一路通往高原,衔接了山谷神殿以及丧葬神殿。

传统的甬道会用铺设的道路呈现,被墙壁围起,并且通常会会有<LF>顶。

由考古学家发现的碎片显示,我们已知最常的甬道之一的胡夫甬道,有着雕刻甚至可能有涂漆装饰。

描绘的主题非常多元:天花板的群星搭配着墙上战争的场景。其他刻划则描绘着这座站址的建造<LF>绘有工匠工作的样貌。

在吉萨最让人感到惊艳的私人墓穴位于东部,也在胡夫金字塔的西方。

这个东部的墓穴是保留给王室成员的,同时西部的墓穴通常是给各<LF>宫廷中的显贵使用。

在这两个区域中<LF>又被称为石室坟墓的私人陵墓,是以街道巷道布局的。这样的安排可能是企图在死后世界重现国王的宫廷。

胡夫金字塔东方有着三个比较小的建造物:三座王后的金字塔。

斜坡从地表通往墓室,这里是由岩床切出来与石造工程配合<LF>。似乎这些纪念碑是被用来做王后的葬仪,而关于这些最初的拥有者是谁则很难判断。

最北的金字塔很有可能是给赫特菲蕾丝王后使用的,这名王后被认为是胡夫的母亲。

然而,在 1925 年在附近意外发现了她真正的陵墓。这座陵墓位于一个深<LF>地底的石造坑洞,其中一个地底石室之中。

在这个隐密的石室中,埃及学家发现了<LF>于古王国时期的完整王室葬礼配备……然而王后本人的遗体却不见了。

在胡夫金字塔的附近,埃及学家发现了七个船坑。

这些船型的坑洞究竟用途为何尚未明了,然而<LF>能被猜测的用意是某种象征用途。

这些船坑位于金字塔的东侧,<LF>准地位于国王理论上会再次出现的位置,可能有办法作为支持这样假说的证据。

在两个南方的船坑中,各由一个石灰岩石板所覆盖,这是在 1954 年由埃及籍埃及学家卡马·马拉克所发现的。

其中一个被开启了。1224 件由杉木制成的船只零件一个接着一个被取出,同时由复原大师阿穆<LF>·尤瑟夫耐心地重组。

这个过程耗费 28年之久。尤瑟夫根据榫眼和榫舌的线条,使用纤维绳全部接在一起,让设计越符合真实样貌越好。

希腊词汇“pyramidion”指称着金字塔的顶石或着是方尖碑的尖端。

在古埃及时,这两者都被称之为“奔奔石”。这个词<LF>同时也被用来指称某个食物:一个使用面包制作而成的圆锥形供品。

金字塔石是被设计来当作金字塔的微缩模型,使得它与纪念碑本<LF>有同等重要的象征意义。

有些金字塔石在金字塔群中被找到。

最早的是在代赫舒尔找到的,无<LF>是个古王国时期的金字塔石好范例:它是由石灰岩所制,而且上面没有任何雕刻。

有些雕刻的金字塔石从一些私人埋葬间中被找到,这些铭文都与奔奔石的太阳<LF>征性有所关联。

(Behind the Scenes)

吉萨的金字塔群的金字塔石都从未被找到。你在游戏里面所能看到的是虚构的复原物,该金色的金字塔石上面纪载着与胡夫有关的铭文。

大金字塔的秘密[]

Built around 2550 BCE, the Great Pyramid of Giza is considered one of the most iconic structures of Egypt.

It is the biggest of the pyramids, and the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing.

The numbers associated to the Great Pyramid of Giza are impressive: a workforce of over 20 000 people, six million tons of stone, and twenty years of construction.

lt was a massive undertaking for a pharaoh's tomb.

The construction of the Great Pyramid was also a display of power and opulence on the part of Khufu. Itis part of the pharaoh's vast funerary complex, which also includes two temples, three satellite pyramids, a causeway and a builders' necropolis.

We can guess that the intent behind the construction of these monuments was Khufu's way of declaring himself one of the most powerful pharaohs to rule a unified Egypt.

New insights into engineering and ancient Egyptian culture are still being revealed over 4500 years later.

For example, a recently unearthed papyrus offers a glimpse into the life of a tradesman at the time of the pyramid's construction.

Also, a logbook belonging to a team leader during the building gives details on the craftsmen, their work schedules and the raw materials required.

It is interesting to note that by Cleopatra's time, the pyramid's celestial purpose, its construction and the function of its mysterious inner chambers was already unclear.

Today, it is only through dedicated research that we have begun to grasp some of the Great Pyramid's mysteries.

The Egyptians had polished their design for centuries by the time work on the Great Pyramid began.

Intended as a tomb for Khufu, the Great Pyramid's structural design has been considered to be nearly perfect by engineers and historians ever since.

Precisely oriented north-south to the four cardinal points of a compass, the length of each side of the Great Pyramid at its base was 230 meters, and its original height was 147 meters.

The pyramid is a mere .05 percent error away from being a perfect square.

In order to achieve the shape of a true pyramid, the design required many considerations in the planning phases, as well as precision during execution.

lt was especially critical that they control the angle of inclination on all sides at every stage of construction.

Materials for the Great Pyramid consisted of quarried limestone blocks, weighing between 2 to 15 tons each.

The methods of moving these blocks into place is still debated by architects and Egyptologists.

The precision of its design in an age with only soft metal tools, as well as the enormous scale of its construction, make the Great Pyramid one of the most impressive feats of human engineering.

It's estimated that it took between 600 000 and 2 million blocks of stone to build the Great Pyramid.

Experts calculate it would have required men to move twelve blocks every hour around the clock for twenty years to place the 2.3 million stones the monument is made of.

While the interior chambers were built with red granite from Aswan, most of the pyramid was made from local limestone, weighing between 2 to 15 tons per block.

There is debate on how the pyramid stones were moved into place. Recent research is exploring the idea that it was built around a large interior ramp.

The recently discovered logbook confirms that the high quality limestone of the outer casing was brought by boat across the Nile, from a quarry in Turah.

Once complete, the smooth white polished stone of the Great Pyramid woutd've reflected the sunlight Like a beacon, earning it the name “The Horizon of Khufu".

Over the centuries, thieves and travelers attempted to access the Great Pyramid numerous times.

Ancient writings describe details of its interior, proof that some made their way within, though who gained entrance first, and when, is unknown.

The main entrance of the Great Pyramid is located 17 meters above ground level. It faces north, likely in order to align with the North Star.

Though the entrance passageway had been discovered in antiquity, any further access into the Great Pyramid was stopped by massive vertical slabs of rock.

As such, present-day visitors to the pyramid must use the Robbers' Entrance.

(Behind the Scenes)

The Robbers' Entrance is reported to have been opened in the 9th century by Caliph Al-Ma'mun. In search of treasure, the Caliph had his men dig their way inside the Great Pyramid.

The most likely scenario is that they enlarged a corridor which had been created by tomb robbers during antiquity. As such, this is how the team can justify access to this wonder.

Attempts to gain entry to the Great Pyramid and uncover its potential secrets continued throughout the centuries.

In the 19th century, the belief that another entry existed at the south side resulted in a hole being blasted into the pyramid's side, with no results for the damage that was done.

While the search is still ongoing today to uncover more hidden rooms and passageways, conservation is the primary concern of all such efforts.

大金字塔,地下墓室The Great Pyramid: Subterranean Chamber[]

From the original entrance of the Great Pyramid there is a passage leading to the subterranean chamber.

lts walls were carved out of the existing rock of the plateau and then covered in a fine unmarked limestone.

The descending passage has a steep 26-degree downward slope. Narrow and with a low ceiling, this pathway is long and challenging.

(Behind the Scenes)

While the original passage was 145 meters long, the team reduced its length, and made it both wider and higher.

The main focus of the work in reproducing the location was centered upon preserving the unique claustrophobic environment of the Great Pyramid, while still allowing for a smooth game navigation.

The well shaft was a 58-meter vertical passage that connected the descending corridor to the Grand Gallery above.

An adjacent grotto may have originally been a small natural well in the bedrock that was enlarged during the tunneling.

Whether the grotto was intended for another purpose is uncertain.

There is much speculation over the purpose of the well shaft.

One theory is that the channel was cut or enlarged to supply air to workers in the descending passage.

Another is that it was meant to provide an exit route once the work was done in the heart of the pyramid. Without the well shaft, workers would have been trapped inside forever when the Grand Gallery was sealed.

The opening at the bottom of the well shaft was most likely sealed by exiting workers to camouflage the passageway.

There is a subterranean chamber at the end of the descending corridor, 30 meters below the Giza plateau's surface.

Dug directly into the bedrock, the space is wide with a ceiling three meters in height. Its floors and walls are rough and uneven, indicating that it was never completed.

At the south end of the room there is another narrow corridor, similar to the others, though it abruptly ends after roughly 20 meters.

(Behind the Scenes)

The chamber also contains an 11-meter pit near the east side. It's unclear what this may have been used for.

In the game, this well Leads to a fictive underground complex, containing key game-related mysteries.

The subterranean chamber's original purpose remains a mystery.

One popular theory is that it was originally meant to be Khufu's burial chamber. But the pharaoh changed his mind, preferring to be buried higher up in the pyramid, which would explain the chamber's unfinished state.

大金字塔,上层墓室The Great Pyramid of Giza: Upper Chambers[]

At the entrance of the ascending passage are three granite flagstones estimated to weigh up to 25 tons each. They were used to protect the Great Pyramid from thieves.

Undaunted by the granite blocks, the thieves simply dug into the softer limestone around them, thus creating the Robbers' Entrance.

(Behind the Scenes)

While in reality the Robbers' Entrance is one single cavity which leads to both passages, in the game, the team created individual accesses to either passage.

As such, in the game, one entrance leads to the ascending passage, while another leads to the descending passage.

The ascending passageway of the Great Pyramid provides a direct path into the Grand Gallery, and is accessed 30 meters from the entrance along the descending corridor.

Both corridors have similar dimensions and are designed with the same 26-degree incline.

The ascending corridor has smooth masonry on its walls, and the layout includes many trapezoidal stones.

Bath the ftoor and ceiling of the passageway indicate that the passage was enlarged, possibly during or after the funeral, to allow workers room to move granite blocks meant to plug the corridor.

The Grand Gallery's purpose is still debated among experts.

It may have been intended to align with the stars, act as a buffer to protect the King's Chamber or simply to facilitate the transport of the granite blocks used inside the pyramid.

Access to the Queen's Chamber was at the beginning of the Grand Gallery.

Though this room is referred to as the Queen's Chamber, it is believed that there was no queen buried here.

Based on their knowledge of earlier pyramids, Egyptologists believe it was more likely intended as the king's serdab, a chamber meant to contain the ka statue, which would in turn house the king's spirit.

Situated exactly within the pyramid's center, on the east-west axis of the pyramid, the chamber has a vaulted ceiling and measures 5.7 by 5.2 meters.

In the eastern wall there is a niche, tucked away in a small corbelled archway, which may have originally held the ka statue.

Behind this niche is another smaller hole, possibly dug out by thieves in search of further treasure.

In the 19th century, two shafts were found running through the north and south walls.

They each run in a horizontal line for 2 meters before sloping upward, and both are closed off with limestone blocks fitted with copper handles.

Whether they were intended as ventilation shafts for workers or a celestial connection for the pharaoh's spirit is unconfirmed.

A recent scan of the room indicated the presence of an unknown cavity hidden behind the north face of the walls over the descending corridor.

Further investigation is still ongoing, to ascertain the nature of the anomaly so as to avoid risking damage to the monument.

Khufu's architects were possibly influenced by earlier rhomboidal pyramids when designing the Gallery.

Itis the longest corbelled vault ever built, measuring 47 meters Long and 8.60 meters high. The walls were made to taper inward, allowing for better distribution of weight. As a result, the ceiling measures just over a meter wide at its highest point.

Though this construction technique is present in other pyramids, few have the same precision and stability.

While the space is visually dramatic, the Gallery seemed to serve a practical function, though what exactly remains uncertain.

Stilt, the wall design was undoubtedly meant to contribute to the stability of the structure, and its floor may have helped workers move the materials.

A channel runs along the middle of the room. A movable floor originally rested in this central recess. The raised benches on either side are equipped with slots that may have been used to help position the granite blocking stones.

Atthe end of the Grand Gallery is the entrance to the antechamber leading to the King's Chamber.

Directly above, there is another narrower horizontal passage that connects to the top of the King's Chamber, and allowed the workers access to the weight relief rooms.

The far end of the Grand Gallery leads to a small antechamber, with a portcullis preventing access to the King's Chamber.

The portcullis was composed of three separate granite slabs. They were designed to be lowered into place, and seal the chamber after the burial of the king.

The grooves dug out to hold the slabs in place are still clearly visible to this day. The elaborate locking system was composed of a series of grooves for the ropes and pulleys that dropped the stones into place, like the notches on a key.

(Behind the Scenes)

For the purposes of the game, the team elected to remove the portcullis slabs in order to grant the player access to the King's Chamber.

In reality, workers would've backed out of the room after the funeral, Lowering each slab into place behind them one at a time.

Each of the three stones were smashed by looters centuries later, and evidence of their break-in is still evident.

The King's Chamber is built entirely out of red granite.

The King's Chamber measures 5.8 meters in height. It has an imposing cover of five stacked levels above, with granite beams weighing 25 to 40 tons each.

The uppermost Level is surmounted by a vault of stones, arranged in chevrons to bear the enormous structural load.

As in the Queen's Chamber, two shafts extend out from the room towards the north and south faces of the pyramid. They measure nearly 64 meters until they are blocked by copper-handled granite plugs.

Some experts in the culture of the Old Kingdom believe that the shafts were thought to lead the king's soul to the stars, with the incarnation of the pharaoh as the god Ra represented by the northern well, and the god Horus by the southern well.

There is a granite sarcophagus at the west end of the room, but it is the concealed construction inscriptions left by workmen on the roof's stones which verify this as the resting place of Khufu.

The sarcophagus was recorded as being empty when it was discovered, and its design indicates that there was once a lid in place. It's possible that this sarcophagus is only a cenotaph in memory of the Pharaoh, but was never actually meant to recieve the body.

Khufu's mummy was never found. It is hoped that as of yet undiscovered hidden rooms and shafts of the pyramid may provide an answer as to its location.


尚皮耶-胡丹的推论Jean-Pierre Houdin's Theories[]

(Behind the Scenes)

The team wanted to provide players with a sense of exploration and discovery, particularly within the Great Pyramid.

As such, a decision was made that the internal design of the monument in the game would reflect Jean-Pierre Houdin's theories.

While the antechambers of the king's tomb have yet to be discovered, Houdin posits that this is merely due to a unique design placing the pharaoh's tomb at the center of the pyramid.

The entire tour you are about to take was designed along Houdin's hypotheses.

(Behind the Scenes)

While respecting Houdin's hypothesis as to the general layout of the antechambers, the team wanted the contents to enhance the game experience.

In regular royal tombs the antechambers were filled with all the material goods needed by the pharaoh in the afterlife.

To support the feelings of discovery and awe, the art team created a unique and fantastical treasure in this second antechamber.

(Behind the Scenes)

Houdin theorized that the ascending corridor and the Great Gallery were used by the workers to haul hoist the heavy beams above the king's chamber. He called it the Service Circuit.

The corridor you are in now was created by the team following Houdin's theory, and is referred to as the Noble Circuit.

Itis through this corridor that the wooden sarcophagus containing the pharaoh's mummy would have been transported to its final resting chamber.

(Behind the Scenes)

With this structure in mind, one can easily assume that the pyramid's entrance would have been connected to the two antechambers.

Modern research has revealed that a cavity might be located behind the north face chevrons of the pyramid.

As such, the team chose to create this area for the player to explore.

Here is where Houdin believes that the priests and nobles would have exited the pyramid after the burial ceremony.

(Behind the Scenes)

Many theories regarding the construction of the Great Pyramid rely on the usage of external ramps.

However, Houdin believes an external ramp would have been too steep for the upper portion of the pyramid.

This is why he posits that there were two ramps: an external ramp for about half of the height of the pyramid, which then became an internal ramp for the second half.

(Behind the Scenes)

Houdin's theory states that this internal ramp followed the sides of the pyramid in an ascending spiral pattern.

A notch discovered in the edge of the Great Pyramid known as Bob's Room seems to support this theory.

Located at the corners of each edge of the pyramid, these large rooms would have allowed workers to turn the stone by 90 degrees, allowing them to continue the ascent.

The team chose to create rooms such as this one, bringing Houdin's hypothesis to life.

(Behind the Scenes)

This long corridor was the first section of the ascending internal ramp.

Through it, the blocks used to build the Great Pyramid would have been carefully moved upward, and then turned at each edge of the pyramid in order to continue their ascent.

Though the team only created the main ramp for the game, Houdin posits that this ramp had two levels, allowing workers to return safely to the bottom thanks to an additional corbelled upper section.

(Behind the Scenes)

According to Houdin, the start of the inner ramp was located at the base of the southeastern face of the pyramid.

This location would have been the junction point of the external and internal ramps.

Below us, workers would have built the lower part of the pyramid with the external ramp, before eventually switching to the internal ramp for the middle and upper sections of the pyramid.

At that time in the process, they could have reused the material of the external ramp to fill the center of the pyramid, hauling the stones in through the internal ramp.

哈夫拉的墓葬群Khafre's Funerary Complex[]

Since the very beginning of the 4th dynasty, mortuary temples were built adjacent to pyramids, on the eastern side.

Such a location, facing the rising sun as well as the world of the living as a whole, held an important symbolic meaning, for it was within the mortuary temple that kings were revived through daily rituals.

In its standard form, a mortuary temple was divided into two parts: a front area which consisted of a vestibule and a courtyard, and an area in the back, where all sacred elements were located.

The back of the temple incorporated several essential features, including an inner sanctuary with a false door, which allowed the soul of the pharaoh to travel between the world of the dead and the world of the living.

The largest of all such structures, Khafre's mortuary temple, was entirely built with megalithic blocks of limestone from a nearby quarry, and encased with granite.

Parts of Khafre's mortuary temple, particularly the courtyard walls, are thought to have been decorated with splendid reliefs. However, not a single image of the king has been discovered inside the mortuary temple.

Khufu's direct successor, Djedefre, followed the custom which required each king to establish a new site for their funerary accommodation, and chose Abu Rawash as his last resting place. When the time came to build his own funerary complex, Khafre, also one of Khufu's sons and the successor to Djedefre, broke with tradition, and returned to Giza.

Not only did Khafre thumb his nose at tradition, but he did so in a way which he hoped would allow him to overshadow his father's most important monument.

Though Khafre's pyramid is smaller than Khufu's, it was cunningly built on a more elevated bedrock layer than the Great Pyramid, making it appear higher than any other pyramid at Giza.

Today, Khafre's pyramid is the only one among the three at Giza that still has the upper part of its limestone casing.

Considered a most sacred area, the Giza necropolis was strictly defined, both geographically and physically.

An 8-meter thick Turah limestone wall completely surrounded the Great Pyramid. The only way inside would have been through the mortuary temple.

From the reign of Sneferu and onwards, the subsidiary pyramid became a common feature within the pyramidal complex.

The function of the subsidiary pyramid however, smaller in size and in height than the royal tomb, remains unclear, though some believe that it was meant to house the ka of the pharaoh.

In mainstream media, the ka is often defined as the soul of the deceased.

The truth is a bit more complicated. Within the ancient Egyptian funerary belief system, the ka was a component of a living person, which separated itself from the body at the time of death. It represented the deceased's vital essence.

In order for the deceased to ascend to a new life, whether in this world or the next, the ka had to be embodied in a statue, and its existence maintained through offerings and rituals.

Within Khafre's subsidiary pyramid, a wooden box containing pieces of cedar was discovered by archaeologists. When reassembled, it turned out to be a shrine mounted on a sled.

Just as with the solar barges found around Khufu's pyramid, it seems Khafre's shrine and sled were ritually disposed of after his funeral.

孟卡拉的墓葬群Menkaure's Funerary Complex[]

Sepulchral Chamber, Third Pyramid, by Howard-Vyse & Perring / 1840

The dimensions of Menkaure's pyramid are much less grandiose. However, unlike its predecessors, Menkaure's pyramid shows a great deal of complexity in its internal and external finish.

The outside was partially covered in red granite, while the internal walls were richly decorated. This latter innovation would not catch on until the end of the 5th dynasty, when pyramid texts began to adorn the walls.

Section Through Centre of Third Pyramid, by Howard-Vyse & Perring / 1840

Menkaure's pyramid contains two sloping passages, both located in the northern side of the structure.

The upper one was abandoned during the construction phase, whereas the lower one, slightly above the base of the monument, constitutes the real entrance.

The lower passage leads to a first room, which, for the first time since the reign of Djoser, is decorated with engraved false doors.

Seated Statue of King Menkaure

While Menkaure's pyramid complex was unfinished at the time of his death, it was hastily, and somewhat shabbily, completed by his successor, Shepseskaf.

Even so, this funerary structure marks a watershed in the history of this kind of monument. From then onwards, the pyramid shrank, whereas the mortuary temple expanded both in its quantitative and qualitative aspects.

Of particular note, it is within Menkaure's mortuary temple that one can find the heaviest block of limestone ever used for a pyramid complex, weighing in at over 200 tons.

Pyramid of Gizeh (detail)

Menkaure's causeway was completed in mud-brick by the king's successor, whereas the lower part was nothing more than a simple ramp.

As for the valley temple, it was built in two phases: the foundations were first laid out in limestone during Menkaure's reign, but the temple itself was completed in mud-brick afterwards.

As such, the valley temple was soon damaged and ended up being completely rebuilt during the 6th dynasty.

View of the Pyramids South of Third Pyramid, by Howard-Vyse & Perring / 1840

Three small structures referred to as Menkaure's Queens' Pyramids, were erected along the southern side of the main pyramid. One of them was a smooth-faced pyramid, while the other two were more basic step pyramids.

Itis difficult to assess whether the latter were designed as such or were left unfinished, with no casing to smooth out their surfaces.

Entrance to the 4th and 5th Pyramids (Queens), by Howard-Vyse & Perring / 1840

The easternmost pyramid was built with the traditional rooms and corridors found within a satellite pyramid meant to house the King's ka. However, a granite sarcophagus was found within, Leading to the conclusion that it was used as an actual tomb rather than as a symbolic cenotaph.

Drawing on these observations, some assume that this pyramid was first built as a satellite pyramid for the king's ka, before seeing its purpose change to that of a queen's tomb.

Which queen, however, remains a mystery.

亚历山大[]

希腊法老The Greek Pharaohs[]

Learn about the founding of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

Relief: Ptolemy VIII making an offering of maat to Amun

Pharaohs were considered divine incarnations of the gods. As an avatar of the gods living on earth, the pharaoh's role was to preserve fundamental values and universal harmony by removing chaos, isfet, and ensure that justice, maat, prevailed.

The pharaoh, by divine ancestry and through multiple offerings, was the bond that unites the world of men to the world of the gods and allows the maintenance of the cosmic order.

New presentation in July 2010, row of "dynastic portraits" in the corridor of Pan

The Ptolemaic dynasty reigned over Egypt from 305 BCE to 30 BCE.

The dynasty was called the Ptolemies of the Lagides in recognition of the founder of the Dynasty, Ptolemy Lagos, a Greek general and close friend of Alexander the Great.

While Macedonian, Ptolemy Lagos understood that to be accepted by the Egyptian people, he would have to adopt their traditions. Upon assuming the title of pharaoh he changed his name to Ptolemy I Soter, meaning "savior."

Battle of Issus between Alexander and Darius III

Born in 356 BCE, Alexander the Great went through a hasty education in the affairs of the kingdom before integrating into the Macedonian army, where he quickly rose through the ranks.

After his father's assassination in 336 BCE, which some believed was orchestrated by Alexander himself, he became king of Macedonia.

Ruler of a unified kingdom and leader of a large army, Alexander set his sights on conquest. Eager to reclaim Greek cities of Asia Minor, he took on the Persian forces, earning victory after victory.

Block with cartouche of Alexander the Great or his son Alexander IV of Macedon

Ever victorious, Alexander the Great marched on, laying siege to city after city, until he reached Egypt, where the Persians were defeated yet again.

Viewed as a liberator by the Egyptian people, Alexander decided to become pharaoh in blue form. He traveled to Thebes to make a sacrifice to Apis, then went to the oasis of Siwa, where he was proclaimed son of Ammon.

Officialy pharaoh of Egypt, Alexander spent much of the winter there, and founded the city of Alexandria.

Perhaps not coincidentally, being pharaoh allowed Alexander to spread propaganda to prepare further conquests. He resumed his military campaigns in 331 BCE.

Ptolemy I

On his deathbed in 323 BCE, Alexander the Great gifted the satrapy of Egypt to Ptolemy Lagos.

Perfectly aware of the value of Egypt, Ptolemy ensured not only the stability of the country's borders, but also its economic and military development. At the same time, he worked with the Egyptian elite to maintain the interal order of the country.

By 305 BCE, Ptolemy, well respected both in Egypt and in the Mediterranean, was at the head of the largest fleet of the Hellenistic world.

Ptolemy officially took the title of pharaoh of Egypt in January 304 BCE, on the anniversary of Alexander the Great's death.

Alexander's Tomb

Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BCE. His remains were placed first in a solid gold sarcophagus, and then within another.

The casket was carried in a an ornate custom wagon, glided and set with precious stones and pulled by sixty-four mules crowned in gold. The funeral procession was diverted to a grandiose temple in Alexandria built in the conqueror's honor, under the orders of Ptolemy I.

Augustus at the Tomb of Alexander

Julius Caesar visited Alexander's tomb at the capture of Alexandria, and the Roman Emperor Augustus reported placed flowers there.

However, though many powerful leaders claimed to have visited it, the tomb's location has gone missing from history.

Some accounts do state that the golden coffin was replaced by a glass sarcophagus, probably by Ptolemy X. It is also implied that Cleopatra may have plundered the tomb in a time of financial crisis.

克里奥帕特拉,埃及女王Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt[]

Learn about Cleopatra, the last of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs.

Head of Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE) / 1st century BCE

Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator ascended the throne in 51 BCE, at the age of eighteen. Though her early attempts to maintain power were often challenged, she eventually prevailed, and became the sole ruler of Egypt.

According to Plutarch, she was the only Ptolemaic pharaoh to speak the Egyptian language. Her intelligence, coupled with a good education and a great political mind, allowed her to make the alliances necessary to maintain the independence of Egypt while Rome was becoming a Mediterranean empire.

(Probably) Cleopatra VII / Greco-Roman Era

It is important to understand that Cleopatra's knowledge of Egyptian language and keen understanding of Egyptian language and keen understanding of the culture allowed her to make powerful ideological referents that resonated with ancient Egyptians.

By associating herself with the goddess Iset, the divine mother, great of magic and repository of divine essence, Cleopatra firmly established herself as the Protector of the Two Lands, and legitimized her place on the throne.

Mint: Tetradrachm of Ptolemy XIII / Ptolemaic Era

Upon his death in 51 BCE, Ptolemy XII Aulos bequeathed his kingdom to his daughter and eldest son: Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII.

As was custom, the siblings were married. The new pharaoh was 10 years old, his sister-wife 17.

The early years of their reign were not easy. Between 50 and 48 BCE, droughts and floods aggravated Egypt's problems. General Achillas and the royal advisor Potheinos kept intervening in the young rulers' political decisions, and eventually colluded to turn Ptolemy XIII against Cleopatra.

By 48 BCE, Cleopatra was in exile.

Pompey / Roman Empire Era

During Cleopatra's exile, the Roman empire was not without its own internal conflict. Caesar and Pompey were at war with one another, and after his defeat in 48 BCE, Pompey fled to Alexandria in the hope of finding refuge.

This turned out to be an unwise decision. Listening to his advisors, Ptolemy XIII elected to have Pompey assassinated, his head kept as a gift in the hopes of acquiring Caesar's favor.

This gambit backfired. Instead of earning approval, the murder of a Roman greatly angered Caesar.

Caesar Returns Cleopatra to the Egyptian Throne

Cleopatra, aware of Caesar's anger against Ptolemy for the murder of Pompey, decided to take advantage of the situation.

She returned to Egypt in secret, hoping to establish an alliance with one of the most powerful men of the time.

Outside of the legend where she had herself smuggled into his quarters in a carpet, what exactly happened during that fateful meeting remains a mystery. However, Caesar seemed to see a better ruler for Egypt in Cleopatra than in her young and too-easily influenced brother.

Invoking Ptolemy XII's will, Caesar attempted to mediate peace between the siblings.

Coin; Ruler: Cleopatra the Great / Reign of Cleopatra

Ptolemy XIII was enraged by the turn of events, and his advisors were none too happy to see Cleopatra return. Urged on by General Achillas and Potheinos, the young Pharaoh plotted against Caesar and Cleopatra, resulting in the siege of Alexandria in 47 BCE.

It was in March 47 BCE that Caesar defeated Ptolemy XIII's forces. The young pharaoh drowned in the Nile after having fled the battlefield.

With her opponents dead or powerless, Cleopatra married her other much younger brother, Ptolemy XIV, and finally claimed the throne of Egypt for good.

Denderah, Tentyris - Temple of Athor... Cleopatra & Caesarion / circa 1851

In June of 47 BCE, Cleopatra gave birth to a son, whom she called Caesarion. Caesar did not accept the boy as his heir, choosing instead his nephew, Octavian.

Nonetheless, on his return to Rome, Caesar invited the queen and her brother-husband to stay in the city. Her presence still drew much disapproval from the senate.

Always a strategist, Caesar left four legions in Egypt, and a man he trusted to direct Egyptian affairs, giving him control of the wheat supplies essential to Rome.

Cleopatra and her entourage remained in Rome until March 44 BCE, when Caesar was murdered.

Mark Antony at Cleopatra's Feast / Modern era

Caesar's most faithful ally, Mark Antony, often visited the queen of Egypt during his stay in Rome. Unlike most, he recognized the legitimacy of Caesarion, the natural son of Caesar.

Antony knew he would need the riches of Egypt, in order to fight OCtavian and claim the Roman Empire.

Cleopatra, in return, saw a powerful ally. In the winter of 41 BCE, she arranged a sumptuous tour of Egypt by boat, to show Antony the wealth of her country and the power she held as its ruler.

A romantic and political relationship followed. The Roman senate was once again most displeased. To calm spirits in Rome, Antony married Octavia, sister of Octavian.

Tetradrachm; Portrait of Queen Cleopatra VII (& Mark Antony) / Reign of Cleopatra

Despite his marriage to Octavia, Antony remained Cleopatra's lover, and she gave birth to their children.

Cleopatra increased her kingdom's territory, and started a political propaganda alongside her lover, in Egypt and beyond. She hoped to create a Ptolemaic federal empire, with Alexandria at its center.

Antony eventually repudiated his Roman wife for the Egyptian queen, much to the dismay of the Roman elite.

However, while Mark Antony focused on Egypt, Octavian carefully gained military and political ascendency over him in Rome.

(Probably) Head of Cleopatra VII / Ptolemaic Era

Octavian managed his own propaganda campaign, and succeeded. The Roman people hated Mark Antony and Cleopatra. To avoid the censure still inherent in attacking a fellow Roman, Octavian simply declared war against Egypt.

Rome's power still reigned supreme. The powerful Egyptian fleet, led by Cleopatra as well as Mark Antony's forces, were defeated in 31 BCE in Actium.

Octavian arrived in Egypt in 30 BCE, to formalize his victory.

Death of Cleopatra, by Louis-Marie Baader

The following events remain difficult to confirm, due to the many versions and legends around them.

It is believed that after hearing a rumur about Cleopatra's suicide, Mark Antony commited suicide himself. He was brought to the queen, as he slowly passed away.

Knowing that Octavian would have her chained and paraded through Rome in defeat, Cleopatra planned her own suicide.

She most likely killed herself with arsenic, though admittedly the version where she uses an asp to deliver a fatal bite may be considered more dramatic.

What happened to the body of Cleopatra is still a mystery...

亚历山大围城The Siege of Alexandria[]

Learn about the siege of Alexandria, from Julius Caesar's perspective.

Civil War, by Julius Caesar (edition of 1574)

Among the collection of writings attributed to Julius Caesar are his descriptions of the siege of Alexandria, the "Gallic Wars" and the "Commentaries on the Civil War".

These archives contain information on different campaigns: the Wars of Alexandria, Africa and Spain. Each of them recount Caesar's military activity from 58 BCE to 45 BCE.

Though Caesar's documents remain a main source of information, it's important to note that the perspective is limited. It is necessary for other historical documents to be taken into consideration to provide a better understanding of events.

Alexandria Palace Cape Lochias

The siege of Alexandria closely relays the events of the Civil War that lead up to the event, and describes how Caesar was besieged in the palace of the Ptolemies.

other ancient authors have left equally valuable, and sometimes contradictory, information.