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历史地点Historical Locations)是出现在蕾拉·哈桑Animus HR8.5中的一个地图功能。它能在蕾拉体验斯巴达佣兵卡珊德拉的记忆时,提供伯罗奔尼撒战争期间后者曾拜访过的一些希腊地标的额外关联信息。

地点

Achaia亚该亚

Nestled in the mountains, Boura was either named for Ion's daughter or the centaur Dexamenos, who owned cattle there. A site nearby was used to learn about the future by throwing knucklebones.伯拉位在山区 而这座城市的名字要不是因伊昂之女而来,便是因为在此处拥有牲口的半人马德萨孟诺斯而来。附近有处曾以掷距骨来预知未来的地方。

As the most prominent city in the region, Patrai was used as a naval base during the Peloponnesian War. It was also known for having twice as many women as men in its population.帕特雷是这一带最重要的城市,在伯罗奔尼撒战争时期是座海防基地。当地还有一个特色,就是女性的人口有男性的两倍之多。

Pellene has the distinction of being the first city in Achaia to join Sparta in the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE.佩里尼是公元前431年,伯罗奔尼撒战争时期第一个加入斯巴达阵营的亚该亚城市。

Argolis阿尔戈利斯

The abaton was the dormitory where, after a series of rites, the sick would receive visions from Asklepios in a dream. The visions were then interpreted by the sanctuary’s priest-physicians.

Agamemnon may have been king of Mycenae and commander of United Greek armies in the Trojan War, but he had a less-than-glorious homecoming. While at a banquet, he was killed by his own wife's lover.或许,阿伽门农是迈锡尼国王,在特洛伊战争时更是希腊联合远征军的统帅,但他的凯旋可一点都不光彩。他在一场宴会中,被自己妻子的情人给杀了。

The oldest sanctuaries in the city were built on two akropolises (sic) and housed the temples of Athena Polias, Zeus Larisaios, Hera Akraia, and Apollo Pythaios, which was connected to the Bloody Oracle.这座城市最古老的圣殿就建在两座卫城里,圣殿中还有雅典娜·波利亚斯,宙斯·拉里萨和赫拉·阿可拉利亚的神殿。另外还有与血腥神谕有关的阿波罗·皮萨欧斯神殿。

Apollo Maleatas and Asklepios shared this sacred place on Mount Kynortion. Starting in the eighth century BCE, people worshipped Apollo as both a physician and as Asklepios's father.阿波罗·马列塔与阿斯克勒庇厄斯一同共享克诺升山上这处神圣之地。从公元前八世纪开始,人们便以阿波罗的两种身份供奉着他。一为医者,另为阿斯克勒庇厄斯的父亲。

Founded at the foot of two akropolises (sic), Argos has been occupied since prehistoric times. Praised for its heroes, it gained great fame in the fifth century BCE for its talented sculptors.阿尔戈斯就在两座卫城的山脚下,而且早在史前时代就有人类在此活动。这座城市在公元前五世纪便因其出色的雕刻家们而声名大噪。

Asine was destroyed in the seventh century BCE by the Argives for helping Sparta in their war against Argos. After its demise, the Spartans gave Asine citizens compensatory land in Messenia.亚辛在公元前七世纪斯巴达与阿尔戈斯的战事中,遭帮助斯巴达的阿尔戈斯人所毁。后来斯巴达人将墨塞尼亚一块土地赔偿给了亚辛的居民。

This bandit from Epidauros attacked unsuspecting travelers with his bronze club. Luckily for them, Theseus killed him while on his return voyage to Attika.这名来自厄庇道洛斯的盗贼用铜棒袭击毫无防备的旅人们。万幸的是,忒修斯在回阿提卡的路上把他杀了。

It was said that Medusa's head, which was brought back by Perseus, was found in a mound of earth near the Argos agora.

Wrongly accused by his stepmother, Phaidra, Theseus's son died while driving his chariot by the sea. Desiring his son's death, Theseus called on Poseidon, who sent a sea monster.因为遭到继母淮德拉恶意指控,忒修斯的儿子在海边骑乘战车时丧命了。原来忒修斯为了置儿子于死地,让波塞冬派出一只海怪。

It is said that when Herakles put down his wild olive-wood club in Argolis, it took root and began to sprout leaves.据说当海克力斯在阿尔戈利斯放下他的野橄榄木棒时,这根木棒便生根发芽了。

Epidauros was strategically placed between Athens and Argos as an entry point for pilgrims. The would travel from all over Greece to the nearby healing sanctuary of Asklepios.厄庇道洛斯为了战略考量而建于雅典和阿尔戈斯之间,此处便是朝圣者的入口。朝圣者会从希腊各地前来,并在附近的阿斯克勒庇厄斯圣殿接受治疗。

On a rocky hill in the Argive plains, "mighty-walled" Tiryns was the second most important site in the Mycenaean world. Linked with Herakles, it had a palace, Cyclopean walls, and tunnels.“铜墙铁壁”的梯林斯位于阿尔戈斯平原一座布满岩石的山丘上,是整个迈锡尼第二重要的场所。这里与海克力斯有所关联,里头有宫殿,蛮石墙和隧道。

Danaos' fifty daughters each received a dagger for their marriages to his brother Aigyptos' fifty sons. Though Danaos commanded his daughters kill their husbands, one chose to save her spouse.

Founded in the ninth century BCE on a hillside, the sanctuary of Hera houses many buildings. The oldest temple dedicated to this goddess, protector of the city, was burned in 423 BCE by Chrysis.

Despite the lake's calm look, it was known for draining its swimmers out the bottom. Just southwest from here, Herakles killed the Hydra, cauterizing its necks to prevent its heads from growing back.纵然湖面如此平静,湖底却是尸横遍野。就在此处的西南方,海克力斯杀了九头蛇,并烧烙其颈部,以预防那些头再长回来。

The tomb of the Korinthian tyrant Periander's wife was located near Epidauros. Her husband killed her after a fit of jealousy.

Home of King Agamemnon, Mycenae was one of the oldest cities in Greece. Dating from the third millennium BCE, it's said its walls were the work of Cyclopes. It was abandoned in the fifth century BCE.迈锡尼是阿伽门农国王的故乡,更是希腊最古老的城市之一。据说这座城市的城墙是公元前三千年前由独眼巨人所建,而城市本身于公元前五世纪遭到废弃。

Nauplia, meaning "naval station," is the port of Argolis. The Spartans arrived by boat for the Battle of Sepeia after sacrifices yielded unfavorable omens advising them not to cross the Erasinos River.纳夫普利翁是阿尔戈利斯的港口,而这个名称的意思是“海上驻站”。斯巴达人因西匹亚战役而乘船至此,因为献祭都再再显示了恶兆,建议他们不要跨越埃拉西诺斯河。

The hide of this invincible creature could not be burned or pierced by any weapon. Herakles used his cunning to trap it in its den, then strangled it with his own hands. He wore the hide himself.这头无敌野兽的毛皮不会着火也无法用武器穿透。海克力斯用计将此兽困在巢中,并用双手将它勒死。海克力斯自己穿着这片兽皮。

Herakles's club was made of wood from a wild olive tree near the Saronida sea.海克力斯的木棒是由萨荣尼达海边一颗野生的橄榄树制成。

Known for his gigantic size, Hippomedon's claim to fame was participating in the expedition of the seven against Thebes. The ruins of the palace he lived in are still visible.希波墨冬身形巨大,因为参与了七雄联攻底比斯的远征而一战成名。他居住过的宫殿遗迹至今仍存留着。

Argos' King Pheidon was known for his arrogance. He allegedly took the organization of the Olympic Games from Elis, and he was wrongfully credited in helping invent weights and measures.阿尔戈斯国王菲登向来自视甚高。据说他从厄利斯人手中抢走奥林匹克运动会的主办权,还被误以为是协助发明度量衡的人。

Polykleitos preferred to work with bronze and the lost-wax casting technique as a sculptor. His known work, titled Kanon, described the perfect system of proportions for each part of the body.身为一名雕刻家,波利克列特斯偏好使用青铜和脱蜡法。在他的著作《规范》中,详细地描绘了人体各个部位的完美比例。

This place was famous in Greece for attracting sick pilgrims. After the sick performed various rituals - fast, bath, and sacrifice - Asklepios would come to them in a dream and bring healing.梦疗圣所是让病患休憩的地方。在经历多次仪式后,病患会得到阿斯克勒庇厄斯的梦兆,而这些梦兆将交由圣殿的医祭司翻译。

In the face of the invading Persians, this Athenian decree saw the evacuation of old men, furniture, goods, women, and children. Then, they boarded two hundred triremes with all able Athenians to fight.

Located southwest of the city on one of the akropolises, this oracle site was dedicated to Apollo. Once a month, a prophetess would convey oracles in the dead of night, after drinking the blood of a lamb.这个神谕之处位于城市西南方的一座卫城中,供奉着阿波罗。每个月都有一名女先知喝下羔羊鲜血并于深夜转述神谕。

Tydeus was one of the seven leaders who organized an expedition against Thebes, helping Polynikes regain his city. In the heat of battle, Tydeus ate the brain of one of his enemies, Melanippos.

Arkadia阿尔卡德亚

Here, frightening beings of invincible strength, the Giants, avenged the Titans who were ousted by the Olympians. In result, the Giants were struck by lightning and pierced with flying arrows.

Located at the border of Messenia and Arkadia, this statue is said to have been created by the famous Daidalos. This eclectic artist was known as a skilled inventor, architect, and sculptor.

This Arkadian native was half man, half goat, and protected shepherds and flocks. Since this god was associated with the wild countryside and mountainous settings, several caves were dedicated to him.这名半人半羊的阿尔卡德亚居民守护着牧羊人和羊群。由于这名神祇多与野外和山区有关,因此很多洞穴都供奉他。

It was in this cave in the Aroanian mountains that the daughters of Proitos, king of the Tiryns, took refuge after Dionysos drove them mad.梯林斯国王波特斯的女儿们被狄俄尼索斯逼疯后

便逃到这个位于亚罗阿尼亚山脉的山洞中。

The woman-shaped columns were inspired by either the punished women of Karyes who joined the Persians in war, or the young women of Karyes, who danced for Artemis Karyatis.这些形似女体的廊柱可能受到下列其中一种女性启发,一种是在战时投靠波斯而被惩处的卡里埃女性,另一种是向阿尔忒弥斯·卡里埃堤斯献上舞蹈的卡里埃年轻女性。

Phigaleia was the home of the famed pankratiast Arrachion, who won posthumously when his opponent suffocated him illegally during a bout. His corpse was named the winner at the 564 BCE Olympic Games.著名的潘克拉辛角斗术手阿拉席翁出身于费加利亚。一场比赛中,对手犯规将他掐到窒息。虽然他在这场比赛中失去了性命,但最终的判决是由他获胜。他的尸体在公元前564年的奥林匹克运动会中被封为胜者。

Atalanta would marry only if her suitor could beat her in a footrace. One suitor, Hippomenes, cunningly put golden apples in her path. Curious, she stopped to gather them and was forced to marry him.阿塔兰塔只嫁给能够以疾走胜过她的人。有位追求者,希波墨涅斯,狡猾地在她疾走的路在线放了数颗金苹果。好奇心使然,她停下来捡拾了这些苹果,也导致她必须嫁给这个人。

Furious at Poseidon's advances, Demeter turned into a mare to elude the sea god. It was in vain, however, because Poseidon also turned into a horse. Their union produced the legendary horse Areion.

Legendary man-eating birds lived near Stymphalos. As they increased in number, they became a menace, devastating crops and hurling their steel feathers. Herakles was the one to defeat them.

Tegea was one of the oldest and most powerful cities in Arkadia. Its first king was famous for killing one of Herakles' sons.提吉亚是阿尔卡德亚最古老也最有权力的城市之一。第一位提吉亚国王因杀了海克力斯的其中一子而闻名。

The source of the legendary underworld river was in Arkadia. Not only did the gods use water from the Styx to administer oaths, but it was famously harmful to humans, livestock, and objects.这条传奇的冥界河流发源于阿尔卡德亚。冥河之水非但能让众神用来起誓,还对人类,牲口以及物品极度有害。

Attika阿提卡

The Agora was the civic heart of Athens. It served as the center of all political, commercial, administrative, social, and legal activity.阿戈拉市集是雅典市民的生活重心。这里也是政治,商业,行政,社交和法律活动的中心。

A symbol of Athens' grandeur, the Akropolis was built at the city's peak. After the Persian Wars, Perikles hired famous artists to erect this imposing sanctuary with the Delian League's wealth.

The altar speaks to the rivalry between Eros and Anteros, sitting in front of the entrance to the Academy and near the famous gymnasium.这座祭坛讲述了厄洛斯与安忒洛斯之间的较劲。祭坛坐落于学院入口前方,也在著名的体育场旁。

A torch relay beginning at the foot of the altar—located near the Academy—was held in honor of Prometheus.这座祭坛位在学院附近。祭坛是火炬传递赛跑的起点,而这个赛跑用来祭拜普罗米修斯。

This altar dedicated to the twelve gods seems to have served as a place of refuge and a topographical point of reference. Herodotos used it to give sample distances.

Named for being Ares' rock, this hill sat next to the Akropolis. In mythology, it is where Ares was judged for killing Poseidon's son. The Areopagus was the court that decided homicide cases.

Athens achieved glory in the fifth century BCE under Perikles, who made it a great military power at the head of an alliance of cities. It was the birthplace of democracy.

The mint is the place where coins are struck into creation. Round metal disks were prepared and then struck between two matrices to make a coin. Athens' coinage was the most plentiful in Greece.

The state erected a burial mound at the heart of the plain for the 192 Athenians who fell during the Battle of Marathon. The tumulus of the Plataians was located three km north.

It was here that Demeter, disguised as an old woman, is said to have met the daughters of Eleusis' first king, Keleos. She took refuge in his home, teaching rituals of her famed cult in Eleusis.

This building housed a council of 500 members, who were in charge of the city laws.这栋建筑物可以容纳五百名议员,而议员们在此决定公共事务。

In the early years of the war, the Spartans invaded Attika's countryside, destroying crops, and burning farms to starve the Athenians and force them to fight on land.在战争前期,斯巴达人进军阿提卡乡间,摧毁了庄稼,并烧毁农场。如该来,苦无粮食的雅典人只能在陆地应战。

The Persian general Mardonius burned this temple during the Greco-Persian Wars. Although it was not rebuilt, the Athenians placed a new statue of the goddess on the spot.波斯将军马铎尼斯在波希战争时期将这座神殿烧成灰烬。虽然此处并未被重建,但雅典人重新为这位女神立了一座神像。

Known for its boulders and stalagmites resembling a herd of goats, this grotto dedicated to Pan is located near Marathon, on the south coast.这个地形酷似一群山羊的石窟用来供奉潘神,位于南岸的马拉松附近。

Along the road leaving the city were state-funded collective burial mounds for soldiers who died in combat, as well as a number of noteworthy private tombs. Perikles was buried here in 429 BCE.离开城市的沿路上都是国家为死去的士兵建造的坟墓,其中也有一些值得特别提及的私人坟墓。伯里克利在公元前429年安葬于此处。

During the Peloponnesian War, Dekelia was used as a Spartan base at Alkibiades's recommendation. The location allowed the Spartans to be at the crossroads of supply routes.伯罗奔尼撒战争期间,在阿尔西比亚狄斯的建议下,斯巴达将德凯利亚当作一座基地。该地点让斯巴达人位于补给路线的枢纽上。

Dedicated to Demeter and Persephone, the Telesterion was where people were inducted into the Eleusinian Mysteries. This secret initation offered the promise of a better life in the beyond.泰勒斯台里昂神殿供奉着狄蜜特和波瑟芬妮,人们在这里发起了厄琉息斯秘仪。这个神秘的信仰向人们许诺了更好的来世。

Many entrances to the underworld were known in ancient Greece. This entrance is linked to where Demeter's daughter was abducted by Hades, who stole her away to the underworld, wanting to marry her.古希腊有许多通往冥界的入口。这个入口正是黑帝斯想娶狄蜜特的女儿并将她绑到冥界而出名。

Known for its caryatids, this temple was dedicated to Poseidon, Athena, and two legendary kings, Erechtheus and Kekrops. It was the most significant site of worship at the Akropolis.这座因女像柱而闻名的对称神殿,供奉着波塞冬,雅典娜以及厄瑞克透斯和凯克洛普斯这两位传奇的国王。这里曾是雅典卫城中最重要的朝圣地点。

This place owes its origins to the hero Didymos, who—wanting to make a sacrifice to the god of wine—was stopped by a white (argos) dog (kunos) who stole the animal he intended to sacrifice.

Also known as Poulytion's home, this was one of the most beautiful in Athens. It was dedicated to Dionysos after the host was sentenced for performing a parody of the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Brothels were located near the Kerameikos quarter, which was named for its numerous pottery workshops.许多娼馆位于凯拉米克斯附近。这个区域的名称因当地数量众多的陶艺坊而来。

It was on the road from Eleusis to Megara that Kerkyon forced travelers to wrestle, killing those he defeated. In consequence, he was violently put to death by Theseus.

This hill was home to an altar shared by Poseidon and Athena, honored as protectors of horses, which were used for transport, war, racing, and hunting.

Ajax's father went with Jason on the quest for the golden fleece and the Kalydonian boar, and then to Salamis after killing his own brother. He watched the boat taking his sons to Troy from the port.埃阿斯的父亲和伊阿宋一起出发追寻金羊毛,又一起消灭卡吕冬伊安野猪,最后在杀死自己的兄弟后,来到萨拉米斯岛。他在港边看着船只带走他的儿子们前往特洛伊。

This place tells the story of Lykos, a priest and mythical seer who instituted the cult of Apollo Lykeios. The priest of this cult had a reserved place at the theater of Dionysos.

Marathon owes its name to the fennel thriving in its swamps. It was known for the great battle between 10,000 Greeks and 500,000 Persians in 490 BCE. 6,400 Persians died versus only 192 Athenians.

After the battle of Marathon, the Athenians and their allies erected a marble trophy to mark their victory and the 6,400 Persians killed.

One of the 170 trades in Athens was marble work. Having become a major hub for marble sculpture, Athens attracted artists from across the Greek world. Their protector was Athena Ergane.

The tomb of the Amazon Antiope was located near the temple of Zeus Olympian. Theseus mortally wounded her during the Amazonian invasion of Attika.

Official documents, including the list of military contingents, were posted on this monument dedicated to the eponymous heroes of Athens.包含军方队伍列表在内的官方文档,都张贴在这尊献给同名的雅典英雄古迹上。

This cenotaph was erected of Theseus's son, with whom Phaidra, his father's wife, fell in love. When he rebuffed her, Phaidra accused him of violence, bringing about his death.

To reduce transport weight, the quarry provided a leveled product that was finished on-site. Blocks were then taken by land and boat for export.

East of Athens, Mt. Pentelikos was the source of the marble used in architectural construction of Perikles' grand project on the Akropolis.

The Odeon showed musical performances and was modeled after the Persian king Xerxes' tent, which was brought back as plunder. It was the largest building in Athens and the first theater to receive a roof.

The boat that was used during the Panathenaic processions was kept near the Areopagus. Equipped with wheels for the occasion, it was pulled like a parade float.

This wooded mountain range separating Attika and Boeotia was famed for wild boar and bear hunting.

Built to the glory of Athens' protector, the Parthenon housed the gold and ivory statue of Athena, made by Phidias. Made of Pentelic marble, the structure held the city's and Delian League's riches.

Before Piraeus, the Phaleron port was used during the Greco-Persian Wars, but it was mainly known as the place where Athenians set out for the Trojan War.在比雷埃夫斯出现前,波希战争中仰赖的是法利罗港,而这里因作为特洛伊战争中雅典战船的启航处而为人所知。

Situated on a hill, this was where Athenians gathered for assemblies. Decrees were ratified budgets voted on, and administration members appointed. It was where citizens could have a voice.雅典人就在位于山丘上的此处进行集会。人们在这里批准了法令,票选了预算,也指派了行政人事。这里,每位市民都能发表意见。

The port was a socially and economically separate world split into three areas: military ports, commercial ports, and a residential area. It played a critical role in Athens' impact as a naval power.这个港口因其社会和经济结构而被分为三块区域:军用港,商用港和住宅区。此处对雅典海防军力的影响举足轻重。

This gateway marked the entrance of the Akropolis sanctuary. Constructed of Pentellic marble, it had a central building with five gates and was the end of the Sacred Way. Two wings housed paintings.

The goal of this court was to judge objects that had committed murder. The attempt of these legal actions removed the stains of blood spilled in the crime.

Looking at the Salamis strait will always evoke the Greeks' victory over the Persians. Forced to fight in this narrow strait, the Persians couldnt make full use of their naval strength, and perished.只要看着萨拉米斯海峡,就会让希腊人想起战胜波斯人的事。波斯人被迫在狭小的海峡中开打,根本无法发挥他们的海军实力,最后便战死了。

Located on a rich plain, the sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone was the important religious festivities. The large size of the Telesterion attests to the popularity of the initiatory cult.狄蜜特与波瑟芬妮的圣殿位于肥沃的平原上,这里也是举办重要宗教祭典的场所。巨大的泰勒斯台里昂神殿正是这个原始教派备受推崇的证明。

On the edge of Attika, this sanctuary housed a temple of Poseidon. Sitting above the Aegean Sea, it enabled sailors to pray to Poseidon for safe passage on the seas.

The saltwater streams in the fertile plains of Thria between Eleusis and Athens were called Rheitoi. The Spartan king Archidamos also routed the Athenian cavalry here.

The most famous statue of Artemis near this altar was brought back from Tauris by Iphigenia. Some say that it was stolen by the Persians, while others say that it was in Sparta or dedicated in Attika.

The statues of Demeter, goddess of the fruitful earth, and her daughter, Kore, stood near the sacred gate. They kept watch over the road connecting Athens and the Sanctuary of Eleusis.丰饶大地的女神狄蜜特与其女柯瑞的神像就矗立在圣门旁。她们看顾着雅典与厄琉息斯的圣殿之间的道路。

This statue was carved by Phidias and erected on the Akropolis to commemorate the Battle of Marathon. The tip of Athena's spear and the rest of her helmet were visible from Cape Sounion.

Located southeast of Athens, Mount Hymettos was 1,026 m high and known for its marble, its honey - the only source of sugar in ancient Greece - and its altar to Zeus Ombrios, bringer of rain.

In Athens, there were numerous taverns, whose managers were often mocked in the plays of Aristophanes. The wine served in taverns could be red, or rosé, and up to 16% proof.雅典有许多酒店,而亚里斯托芬的剧作中特别喜欢嘲弄这些酒店的老板。酒店提供的葡萄酒有红有白也有粉红,标准酒度更可能高达16%。

This was the sanctuary of the healing god whose cult was introduced to Athens in the 5th century BCE. Its construction was funded by a wealthy Athenian named Telemachos.

This temple was located on a headland on the island's north side, facing Atika. The shrine hosted a grand feast each year in honor of Athena, the protector of Salamis' farmers and sailors.

Erected on a hill, this Doric temple overlooking the agora is dedicated to Hephaistos, god of the forge, and to Athena Ergane, goddess of arts and crafts. A garden adjoined the temple.

On the slopes of the Akropolis was the temple of Themis, goddess of justice, law, and fairness. She succeeded her mother, Gaia, as the possessor of the Oracle of Delphi, later giving it to Apollo.

The Temple of Zeus at the foot of the Akropolis was a vast temple dedicated to Olympian Zeus. Construction began under the tyrant Peisistratos but was interrupted by the emergence of democracy.

This was built inside the god's sanctuary and introduced Greek theater to the heart of the city. The great works of Euripides, Aischylos, Sophokles, and Aristophanes were performed there.这座剧场建在这名神祇的圣殿内,并让希腊剧场来到了城市的中心。欧里庇得斯,埃斯库罗斯,索福克勒斯和亚里斯托芬的巨作都曾在这里演出。

Following Theseus' intervention, King Adrastos of Argos and Sikyon buried the ashes of the seven leaders killed during the expedition against Thebes here.

In the time of Perikles, the misanthrope Timon shut himself away on a farm, in a tower that served as both a refuge and granary.

The Vouliagmeni sinkhole, located near the Attika region, was nicknamed "the Devil's Hole."沃立歌美尼沉洞位于阿提卡区附近,别名“恶魔的坑洞”。

Boeotia

The Battle of Plataia - the last land battle of the Greco-Persian Wars - took place here in 479 BCE. This decisive victory brought Xerxes' Persian invasion to a permanent end.

It is said that construction of the first bridge between Euboea and the continent began across the Euripos Strait during the Peloponnesian War. Theramenes the Athenian tried to stop its construction.第一座链接优卑亚岛至希腊大陆的桥,据说是伯罗奔尼撒战争期间,从尤里普斯海峡对岸开始兴建的。雅典人塞拉门尼斯曾试图阻止这座桥的建造。

The temple of the Charites was the oldest in Orchomenos. The three goddesses, often called Graces, were worshipped as deities of the Kephissos River. Eteokles was the first to honor them.

As leader and seer, Amphiaraos took part in the expedition of the seven against Thebes. According to myth, Zeus threw a thunderbolt, causing the earth to swallow him and his chariot.

The former capital of the legendary Minyan race formed a district of Boeotia. The city's protector, Zeus, and Dionysos were honored there, but it's (sic) most famous sanctuary was to the Charites, also called the Graces.

This was the training ground for athletes, who coated their bodies in olive oil and sprinkled on sand for sun protection and body temperature regulation. After training, it was removed with a strigil.这里是运动员的训练场。运动员会全身涂满橄榄油并撒上沙粒,以便防晒并保持体温正常。训练结束后,会再以刮身板去除。

Established as a hero and seer, Amphiaraos had an oracular sanctuary near Oropos. Patients were treated through dreams. After healing, a gold or silver coin was tossed into the sanctuary's spring.安菲阿拉俄斯既是英雄又是预言家,他在奥罗帕斯有座神谕圣殿。病患会以梦境进行疗程。当病患痊文松愈,便会掷一枚金币或银币到圣殿的喷泉里。

The akropolis of Thebes was called Kadmeia after its legendary founder, Kadmos. He left in search of his sister Europa when she was kidnapped by Zeus, who had taken the form of a bull.人们将底比斯卫城称为卡德密,因为底比斯这座城市的传奇建造者名为卡德摩斯。卡德摩斯的妹妹欧罗巴被化为公牛的宙斯带走后,卡德摩斯便出发寻找她。

Lebadeia was mainly known for the Oracle of Trophonios, which was consulted by people everywhere. Neraby (sic) was also a sanctuary of Zeus Basileos, the city's protective deity.人们会知道拉比狄亚主要是因为特洛福尼俄斯的神谕者,而来自各地的人们都会来这里向这位神谕者请示。附近还有一座宙斯·巴锡列欧斯的圣殿,是当地的守护神。

Gla was already fortified in the Mycenaean period. A Cyclopean wall surrounded the city on an island in Lake Kopais. A drainage system emptied and filled the lake to irrigate the plain.格拉在迈锡尼时期就已经加强过防御。这座位于科派斯湖中岛的城市有蛮石墙环绕。四周的平原利用排水系统来引进湖水进行灌溉。

A flagship product of ancient Greece, oil was used in food, personal care, perfumery, and lighting. Physicians also attributed therapeutic properties to it.

Kreusis was a fortified port dependent on Thespiai, but also used by Thebes. Protected from violent winds by a mole, it was the main Boeotian naval port on the Gulf of Korinth.

The Sanctuary of the Muses was on the northeastern slopes of Mount Helikon. According to myth, the muses were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne and may have inspired Hesiod's Theogony.缪思圣殿位于赫利孔山东北方的山坡上。根据神话所述,缪思是宙斯和谟涅摩叙涅的女儿们。她们可能是赫西俄德撰写《神谱》的灵感来源。

To appease Artemis who had immobilized his fleet, Agamemnon thought to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. At the last minute, a goddess took pity, substituted a doe, and made Iphigenia a priestess.由于舰队遭阿尔忒弥斯困住,阿伽门农想到平息阿尔忒弥斯怒气的办法便是献上自己的女儿伊菲革涅亚作为祭品。女神在最后一刻心软了,便以一头母鹿取代了伊菲革涅亚,并让她成为一名女祭司。

Akteon, who was devoured by his dogs after seeing Artemis bathing naked, haunted this rock. An oracle ordered the hero's remains be buried and a statue be erected where annual sacrifices were made.

The statue personified divine retribution and punished excess. Sculpted by Phidias from the block of marble brought by the Persians, they intended to use it as a trophy pedestal after taking Athens.

Leitos was a Theban detachment polemarch during the Trojan War. He was the only Theban leader to return home after the war, but was injured by the Trojan hero Hektor.列托斯是特洛伊战争中一支底比斯小队的最高指挥官。他是唯一在战争中生还的底比斯领袖,身上还带着特洛伊英雄赫克特造成的伤。

This illustrious city shares a legendary past with Oedipous and his desperate descendants, the legends of Herakles, and the men who sprang forth from planted snake teeth.这座知名的城市与以下几个人物都有深切的关系。像是伊底帕斯和他命运多舛的子嗣,海克力斯的传奇故事,还有一群从种下蛇牙之处诞生的人。

Orion the giant, son of Poseidon, was supposedly born in Boeotia. Artemis wanted revenge on him for seducing her follower Opis and sent a scorpion to kill him; it turned into a constellation.

Chios

Chios was a major city. Its inhabitants were regarded as the richest Greeks. Besides mastic, Chios exported wine and figs and had one of the biggest fleets.

Chios was the primary source of mastic, a fragrant resin extracted from the mastic tree and used as a varnish and a flavoring. Some wines were mastic-flavored, too.

The city's protector had a temple on the akropolis. Pactyas, a Persian general who defected to Cyrus the Great, took refuge here. Many Chians would not dare to make sacrifices there after his capture.

Delos

Dedicated to the island's mythical founder, the archegetes Anios, this sanctuary was where he was honored as a hero.这座圣殿供奉着神话中的开岛元老,开创者阿尼俄斯。当地人在这座圣殿里供奉着这位英雄。

Elais was one of the three daughters of Anios, who ruled Delos during the Trojan War. Dionysos gave her the ability to make oil spring from the ground.依莱斯是阿尼俄斯的三个女儿之一,而阿尼俄斯在特洛伊战争期间统治着提洛岛。狄俄尼索斯给了依莱斯从大地获得油的能力。

This was the largest of the three temples dedicated to Apollo. Its construction began when the island became the seat of the Delian League between 475 - 450 BCE.这是供奉阿波罗的三座神殿中最大的一座。这座神殿建造于公元前475到450年间,也就是提洛同盟开始以这座岛作为根据地的时间。

Banquets were held inside this building on feast days. They increased the population's feeling of religiosity and strengthened the ties between the public and divine spheres.举行祭典时,宴会就在这栋建筑物中举行。宴会让人们更虔诚,也强化了人们与神祇间的链接。

Settlements dating back to the third millennium were erected on Mount Kynthos and then abandoned. It was also famous for being the place where Leto gave birth to Artemis and Apollo.回溯到公元前三千年,这些住家建于基斯诺斯山上,但后来遭到废弃。这里更因为是勒托产下阿尔忒弥斯和阿波罗的地方而为人所知。

This island served as the necropolis for Delos because, in 426 BCE, births and deaths were forbidden on the island of Apollo.这座岛屿是提洛岛的墓园。因为公元前426年的阿波罗之岛上,出生和死亡都是被禁止的。

This round body of water is one of the main features of Delos' landscape. In antiquity, those who fished in it risked punishment.这片圆形的水域是提洛岛上最主要的景观之一。在古代,于水域中捕鱼之人将受到刑罚。

Headquarters to the Delian League, the sanctuary held the League's treasury in the Temple of Apollo until its transfer to Athens. It was a prestigious site for pilgrimages, festivals, and games.阿波罗圣殿是提洛同盟的大本营,里头的阿波罗神殿则是同盟的库房,而后来库房移到了雅典。这里也是朝圣,祭典和运动会的重要地点。

Named the Colossus of the Naxians, this statue representing Apollo was erected in front of the largest temple dedicated to him.这座阿波罗神像被称为纳克索斯的巨像,就矗立在最大的阿波罗神殿前方。

Datis was a Persian general who served the Persian empire under Darius I. On his return from the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, he stopped at Mykonos and Delos.达蒂斯是效力于波斯帝国大流士一世的波斯将军。公元前490年,他在马拉松战役的归途中,短暂停留于米克诺斯岛和提洛岛。

This temple was dedicated to Hera, who forbade the world from receiving the pregnant goddess, Leto. Only Delos welcomed her, where she gave birth to Artemis and Apollo.

Dating back to the seventh century BCE, the Terrace of the Lions facing the Sacred Lake originally consisted of at least nine marble statues, like the avenues of Egyptian sphinxes.公元前七世纪建造之时,面朝圣湖的雄狮露台至少原有九尊大理石雕像,如同埃及的人面狮身像大道。

Brizo, whose name means "to slumber," was a goddess who spoke to men though (sic) prophetic dreams. People in Delos prayed particularly to her to protect boats.贝里佐的意思是“入睡”,而这名女神以预知梦向人们发话。提洛岛上的居民特别供奉她,并向她祈求船只的安全。

Arranged in a semicircle, these five sacred buildings were mainly used to store offerings and holy materials.这五座神圣的建筑以半圆形排列而成,其用途是存放供品和圣物。

Elis

This altar was made of sacrificed ashes mixed with Alpheios River water. On the third day of the Games, 100 oxen offered by the Eleians were killed, giving them sovereignty over the shrine.这座祭坛以祭品骨灰加上阿尔菲欧斯河水建造而成。运动会第三天,厄利斯人会将献祭的一百头公牛杀掉,以便取得神殿的主权。

Constructed by mortals, this resembled the cave on Ida where it was said that Zeus spent his youth. It was a grotto where Zeus was honored, located near the Kronion, the hill of Kronos.由凡人所造,这个洞窟仿照宙斯年轻时在伊达山中居住的山洞而建。这个洞窟供奉着宙斯,且位于克洛尼翁附近,也就是克洛诺斯之丘附近。

This King of Pisa refused to let his daughter marry, as an oracle predicted his son-in-law would kill him. He had suitors go against him in a chariot race, where Pelops beat him with Poseidon's horses.因为一道神谕预言了他的女婿将会杀了他,所以这位皮萨国王拒绝让他的女儿出嫁。追求者必须在战车竞速中赢过他,而珀罗普斯靠着波塞冬的马击败了他。

Elis was created by the merging of villages, forming one of the biggest cities in the Peloponnese. It was especially well known for its sanctuary of Olympia, which gave it prestige and wealth.在村落与村落不断融合后,厄利斯便诞生了,更

成为伯罗奔尼撒半岛上数 数二的大城市。厄利斯的奥林匹亚圣殿特别有名而这座圣殿更为厄利斯带来了声誉以及财富。

Herakles met the centaur Pholos here while hunting the Erymanthian boar. When Pholos opened a jar of wine, other armed centaurs arrived, and Herakles fought them, killing all - including Pholos.海克力斯狩猎厄律曼托斯野猪时,在这里遇见了半人马佛洛斯。佛洛斯开了一瓶酒之后,其他带平原 有武器的半人马便出现了。海克力斯与他们交战并将他们全杀了,佛洛斯也包含在内。

Horse races were some of the most popular and spectacular event of the Olympic Games, featuring races of chariots pulled by two horses (biga) and four horses (quadriga), as well as mounted races.赛马是奥林匹克运动会中最受欢迎也最让人叹为观止的竞赛种类之一。其中,有以两匹马(双马双轮战车)和四匹马(四马双轮战车)拉行的战车竞赛,也有骑马的竞赛。

Located on the coast, Kyllene was a base for the Eleian fleet. Aphrodite and Asklepios were worshipped there with statues made of ivory. The cult of Hermes was particularly popular.凯里尼位于港湾内,是厄利斯舰队的基地。这里供奉着阿佛洛狄式与阿斯克勒庇厄斯,而且这两名神祇在当地都有象牙造的神像。赫尔墨斯教派更特别受到欢迎。

The Leonidaion was a guesthouse with a number of rooms on all sides for important visitors to the sanctuary. Its name is derived from the name of its architect, Leonidas of Naxos.列欧尼达翁里面有许多房间,是提供圣殿的重要朝圣者使用的招待所。列欧尼达翁这个名字是根据建造这里的建筑师,纳克索斯的列奥尼达斯而来。

This complex was made up of a central courtyard surrounded by rooms for changing, washing, and exercising. It had punching balls for boxers, and wrestling and pankration were practiced there.此处由中庭和更衣,沐浴及运动的房间环绕而成。

这里有拳击手用的拳击球,而摔角和潘克拉辛角斗术也会在这里进行练习。

This rectangular pool was equipped with a water supply and drainage system. The Greek baths were adjacent.奥林匹克泳池

The Olympic Games drew many travelers, many of whom came by sea. Shipwrecks were frequent and a valid excuse for athletes' late arrivals.奥林匹亚运动会吸引了大量旅人前来,而他们多半是循海路而来。船难是运动员常见又有效的迟到理由。

The wild olive tree from which Olympic winners' crowns were made was called the olive tree of the "beautiful crown." Branches were cut with a golden sickle.用来制成奥林匹克运动会胜者之冠的野橄榄树,是被称为“美冠”的橄榄树。会以黄金镰刀从这棵橄榄树上取下树枝。

It was dedicated to Pelops, which inspired the name "Peloponnese." His cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, and a black ram was sacrificed in his honor every year.

Phidias was the greatest Greek sculptor. He created many masterpieces, including the Olympic sanctuary's gold and ivory statue of Zeus, which was considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.菲迪亚斯是最伟大的希腊雕刻家。他雕刻出许多巨作,其中包括了奥林匹亚圣殿中以黄金与象牙打造的宙斯神像。这尊神像被认定为古代世界七大奇迹之一。

The Prytaneion contained an altar in honor of Hestia, and was where the Olympic flame burned. Priests and game officials resided there, and it was also used for Olympic victory ceremonies.公会堂里有座赫斯提亚祭坛,而奥林匹克圣火就于此处燃烧。祭司和运动会官员住在这里,而奥林匹克运动会的胜利庆祝仪式也会在此举行。

Constructed in the heart of Elis was this important sanctuary. Olympic games were celebrated every four years to honor Zeus and Hera, and brought eternal glory to the winners.这座重要的圣殿就建于厄利斯的心脏地带。奥林匹克运动会每四年举办一次,以供奉宙斯与赫拉,并带给每位胜利者永恒的荣耀。

The sixteen women tasked with organizing the Heraia - games for women - each came from an Eleian city. They sacrificed a pig and purified themselves in the spring of Piera before the ceremonies.所有负责筹办赫拉运动会这个女子运动会的十六名女子,分别来自不同的厄利斯城市。在仪式开始前她们会先献上一头猪,并以皮耶拉之泉净身。

Various types of races and contests took place in the stadium. Embankments contained spectators on the 192 m track. This length became a unit of measure the Greeks called the "stadion."体育馆会举办各式各样的竞赛。而观赛民众所在的看台则位于192米长的赛道上。这段距离后来成为一种希腊长度单位,称为“里”。

There was a statue of Herakles at the edge of the road from Elis to Olympia, called the Sacred Way. The statue was dedicated by a citizen of Taranto, a Spartan colony in southern Italy.

Kronos, king of the Titans and Zeus's father, was honored in Elis. On the summit of the hill called the Kronion, priests called Basilai offered sacrifices to Kronos at the spring equinox.厄利斯供奉着克洛诺斯,他是泰坦之王以及宙斯的父亲。每到春分,在名为克洛尼翁的山丘顶上,被称为巴夕莱的祭司会向克洛诺斯献祭。

Perched on a cliff, the temple was built by Iktinos, the Parthenon’s architect. The offerings of weapons suggest that the god played a role in the clashes between the Arkadians and the Spartans.这座神殿由帕特农神庙的建筑师伊克蒂诺斯建造,且立于峭壁之上。被当作供品的武器显示了这名神祇在阿尔卡德亚人与斯巴达人的冲突中也参了一脚。

Hades, god of the underworld, was rarely honored. His temple in Elis opened just once a year, and only the priest could enter. It is said that this was because people could only go to Hades once.冥界之神黑帝斯鲜少受到供奉。他在厄利斯的神殿一年只开放一次,而且只有祭司能入内。据说这是因为人的一生中只能去见黑帝斯一次。

The Heraia were games for women organized in honor of Hera, every four years, the sixteen Elis women in charge of organizing the Heraia wove a new veil for the goddess and placed it in her temple.赫拉运动会是让女性参加的运动会,也用来纪念赫拉。负责筹办赫拉运动会的厄利斯女性一共十六位,她们每四年便会为这位女神织一面新的面纱,并放在他的神殿中。

The temple housed one of the seven wonders of the ancient world: Phidias' statue of Zeus. To close the Olympic games, a procession led to the temple where victorious athletes were crowned.这座神殿中有古代世界七大奇迹的其中一项:菲迪亚斯的宙斯神像。奥林匹克运动会闭幕时,夺得胜利的运动员会列队至这座神殿,并接受礼冠。

Koroibos of Elis was the champion of the stadium race, the most prestigious Olympic event, in the first Games in 776 BCE. His tomb is located on the border with Arkadia, marking the border of Elis.厄利斯的寇里波司是公元前776年,第一届奥林匹克运动会中最受人景仰的比赛——田径赛跑的冠军。他的坟墓与阿尔卡德亚接壤,也划定了厄利斯的边界。

Cities erected small buildings shaped like temples at the foot of the hill of Kronos. They held valuable offerings that were placed under Zeus' protection, such as weapons, statues, and vases.克洛诺斯山丘脚下的城市中有许多形似神殿的小型建筑物。在宙斯的守护下,这些建筑物中都存放着值钱的供品,像是武器,雕像和花瓶。

Dyspontion was on the mountainous route between Olympia and Elis. It was a community of perioikoi destroyed in 570 BCE by the Eleians due to inhabitants joining Pisa in a revolt against Elis.狄斯波地翁位于奥林匹亚至厄利斯的山路上。这里是珀里俄基人的聚落,但在公元前570年被厄利斯人所灭,因为当地居民加入皮萨,试图推翻厄利斯人的统治。

Zanes were bronze statues of Zeus that were paid for with the fines of silver imposed on athletes who were found to have cheated. Their names were etched on the pedestals, which was a source of shame.

Euboea

Renowned for its metalworking and bronze weapon manufacturing, Chalkis was likely to fall away from Athens during the Peloponnesian War, and had to sign a treaty swearing loyalty to them.哈尔基斯因其金属加工和铜制武器的制造而闻名。在伯罗奔尼撒战争中,因为哈尔基斯似乎即将脱离雅典,而必须签署条约以宣示他们对雅典的忠诚。

The island was famous for its copper mines. The ore is one the ingredients in the alloy bronze, which was used to make sculptures, domestic items, small coins, and weapons.

This city on the island's west coast was known as the first target during the Persians' raid against Greece. Eretria was violently attacked or six days, with many residents taken to Persia.这座位于岛屿西岸的城市是波斯进犯希腊的第一个目标。整整六天,厄瑞特里亚遭受了强烈攻击,许多居民更被带到波斯。

Karystos was located at an important meeting point of shipping routes linking the Gulf of Euboea and the Aegean archipelago. It was also known for joining the Persian army in the Persian Wars.开瑞斯托斯位于链接优卑亚海湾与爱琴海群岛的船运航线枢纽上。波希战争期间,开瑞斯托斯加入了波斯阵营。

Open-pit mines made ore extraction - done with wedges, pickaxes, and mallets - easier. Once a slab was freed, it could be moved with cranes, pulleys, levers, and rails.

When bought by cities, slaves were used for public services. When bought by private citizens, they did domestic tasks, built buildings, worked in mines and workshops, on farms, or as bankers.奴隶被城市买下时,他们被用在公众事务上;被私人买下时,他们要做家务事,盖房子,或在矿场工坊,农场,银行工作。

The hollow cast-bronze statue of Zeus or Poseidon—known as the Artemision Bronze—was found off this cape.

This temple dedicated to the goddess was as large as Apollo's sanctuary on the island. Competitions, musical contests, sacrifices, and war dances were held there to honor Artemis.

许多公牛像在希腊被发现。公牛是献给众神的祭品。

Ithaka

This cave served as a shelter for the Naiads, young nymphs who spun the sea into a glistening purple cloth. Odysseus prayed here in joy upon his return.

Eumaios was Odysseus' loyal swineherd. He was the first to welcome him back to (sic) Troy and assisted him in the slaughter of Penelope's suitors.

Melanthios, Odysseus' goatherd, mistook him for a beggar upon his return and hit him. Sure his master had died in Troy, he betrayed him to impress Penelope's suitors.身为奥德修斯的牧羊人,墨兰提俄斯在奥德修斯归来时将他误认为乞丐,还殴打了他。墨兰提俄斯深信他的主人已死在特洛伊,便背叛了他,转而讨好佩涅罗珀的追求者们。

Odysseus, the most illustrious of all Greek heroes, was among the chiefs who set out for Troy. He returned to Ithaka and reclaimed his palace twenty years later.

Named for the ancient sea god Phorkys, this bay was the first sight Odysseus saw upon his return. It provides a natural shelter for sailors from rough waters.

Odysseus planned the murder of his wife's suitors here upon his return.

Keos

The Akropolis of Karthaia housed sacred buildings, including the temples of Apollo and of Athena. Public laws were recorded inside the temple of Apollo, the divine protector of the island.

Close to Attika on the northwest side of the island, Koressia could be reached from Athens in 24 hours. Its economic history was tied to its silver mines and the miltos used to paint triremes.

Bacchylides, a great poet, of the fifth century BCE, was born on the island. His poems celebrated the gods, Athenian democracy, and Olympic winners such as the tyrant of Syrakousai.

Located on the west coast of the island and bordering a fertile valley, Poiessa was an important farming area. Its spot was advantage for coastal defense and monitoring maritime traffic to Athens.

Aphrodite had an important role in Keos—especially for magistrates who made offerings and dedications to her. It was thought she would watch over all civic matters and protect their positions.

Kephallonia

The largest on Kephallonia, the "Blue Cave" houses a small lake. It is part of a large cave system with more interconnected underground lakes.

The titan daughter of Uranus and Gaia, Tethys married her brother Okeanos and became the mother of Greece's rivers.

Prehistoric bones were found inside this cave which reaches depths of 95 meters.

The ancient Greek word "kleptes" lives on as the root word of kleptomania, which describes an impulse to steal—usually without an economic motive.

Located near the city of Pronnoi, Kephallonia's only lake is so deep that it was long believed to have no bottom.

The Lightning Zeus is depicted as such to mirror the geophysical phenomena of Mount Ainos, known for its spectacular thunderstorms.

The Melissani Cave is dedicated to the god Pan. Located 20 m below ground, it is 160 m long and 40 m deep. it contains stalactites that are over 20,000 years old.

Sami is the oldest city on Kephallonia, an island reputed for the wood of its abies cephalonica (sic) fir trees.

Here, atop the island's tallest mountain, two of Jason's argonauts prayed to Zeus of Ainos to give them the strength to defeat winged monsters called Harpies.

Early Greek temples were built out of clay and wood. Stone structures weren't adopted until the seventh century BCE.希腊早期的神殿是以黏土和木头建造而成。直到公元前七世纪,人们才开始采用石造的方式建造。

Chthonios Zeus is the god of the earth credited with bountiful harvests.

This Mycenaean tomb notably housed the bones of seventy-two people. Among the remains were valuable offerings discovered near Pronnoi, believed to have belonged to ancient Ithakan nobility.

Kausos is the ancient Greek word for fever, a symptom of malaria noted by Hippokrates. The disease was a driving force behind the depopulation of rural areas.

Korfu

The Moirai, belonging to the first divine generation, were connected to the fates of mortals and often stepped in to stop gods protecting mortals from death.

These waterfalls were named for the naiads, daughters of the river god who lived in the heart of nature. It’s believed that if a man ever sees them, he will he "possessed".瀑布以那伊阿得斯宁芙命名,她们是生活在自然中心的河神的女儿。传说如果有男人见到她们就会被“附身”。

A legend of the isle tells a myth that Odysseus's shipwreck was transformed into an emerald rock by Poseidon, facing the city of Korkyra.

"For Menekrates, the son of Tlasias from Oiantheia. This monument was built by the people of Korkya when he was lost at sea."

Korinthia

Melikertes met a sad fate, ultimately ending when his mother threw both of them into the sea. Sisyphos found Melikertes' body and buried it. He founded a cult and the Isthmian Games in his honor.

Jason and the Argonauts' ship, Argo, was built by Argos and Athena. The goddess carved the bow from one of Dodona's sacred oaks. The ship was dedicated to Poseidon at Korinth after the expedition.

A Medusa's head allegedly shaped by the Cyclopean hands was set up in Argolis. Various monuments in the Peloponnese were attributed to Cyclopes "builders."

This seven km paved ramp had a track so boast could cross the Isthmus of Korinth without having to go around the Peloponnese. It was used by both military and commercial boats.

This racetrack in the Korinthian agora is one of the oldest, built in the sixth century BCE. Its layout seems to confirm knowledge and the use of pi.

This fountain was named after Jason's second wife, who threw herself in after wearing a poisoned cape given to her by Jason's first wife.

The fountain of Peirene was in the middle of the city—near the road leading to the port. it was made up many reservoirs, and, according to tradition, was connected with the spring on the Akrokorinth.

Sisyphos was the mythical founder of Korinth and the Isthmian Games. For defying Zeus, he was condemned to push a boulder to the top of a hill for eternity. His tomb is said to be in Korinthia.

Korinth was a major commercial city that controlled the Isthmus of Korinth through its two ports on the Aegean Sea and the Gulf of Korinth. Its position contributed to its prosperity in trades.

Prostitution establishments, called porneions, were general found in commercial areas—near ports, or agoras. The women who made this their trade could be either slaves or free women.

This port was ideally situated at the crossroads of eastern land and sea-trade routes. Aphrodite and Poseidon—whose bronze statues bordered the sea—were venerated there.

The port of Lechaion was artificially made in time of Periander on the Gulf of Korinth. The city was connected to the port by long walls and to the port of Kechries by the Diolkos trackway.

Ameinokles, the Korinthian shipbuilder, was the first Greek to build a trireme. This light, agile model with a rostrum for ramming became the main combat vessel of the fifth century BCE.

The port of Kechries also had a sanctuary of Aphrodite. She was honored there as a goddess of navigation and the sea—not as the goddess of love as on the Akrokorinth.

This ruthless bandit was in the habit of bending trees to tie people to them. When the trees were released, they pulled the unfortunate victims apart. Theseus killed him as punishment.

Legend has it that Bellerophon, son of Korinth's King Glaukos, captured the winged horse, Pegasos, when he came to drink at the spring of Peirene on the Akrokorinth.

The statue was made from the tree where Pentheus, who opposed the god's cult, spied on both his mother and the Maenads in full Dionysian frenzy. He was pulled from the tree and torn limb from limb.

|One of the most famous temples to the goddess of love towered over the city on the Akrokorinth. Numerous courtesans engaged in their trade inside, contributing greatly to the sanctuary's prosperity.

Because Korinth was desired by the gods, Helios got the Akrokorinth and Poseidon got the Isthmus. Korinthians built a temple on the Isthmus for the god of the sea and oceans.

Mermeros and Pheres were killed by their mother when their father, Jason, deserted her for Glauke, the Korinthian king's daughter. An oracle advised the Korinthians establish rituals in their honor.

Kos

Fishing has a crucial role in Greek society. It's a staple in their diet - especially for people of modest means. Greeks mastered line, net, and even harpoon fishing.

The Asklepiads - the most famous being Hippokrates - practiced at the medical school of Kos. They were said to be the descendants of Asklepios, passing knowledge down through the generations.

Astypalaia was the largest city on the island, acting as its political center. It was home to most of the island's population - its most celebrated citizen being the famous Hippokrates.

Kythera

The island's sailors and fishermen prayed to the goddess to watch over them in nearby waters, which were known to be difficult to navigate. The gilt-head bream was sacred to her.

Renowned for its purple dye and strategic position on the Aegean Sea, Kythera was coveted by many cities during the Peloponnesian War. Taking it was one of the Athenian army's challenges.

The purple dye for clothing came from shellfish. Captured alive, they exhaled their colored juices at death. Millions of snails were needed to get a small amount of the special substance.

Olive trees were grown both for their fruit - a staple in Greek diets - and their oil, used for medicine and perfumery. They were picked from the ground after shaking or beating the trees with poles.

The oldest sanctuary of Aphrodite drew just as many sailors while in port as it did pilgrims coming for celebrations honoring the goddess.

When Aphrodite emerged from the sea, Kythera was the first city to welcome her. Fleeing Troy, her son Aineias dedicated a shrine to her there. It is deemed the oldest in the Greek world.

This port on the island's east coast was in the only easily accessible bay. It had a strategic role in controlling maritime trade with states in the southern Aegean, especially with Egypt and Libya.

Lakonia

Sparta's male education system, the agoge, had a mainly military aim. It was the longest education system in the Greek world, with males age 7-29. Only heirs of royal families didn't participate.

The Perioikoi were a group of Spartan "subcitizens" who lived in the rural areas of Lakonia and Messenia. They had local autonomy, but seem to have been subject to a special tax.

Legend has it that Kastor and Polydeukes were born on Mount Taygetos, near Sparta. The two young heroes were central to the Spartan warrior ritual at the beginning of campaigns.

According to tradition, Amyklai was the home of Tyndareus and his two illustrious boys, Kastor and Polydeukes. It was known for its abundance of fruit trees.

Young Spartans performed ritual battles in the island-shaped area. Before combat they sacrificed a black puppy to the god of war Enyalios, and then organized wild boar fights.

The Dromos course was for footraces, but it was also the place where young people were integrated into the city. Young Spartans offered sacrifices at a statue of Herakles when they became adults.

Gorani was the best known marble quarry in Sparta. Very fine-grained, light gray marble was extracted there.

The Perioikoi may not have been equal to Spartan citizens, but they too were involved in the military affairs of the Lakedaimonian army, serving as hoplites.

Limnai was one of the original villages that formed Sparta. The temple of Artemis Orthia was nearby, whose worship was associated with the long process for future Spartan citizens.

This sanctuary sat on a rocky cliff overlooking the city and fertile plains. It was dedicated to the Spartan king Menelaus and his wife, Helen, over whom the Trojan War was fought for ten years.

Mesoa was one of the four villages that united in the eighth century BCE to form the Spartan city-state under the authority of two families of kings: the Eurypontids and the Agiads.

This underwater city, whose first traces of dwellings date back to 5000 BCE, was home to monuments and tombs. It is said to have been engulfed after a series of devastating earthquakes.

A stoa was raised on the agora using Persian spoils after the Greco-Persian Wars. Columns nearby featured defeated Persians such as Darius's general, Mardonios.

Like Mesoa, Pitana was one of the four original villages that formed Sparta. The Agiads, one of Sparta’s royal families, originated there.

With one of the largest territories, Sparta had a great land-based military power, governing all Lakedaimonians. They were divided into Spartan citizens, free residents, slaves, and mothax.

Tainaros was on the Peloponnese's middle peninsula. It had red and black marble quarries and was also presumed to be a gateway to the underworld. It was guarded by Cerberos and was used by Herakles

The temple of Artemis Orthia near the Eurotas River was one of Sparta's most important religious sites. It was associated with the education of young Spartans, and conducted their initiations.

The temple of Athena Chalkioikos on the akropolis was one of Sparta’s most important monuments. The bronze sheets that decorated its interior gave birth to the name Chalkioikos.

Generally a place of worship for women, this temple was set on a hill opposite the Spartan akropolis. During the god's annual feast, a footrace involving eleven girls was held.

Forty years after the battle of Thermopylai - around 440 BC - Leonidas's bones were brought to Sparta. A hero’s shrine was set up, and a stele inscribed with the name of the soldiers at Thermopylai.

Orestes' bones were returned to Sparta from Tegea on the Delphic Oracle's advice. The Spartans thus enabled eternal protection of the hero, who was associated with the city’s legendary past.

Sparta based its military power mainly on its land troops, preferring to use its allies' naval contributions. Despite this, they used Gytheion as a port.

Lemnos

Myrina was best known for its cults of Artemis, Athena Selene, and the Mother Goddess. One of its important goods was Lemnian soil, which was said to heal wounds and snake bites.

Hephaistos, god of fire, metallurgy, and volcanoes, was honored on the island of Lemnos. When Hera noticed his limp, she threw him off Olympos. He fell near the island, and was found by sea deities.

Lesbos

Mytilene was under Persian domination, but became a loyal ally of Athens after the Greco-Persian Wars. However, faced with the increase in tribute to Athens, it decided to revolt in 428 BCE.

This goddess of fertility and nature from Asia Minor was popular on the island. She was known for having initiated Dionysos into mysteries and ecstasy.

Orpheus was dismembered by Thrakian women, and his corpse was taken to the sea. His head and lyre reached Lesbos, where residents built a tomb for him. It's said lyre music could be heard from inside.

Surnamed the tenth muse, Sappho taught young girls the art of lyric poetry in Lesbos. Her poetry spoke of love and torment, marriage, and female beauty.

Lokris

Alponos, the first village founded in Lokris, was also famous for serving as the Greek naval base during the Persian Wars.

Opous was Lokris's main city and the hometown of the hero Patroklos. It was famed for aiding Leonidas during the Persian wars and for its pirates harassing fifth-centry BCE Athenian traders.

Aptly named "white gold," sea salt was vital for adding flavor to food, but also for conserving, dyeing, and perfumery. The harvesting and trading of sea salt was a strictly systemized business.

Makedonia

On this very spot, Persian king Xerxes buried nine young woman and nine young men alive, and sacrificed white horses before crossing the river Strymon with his army.

Erected on Strymon's east bank, Amphipolis played a strategic and economic role partly because of nearby silver mines. Settled by the Athenians, the city was captured by Sparta's Brasidas in 424 BCE.

Founded by the Korinthians to make trade easier in Makedonia, Potidaia was central to an event leading to the Peloponnesian War. It sought Sparta and Korinth's help to end Athens' excessive demands.

Malis

In the fifth century BCE, a stone lion was placed on the hill of Thermopylai to commemorate Leonidas. It was near the five stelai and mass grave for those who fell in the defense of Thermopylai.

Megaris

Tripodiskos was born when an Argive brought a tripod from Delphi. They had orders from the Pythia that wherever it fell, he must live and build a temple to Apollo.

Mt. Geraneia, or "crane hill," was named for the flock of cranes that showed Megaros the way to its peak to escape a flood.

Pagai held strategic importance during the Persian War, and played a pivotal role during the Peloponnesian War.

Megara occupied a territory that held great military and commercial (importance) in mainland Greece.

Panormos was renowned for its harbor, an excellent site to drop anchor.

This Persian cliff was named after the nephew of Darius. He attempted to kill the Megarians by night, but ended up shooting arrows into the cliff face instead.

The Persians fought a losing battle at Salamis. The resulting shipwrecks littered the Greek coasts, souvenirs of their defeat.

This statue of the god of wine and fertility is located close to Megara. Only its face is visible—the rest of the body is hidden by foliage.

Apollo was one of the foremost gods in Megara, but this temple didn't necessarily reflect his importance. It was made of weak clay bricks, which eventually crumbled.

The Sanctuary of Athena was built on the Akropolis. Inside were three temples dedicated to worshipping her.

This stone pyramid was built at the city limit in tribute to Apollo Karinos.

Megarians believe the corpse of Ino washed up on the coast after she threw herself into the sea with her son. There is a sacrifice each year in her honor.

This diamond-shaped tomb depicts an Amazonian shield. It's dedicated to the Queen of the Amazons, Hyppolyta, who was defeated by Theseus and died of grief.

Melos

Founded by Spartan settlers on a volcanic island, Melos's main city goes by the same name. It was known for its resources such as sulfur and obsidian, which were exported across the Mediterranean.

Messara

Daidalos was an architect, sculptor, inventor, and artisan known in antiquity for creating wonders of the Greek world. One of his most legendary contributions was the labyrinth.

To tenderize octopus flesh, ancient Greek fishermen faithfully followed Hippokrates' proverb to give them two sets of seven blows. Octopus was very popular, notably for its aphrodisiac properties.

Gortyn was one of Krete's most affluent cities. Legends included Europa giving birth to King Minos and the bull who sired the Minotaur. Gortyn's law code was the oldest of the Occidental world.

Inscribed in the fifth century BCE, this famous piece of legislation regulated Gortyn's civil life. It included the management of family affairs affecting inheritance, divorce, adoption, and widowhood.

This small town was named after the Greek hero Herakles. It's best known for being the port for the city of Knossos.

This palace - the largest of all palaces - was built in the 17th century BCE and is linked to the legend of King Minos. More than 13,000 square meters, it's made up of several rooms around a central courtyard.

Kresilas was a celebrated Kretan sculptor. He famously crafted a statue of Perikles standing on the Akropolis, called "Olympian Perikles."

Gortyn coveted Phaistos' territory from its founding. Phaistos was renowned for having the second largest palace, in which the clay disk was found.

This mountain - the central point of the island - saw the birth of Zeus. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea and fed on honey from Mount Ida bees. When Amalthea died, he used her skin as an aegis.

This sanctuary on the Gortyn akropolis honored one of the city's main deities, along with Apollo and Demeter. Places of worship for Athena were widespread, and often also used as archives.

Demeter was honored in Krete for introducing a number of discoveries to the island and then spreading them throughout the Greek world. These include the art of growing wheat on the island.

The Kretans worshipped Poseidon, one of Zeus' youngest brothers. Poseidon protected the navigation of boats, but was lesser known for the domestication of horses and horse riding.

Messenia

Before Epimelides of Thebes renamed the area Korone, it was known as Aipeia until the liberation of Messenia. The area had a sanctuary to Apollo Korythos, who was celebrated for his healing powers.

Located near the future Messene, Andania was home to king Aristomenes, the general who rose up in the second Messinian War against the Spartans. They say his ghost haunted Spartans after his death.

The forge was the place where metal was worked to make weapons, swords, shields, and spears. Blacksmiths revered Hephaistos, the blazing god of metallurgy and fire.

Keadas was a chasm that had seen many death. People sentenced to die and Sparta's captured enemies were thrown into its depths. Aristomenes was thrown twice, but managed to make a legendary escape.

King of Pylos and ruler of Messenia, Nestor traveled Greece with Menelaus to form an army, leading an expedition against the city of Troy. He was the oldest and wisest hero in the Trojan War.

Mykonos

The cult of Artemis was widespread over the Kyklades. She was worshipped notably under the name Artemis Hekaerge, meaning "striking from a distance."

According to a late tradition, the Lokrian Ajax, the ancient hero of Troy, was buried in Mykonos.

In the guise of a young girl and hunter, Artemis guided the various life stages just as she helped in combat. Before battle, Greeks offered a sacrifice to her under the name Agrotera (huntress).

Most of the island was composed of granite - a material like marble - that was used in architectural construction and sculpture in antiquity.

Taverns sold wine and vinegar. Divided in three different types - dry, sweet, and sweet mix, wine could also be flavored with honey, resin, spices, herbs, and even sea water.

Apollo's twin sister enjoyed hunting and as always armed with a bow she used against deer and men. Her arrows were said to bring about sudden death.

Naxos

Ares was punished on Naxos for the murder of Adonis, Aphrodite's beloved. The Aloadai, Poseidon's sons, imprisoned Ares in a large bronze jar for thirteen long months.

Being in love with Poseidon, Iphimedeia often walked to the sea and collected its waters in her lap. There she became, by Poseidon, the mother of the Aloadai, Otos and Ephialtes.

Naxos Island is peppered with places that have been pinpointed as important in Zeus' youth. The god of men and gods had been everywhere, including the Cave of Mt. Zas on Naxos.

Ariadne, in love with Theseus, was abandoned by the hero on Naxos after he returned to Athens. She was killed by the wrathful Artemis for defiling a sacred place dedicated to the goddess.

Poseidon's two sons, the Aloadai, were buried on the island. The strong, bold giants threatened the gods by piling up mountains to reach Olympos.

As the largest of the Kyklades, Naxos was known for its marble and emery. It was also the birthplace of Dionysos, and where Ariadne was abandoned by her beloved Theseus.

The sanctuary of Zeus was located on the island's highest point. It was built where Zeus hid from his father, Kronos, until he was old enough to fight the Titans.

Taking revenge on pirates who kidnapped him for money, Dionysos immobilized their ship in ivy vines. Driven mad, the pirates dove into the water and were turned into dolphins.

The Naxians dedicated a temple to Dionysos to ensure the fertility of their vines and first-rate wine production on the island. Several times a year, festivities were held to honor the god.

Paros

Paros' marble was the most famous in ancient history. With an exquisite white color and a ghostly transparency, it was used throughout the world for the most prestigious sculptures and buildings.

Thanks to its marble quarries, Paros was considered the richest of the Kyklades, and therefore paid the highest tribute (to) the Delian League. It was often in rivalry with the neighboring city of Naxos.

Phokis

This bronze statue of Apollo was dedicated to recall the naval victory of the Athenians and the oracle received by Themistokles.

This building was constructed against the polygonal wall that supported the terrace of the temple of Apollo and was used for setting up ex-votos, mostly spoils of war.

The Athenians dedicated this treasury to Apollo as the first fruits from the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.

The Bouleuterion was the seat of a small local council which had judicial and financial powers. They met there every six months.

This statue was dedicated by the Tyrant of Gela to commemorate his victory at the chariot race during the Pythian Games of 478 or 474 BCE.

Since the city of Delphi operated a Panhellenic sanctuary, the surrounding area enjoyed the special status associated with the oracle's property.

The Liparians dedicated a group of Apollo statues to commemorate a naval victory over the Etruscans. Twenty statues for the twenty ships seized by the enemy.

When he went to consult the Oracle of Delphi, Laios, the father of Oedipous, was killed by his son without either knowing who the other was.

While making sacrifices for a bountiful harvest the king of Kalydon forgot the altars of Artemis. To retaliate, Artemis sent a wild boar to ravage the country.

Pilgrims, the Pythia, and priests alike were required to perform ablutions here before consulting the oracle.

Personified as a man with bull horns, the Kephisos River was worshipped as a god. It fed into the plain of Phokis and Boeotia and ended in Lake Kopais.

This bull was offered by the people of Korkyra after a miraculous day of tuna fishing.

After their victory over the Sybarites, the Krotoniates dedicated to Apollo a tripod that was also the emblem of the coinage of Kroton, an Achaian colony in southern Italy.

The city was named for the nymph Lalaia, daughter of the river god Kephisos. It was built near the springs the nymph was believed to protect.

This building was a meeting and dining place that was decorated with paintings commemorating the fall of Troy and the return of the victorious Greek heroes.

After their victory over the Spartans, this monument was erected by the Argives and represents the seven leaders of the legendary expedition against Thebes.

This monument was dedicated in 465 BCE to cemmorate the battle of Marathon, which took place 30 years prior.

Naxos, a rich island in the Kyklades renowned for its artistic tradition, consecrated this votive in remembrance of its privilege to consult with the Pythia before others.

This palm was erected by the Athenians following their victory over the Persians at the Battle of Eurymedon. The victory put an end to the threat of another Persian invasion of Greece.

The Panhellenic Sanctuary of Delphi was renowned for the Oracle of Apollo, and considered the center of the world in ancient Greece.

This treasury celebrates the victories of the tyrant of Sikyon, Kleisthenes, during the First Sacred War. The monument was decorated with mythological legends, like the Argonauts' expedition.

Apollo used arrows to kill the monstrous serpent Pytho (sic), who originally guarded the oracle. For Greeks, the victory represented the triumph over chaos.

According to the Delphians, this rock was where a woman bearing the nickname Sibyl settled to sing her prophesies. It was said her inspiration came from within.

These two tripods weighed 400 kg each and were dedicated by the Tyrant of Syracuse after his victory in the battle of Himera to his brother to recall his victory at the battle of Kume.

The 31 Greek cities that took part in the Battle of Plataia dedicated to Apollo a massive golden tripod made from the tithe of the Persian booty.

Samos

The Heraion of Samos and the Heraion of Argos were the largest sanctuaries dedicated to Hera in the Greek world. Samos' sanctuary was one of the very first temples made of stone.

Skyros

The city of Skyros, which shares the island's name, was famed for its goats and marble quarries. It had a fortified akropolis, a port, and sanctuaries dedicated to Achilles and Athena.

When Theseus returned to Athens, other factions had seized power. He decided to leave the city and return to Skyros, but he was betrayed by King Lykomedes, who tossed him off a cliff.

In Greek mythology, Achilles was hidden in childhood on Skyros and disguised as one of King Lykomedes's daughters. It was an attempt to elude the fatal destiny he met during the Trojan War.

Thasos

The quarries of Aliki supplied the most beautiful marble on the island. The deposit's proximity to the sea made extraction and exportation easier. The site was mined continuously throughout antiquity.

The gymnasium was the training venue for Thasian athletes, the most famous of whom was Theagenes. His strength was legendary, and he was victorious in boxing and pankration at every Panhellenic Game.

The modest sanctuary of the god Pan is held within a cave cut into the rock on the akropolis. He was honored by shepherds as the protector of flocks but also by soldiers as the god of panic.

The akropolis mine supplied silver lead. Used to produce pure silver, one of the elements used to mint coins, it contributed greatly to the city's wealth.

As the protector of the city, Herakles was the most important god in Thasos. He was called Herakles Soter - the savior. As such, he had his own sanctuary and was featured on Thasian coins.

The agora is the heart of the city. Both a commercial and political hub, it's a gathering place for citizens. The agora houses numerous administrative, commercial, and religious buildings.

Mountainous Thasos was the most prosperous island in the region. Rich from its mines and forests, its marble deposits and wine were also lucrative. Its territory encompassed the entire island.

The akropolis of Thasos overlooks the ancient city. It housed the theater and the sanctuaries of Athena, Pan, and Apollo. The city walls extended onto the summit to encircle the town.

The theater was built in a natural dip on the akropolis and offered a beautiful view of th esea. Erected in the fifth century BCE, it was where the writer Hegemon invented a form of parody.

Thasian wine was well known in antiquity. It was one of the best and was exported throughout the Mediterranean basin.Amphoras of Thasian wine have been found in Magna Grecia, Egypt, and as far away as the Black Sea.

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