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医院骑士团(Knights Hospitalier),正式名称为耶路撒冷、罗得岛及马耳他圣约翰主权军事医院骑士团(Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta),简称即为“Knights Hospitaller”(医院骑士团),[1]又称圣若翰骑士团(Order of St. John)、马耳他骑士团(the Knights of Malta)及马耳他骑士(Chevaliers of Malta),是当年组成十字军的天主教骑士团之一。医院骑士团的标志为置于黑色或红色背景上的白色十字。

医院骑士团在1099年前后建立于耶路撒冷,目标是护送贫困、病弱以及受伤的朝圣者抵达圣地,但随着十字军东征的爆发而成为了更具有军队性质的组织。尽管分别是两个组织,医院骑士团却是圣殿骑士团自创立以来的亲密盟友,同为十字军中的重要组成部分彼此合作,后来还从大名鼎鼎的罗德岛等数个位于地中海地区的基地为圣殿骑士提供了协助。

历史

第三次十字军东征

第三次十字军东征爆发之前,医院骑士团曾与十字军其他的下属军队于1187年抵抗埃及叙利亚阿尤布苏丹萨拉丁所率领的撒拉森军队,这场战役史称“哈丁之战”。十字军在这场战役中遭受了沉重的打击,最终战败,将耶路撒冷以及几乎整个黎凡特地区丢给了撒拉森人。撒拉森人重新入主耶路撒冷则成为了第三次十字军东征的导火索。随着1189年展开的阿卡围城战,第三次十字军东征正式爆发,这场围城战则持续了几乎整场第三次东征战争。

追踪圣杯

尽管医院骑士团与圣殿骑士团主要的军队都驻扎在阿卡一带,另一部分军队还是登船参与了夺取圣杯的战役。据传言所说,圣杯是一件神秘神器,拥有将战争中所有参战方都团结一致的力量。他们加入了圣殿骑士领袖巴西利斯克麾下的部队,一同进行此次行动,为了寻找有关圣杯的重要线索而追踪着一名刺客探子来到了阿勒颇刺客基地的门前。随后,他们立刻对阿勒颇周边的一个村庄展开了突袭,杀害了绝大多数的村民,但随后遭到了刺客们的反击。[2]

医院骑士团随后在寻找传说中的沙之神殿的三把钥匙时与圣殿骑士合作。根据圣殿骑士的猜想,沙之神殿便是圣杯的所在之地。但是寻找钥匙的时候,他们却步步都遭到刺客大师阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德的阻挠与挫败。尽管阿泰尔从他们手里夺走了三把钥匙以及指明神殿位置的地图,十字军还是找到了神殿,抢在刺客之前向神殿展开了远征,却发现圣杯实际是一个名叫阿德哈的女子,而不是某样安放在神殿内的物品。最后,尽管医院骑士团提供了最大限度的帮助,圣殿骑士最后也抓住了阿德哈,却没能看到这件“神器”发挥力量实现他们的目标。他们发现阿德哈对他们毫无用处之后便处决了她。阿德哈的死激怒了与她相爱的阿泰尔,阿泰尔随后踏上了复仇之路,杀死了所有导致阿德哈去世的十字军成员与这次行动的指挥者。[2][3]

阿卡的人体实验

1191年,暗中身为圣殿骑士九名领袖之一的法国最高大师加尼耶·德·纳布卢斯担任着医院骑士团的领袖。加尼耶对人体实验的喜好使得他被驱逐出了法国,随后又因这一丑行被驱逐出了苏尔,但即便如此他还是保持着自己在医院骑士团以及圣殿骑士组织中的位置。他得到了英格兰国王理查一世的资助与保护,得以在1191年阿卡落入十字军控制之后统治阿卡。[4][5]

加尼耶同他的圣殿骑士同僚合谋取得位于所罗门圣殿约柜内的伊甸苹果。利用这件伊述古代神器控制全人类心智,以此实现他们的新世界秩序便是他们的梦想。但是,因为马利克·阿塞夫所做出的巨大牺牲,这个苹果落到了刺客手里,圣殿骑士的合谋者之一——刺客导师阿尔莫林则背弃了他的秘密协定,要将苹果的力量归为己用。失去苹果之后,加尼耶又回归了他人体实验的老行当,希望能够利用草药、手术以及各种药物复制伊甸苹果的能力,并且取得了一定的成功。[5][6]

为了支持实验进行下去,加尼耶从另一名暗中身为圣殿骑士领袖的人——撒拉森奴隶主塔拉勒处接来了为数众多的囚犯。尽管这些人其实是被人从街上或家中绑架而来沦为奴隶的无辜之人,加尼耶却因这些人大多不是无家可归,就是吸毒成瘾,患麻风病,出卖身体,而他的实验可以治愈他们,得以让他们成为自己的合法病人。但在1191年,他被受阿尔莫林命令前来的阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德所刺杀。但阿尔莫林的真正目的是借阿泰尔之手,除掉这些昔日曾是他盟友的圣殿骑士,以免他们在自己通往权力的道路上制造阻碍。阿泰尔自己则认为加尼耶是一个施虐狂,他的死将会终结这些毫无人道可言的实验。[6]事实即是如此,但医院骑士团在加尼耶去世之后仍留在这里,直到阿卡再次被攻陷为止。

塞浦路斯

1192年,在第三次十字军东征结束而影响尚未结束的时候,圣殿骑士从罢黜塞浦路斯原本统治者艾萨克·科穆尼努斯,将塞浦路斯占为己有的狮心王理查处购得了岛国塞浦路斯。圣殿骑士成为了塞浦路斯正式的统治者,将塞浦路斯建设为自己新的根据地,在圣殿骑士巩固控制的过程中,医院骑士团的共同努力也不可缺少。但塞浦路斯当地的抵抗组织来势汹汹,已成为黎凡特刺客兄弟会新任领袖的阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德到达塞浦路斯,更是让十字军对塞浦路斯的统治雪上加霜。到了年底,圣殿骑士以及作为他们盟友的医院骑士团已经被彻底地赶出了塞浦路斯。[7]

到现代为止的经历

在失去阿卡之后,医院骑士团将自己的根据地转移到了罗德岛。在16世纪初,医院骑士团曾逮捕了一部分刺客,将他们囚禁在最高大师之宫。作为回应,意大利刺客导师埃齐奥·奥迪托雷·达·佛罗伦萨派了一支奥斯曼刺客小队前去解救他们的盟友。尽管他们取得了成功,但医院骑士团还是在不久之后杀害了刺客大师卡斯托,使得刺客对医院骑士团的据点发动了进攻。他们的房子被烧成了一片废墟,刺客们夺得了罗德岛的控制权,随后在岛上建立了自己的据点[1]

In 1522, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman, an ally of the Assassins, succeeded in expelling the Hospitallers from Rhodes. He failed, however, to eradicate the Order, as they reorganized themselves on Malta and prevented the Ottoman forces from conquering the island in 1565. This event sparked a longtime grudge between the Hospitalier and the Ottoman Empire.[8]

After 1675, the Hospitalier in Malta had been severely damaged by a plague and lacked for resources and defences. During the Seven Years' War, the Templar Shay Cormac used his fleet to send some troops to the island.[9]

In 1747, Grand Master Manuel Pinto da Fonseca wrote a letter to Grand Master Reginald Birch of the British Rite of the Templar Order beseeching him for the aid of Templar agents in the Hospitallers' struggle against the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of France, and the Assassins.[8]

In 2011, the Animi Training Program of Abstergo Industries featured a simulated location of the Knights Hospitalier fortress of Rhodes in the 16th century, when the Hospitallers held sovereignty over the island.

To this day, the Hospitalier Order still exists as the Catholic Sovereign Military Order of Malta and as the four Protestant orders of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem.

徽记与服装

Like the Knights Templar, the emblem of the Knights Hospitalier consisted of a cross, only the colors differed, with a white cross on a black background as opposed to a red cross on a white background. Alternatively, they also utilized a white cross on a red background, which eventually became the design of their flag of Malta.

The standard armor and uniform of the Knights Hospitalier during the Crusades was nearly identical to that of other Christian military orders, such as the Knights Templar and the Teutonic Knights, bearing their emblem at the center. Regular soldiers typically donned black gambesons with a white cross over their chainmail while sergeants wore surcoats of the same design instead. The highest-ranking soldiers, such as the captains, exclusively equipped themselves with plate armor, a great helm, and in solidarity with the others soldiers, a black surcoat with a white cross over the armor.[6] Other Hospitallers instead donned red surcoats with white crosses instead, favoring the order's alternative emblem, with the garrison of Hospitallers on Cyprus being notable examples of this practice.[7]

琐闻趣事

  • The French-inspired "Knights Hospitalier" has generally been preferred in the Assassin's Creed series over the English "Hospitaller", being the exclusive variant used in Assassin's Creed and Assassin's Creed: The Secret Crusade. However, the order is instead referred to as "Knights Hospitaller" in the Mediterranean Defense minigame of Assassin's Creed: Revelations.
  • In the story trailer of Assassin's Creed, the Hospitalier overseeing the execution of an individual who was killed by Altair wears an armor with a cape with the Hospitalier insignia similar to Robert de Sable but no such guard could be fought in the game's final version.
  • The Knights Hospitalier in Assassin's Creed: Bloodlines wear the white cross over red color alternative color scheme instead of the original white cross over black design of Hospitallers in Assassin's Creed. This is anachronistic since this color scheme was not adopted before the fall of Acre in 1291.
  • In the Captain's Cabin minigame of Assassin's Creed: Rogue, several ships feature the alternative emblem of the Knights Hospitaliers: a white cross on a red background. Flags and banners inside the cabin instead feature the original emblem of the Hospitaliers: a white cross and a black background.

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