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{{Era|ACAC|AC|ACBL|Secret Crusade|ACR|ACRG|Rebellion|Organizations}}
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{{Era|Organizations}}
{{翻译请求}}
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{{WP-REAL|zh:医院骑士团}}
{{WP-REAL|Knights Hospitaller}}
 
 
{{Faction infobox
 
{{Faction infobox
 
|image = Hospitalier Crest.svg
 
|image = Hospitalier Crest.svg
|leader = 大教长
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|leader = [[Grand Master of the Knights Hospitalier|最高师]]
|locations = [[阿卡]]<br>[[罗德]]<br>{{Wiki|马耳他}}
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|locations = [[阿卡]]<br>[[罗德]]<br>{{Wiki|马耳他}}
 
|related = [[十字军]]
 
|related = [[十字军]]
 
|religion = 罗马天主教
 
|religion = 罗马天主教
 
|formed = 约1099年
 
|formed = 约1099年
 
|hidea = No
 
|hidea = No
|notable = [[加尼耶·德·纳布卢斯]]<br>[[Manuel Pinto da Fonseca]]}}
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|notable = [[加尼耶·德·纳布卢斯]]<br>[[曼努埃尔·平托·达丰塞卡]]}}
The '''Knights Hospitalier''', officially the '''Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta''', and also known as the '''Knights Hospitaller''',<ref name="ACR">''[[Assassin's Creed: Revelations]]''</ref> the '''Order of St. John''', the '''Knights of the Hospital''', '''the Knights of Malta''', and the '''Chevaliers of Malta''', was one of the Christian orders of the [[Crusaders|Crusades]]. Their emblem is a white cross on either a black or red background.
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'''医院骑士团'''(Knights Hospitalier),正式名称为'''耶路撒冷、罗得岛及马耳他圣约翰主权军事医院骑士团'''(Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta),简称即为“Knights Hospitaller”(医院骑士团),<ref name="ACR">[[刺客信条:启示录]]</ref>又称'''圣若翰骑士团'''(Order of St. John)、'''马耳他骑士团'''(the Knights of Malta)及'''马耳他骑士'''(Chevaliers of Malta),是当年组成[[十字军]]的天主教骑士团之一。医院骑士团的标志为置于黑色或红色背景上的白色十字。
   
The Knights Hospitalier was founded in the city of [[Jerusalem]] around 1099 to provide care for poor, sick, or injured pilgrims to the [[Kingdom|Holy Land]], but became a much more militaristic organization with the onset of the Crusades. Though a distinct entity, the Hospitallers were close allies of the [[Templars|Knights Templar]] from their formation, cooperating as two of the principal factions of the [[Crusaders]], and later providing assistance to the Templars from several bases in the [[Mediterranean Sea]], most notably [[Rhodes]].
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医院骑士团在1099年前后建立于[[耶路撒冷]],目标是护送贫困、病弱以及受伤的朝圣者抵达[[王国|圣地]],但随着十字军东征的爆发而成为了更具有军队性质的组织。尽管分别是两个组织,医院骑士团却是[[圣殿骑士|圣殿骑士团]]自创立以来的亲密盟友,同为十字军中的重要组成部分彼此合作,后来还从大名鼎鼎的[[罗德|罗德岛]]等数个位于[[地中海]]地区的基地为圣殿骑士提供了协助。
   
==History==
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==历史==
===Third Crusade===
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===第三次十字军东征===
In the prelude to the [[Third Crusade]], the Hospitallers fought alongside other [[Crusaders]] at the [[Battle of Hattin]] n 1187 against the Saracen army of the [[Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubid Sultan]] [[Saladin]] of [[Egypt]] and [[Syria]], where they sustained a critical defeat that summarily led to the loss of Jerusalem and virtually all of the [[Levant]] to the [[Saracens]]. The Saracens' recapture of Jerusalem immediately led to calls for a Third Crusade, which opened with a [[Siege of Acre|siege]] of [[Acre]] in 1189 that would last for most of the war.
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[[第三次十字军东征]]爆发之前,医院骑士团曾与十字军其他的下属军队于1187年抵抗[[埃及]][[叙利亚]][[阿尤布王朝|阿尤布]]苏丹[[萨拉丁]]所率领的撒拉森军队,这场战役史称“[[哈丁战役]]”。十字军在这场战役中遭受了沉重的打击,最终战败,将耶路撒冷以及几乎整个[[黎凡特|黎凡特地区]]丢给了[[撒拉森人]]。撒拉森人重新入主耶路撒冷则成为了第三次十字军东征的导火索。随着1189年展开的[[阿卡]][[Siege of Acre|围城战]],第三次十字军东征正式爆发,这场围城战则持续了几乎整场第三次东征战争。
   
====Hunt for the Chalice====
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====追踪圣杯====
While the main force of Hospitallers and Templars were pinned down at Acre, others embarked on a campaign to seize the [[Adha|Chalice]], a mysterious relic rumored to possess the power to unite all factions of the war. The Crusaders joined forces under the Templar leader [[Basilisk]] for this operation, hunting down an [[Assassins|Assassin]] agent to the doorsteps of the Assassin base of [[Alep]] for vital leads on the artifact. Afterwards, they immediately followed with an assault on a village in the outskirts of Alep, massacring virtually all its residents before being routed by a counter-attack by the Assassins.<ref name="ACAC">''[[Assassin's Creed: Altaïr's Chronicles]]''</ref>
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尽管医院骑士团与圣殿骑士团主要的军队都驻扎在阿卡一带,另一部分军队还是登船参与了夺取[[阿德哈|圣杯]]的战役。据传言所说,圣杯是一件神秘神器,拥有将战争中所有参战方都团结一致的力量。他们加入了圣殿骑士领袖[[巴西利斯克]]麾下的部队,一同进行此次行动,为了寻找有关圣杯的重要线索而追踪着一名[[刺客]]探子来到了[[阿勒颇]]刺客基地的门前。随后,他们立刻对阿勒颇周边的一个村庄展开了突袭,杀害了绝大多数的村民,但随后遭到了刺客们的反击。<ref name="ACAC">[[刺客信条:阿泰尔编年史]]</ref>
   
The Knights Hospitalier cooperated with the Templars in their subsequent search for the three keys to the fabled [[Temple of Sand]] thought to be the location of the Chalice, but would be dogged and thwarted every step of the way by the [[Master Assassin]] [[Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad]]. Despite losing all three keys and the map to the temple to Altaïr, the Crusaders managed to locate the temple and launch an expedition into it ahead of the Assassin, only to find that the Chalice, actually a woman by the name of [[Adha]], was not there. Ultimately, in spite of the assistance of the Knights Hospitalier and their eventual capture of Adha, the Templars would fail to see their goals with the "artifact" come to fruition. Their execution of Adha, once they discovered that she held no use for them, only incurred the fury of her lover Altaïr, whose quest for vengeance would lead to the deaths of all Crusaders complicit in her death and the command of the operation.<ref name="ACAC" /><ref name="AC2">''[[Assassin's Creed II]]''</ref>
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医院骑士团随后在寻找传说中的[[Temple of Sand|沙之神殿]]的三把钥匙时与圣殿骑士合作。根据圣殿骑士的猜想,沙之神殿便是圣杯的所在之地。但是寻找钥匙的时候,他们却步步都遭到[[刺客大师]][[阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德]]的阻挠与挫败。尽管阿泰尔从他们手里夺走了三把钥匙以及指明神殿位置的地图,十字军还是找到了神殿,抢在刺客之前向神殿展开了远征,却发现圣杯实际是一个名叫阿德哈的女子,而不是某样安放在神殿内的物品。最后,尽管医院骑士团提供了最大限度的帮助,圣殿骑士最后也抓住了阿德哈,却没能看到这件“神器”发挥力量实现他们的目标。他们发现阿德哈对他们毫无用处之后便处决了她。阿德哈的死激怒了与她相爱的阿泰尔,阿泰尔随后踏上了复仇之路,杀死了所有导致阿德哈去世的十字军成员与这次行动的指挥者。<ref name="ACAC" /><ref name="AC2">[[刺客信条II]]</ref>
   
====Human experiments in Acre====
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====阿卡的人体实验====
In 1191, the Knights Hospitalier was led by the [[France|French]] [[Grand Master of the Knights Hospitalier|Grand Master]] [[Garnier de Naplouse]], who was also secretly one of nine leaders of the [[Templars|Knights Templar]]. Garnier's penchant for human experimentation led to his expulsion from France and subsequently from [[Tyre]] when he repeated this scandal, but he nonetheless maintained his positions within the Hospitaller and Templar orders. He received the patronage and protection of [[Richard I of England|King Richard I]] of [[England]] and was granted control of Acre after that city finally fell to Crusader forces that year.<ref name="AC1 guide">''[[Assassin's Creed: Official Game Guide]]''</ref><ref name="TSC">''[[Assassin's Creed: The Secret Crusade]]''</ref>
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1191年,暗中身为圣殿骑士九名领袖之一的[[法国]][[Grand Master of the Knights Hospitalier|最高大师]][[加尼耶·德·纳布卢斯]]担任着医院骑士团的领袖。加尼耶对人体实验的喜好使得他被驱逐出了法国,随后又因这一丑行被驱逐出了[[苏尔]],但即便如此他还是保持着自己在医院骑士团以及圣殿骑士组织中的位置。他得到了[[英格兰]]国王[[理查一世]]的资助与保护,得以在1191年阿卡落入十字军控制之后统治阿卡。<ref name="AC1 guide">[[Assassin's Creed: Official Game Guide|刺客信条:官方游戏指南]]</ref><ref name="TSC">[[刺客信条:秘密圣战]]</ref>
   
Garnier conspired with his fellow Templars to acquire the [[Apple of Eden 2|Apple of Eden]] hidden within the [[Ark of the Covenant]] at [[Solomon's Temple]]. It was their dream that this ancient [[Pieces of Eden|artifact]] of the [[Isu]] would allow them to inaugurate their [[New World Order]] by controlling the minds of humanity. However, the Apple was lost to the Assassins thanks to the costly efforts of [[Malik Al-Sayf]], and one of the Templars' conspirators, the Assassin leader [[Al Mualim]] reneged on his secret alliance, coveting the power of the Apple for himself. With the loss of the Apple, Garnier returned to his usual habits of human experimentation, hoping to replicate the effects of the Apple through herbs, surgery, and drugs, of which he achieved a limited amount of success.<ref name="TSC" /><ref name="AC1">''[[Assassin's Creed]]''</ref>
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加尼耶同他的圣殿骑士同僚合谋取得位于[[所罗门圣殿]][[约柜]]内的[[2号伊甸苹果|伊甸苹果]]。利用这件[[伊述]]古代[[伊甸碎片|神器]]控制全人类心智,以此实现他们的[[新世界秩序]]便是他们的梦想。但是,因为[[马利克·阿塞夫]]所做出的巨大牺牲,这个苹果落到了刺客手里,圣殿骑士的合谋者之一——刺客导师[[拉希德丁·锡南|阿尔莫林]]则背弃了他的秘密协定,要将苹果的力量归为己用。失去苹果之后,加尼耶又回归了他人体实验的老行当,希望能够利用草药、手术以及各种药物复制伊甸苹果的能力,并且取得了一定的成功。<ref name="TSC" /><ref name="AC1">[[刺客信条]]</ref>
   
To supply his experiments, Garnier received shipments of prisoners from the [[Saracens|Saracen]] [[slavery|slaver]] [[Talal]], another secret leader of the Templars. Though these slaves were forcibly kidnapped from the streets or their homes, Garnier maintained that these they were his legitimate patients, for they had largely been homeless, drug addicts, lepers, or prostitutes, and that his experiments were meant to heal. Nevertheless in 1191, he was assassinated by Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad on the orders of Al Mualim, who privately sought to [[Hunt for the Nine|eliminate his former Templar allies]] that stood in the way of his power. Altaïr, himself, believed Garnier to be a sadistic man and that his death would end his inhumane experiments.<ref name="AC1" /> While this proved to be true, the Hospitallers' presence in the city persisted, remaining in the city until its downfall.
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为了支持实验进行下去,加尼耶从另一名暗中身为圣殿骑士领袖的人——撒拉森[[奴隶主]][[塔拉勒]]处接来了为数众多的囚犯。尽管这些人其实是被人从街上或家中绑架而来沦为奴隶的无辜之人,加尼耶却因这些人大多不是无家可归,就是吸毒成瘾,患麻风病,出卖身体,而他的实验可以治愈他们,得以让他们成为自己的合法病人。但在1191年,他在[[医院骑士团堡垒]]中被受阿尔莫林命令前来的阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德所刺杀。但阿尔莫林的真正目的是借阿泰尔之手,[[猎杀九人|除掉这些昔日曾是他盟友的圣殿骑士]],以免他们在自己通往权力的道路上制造阻碍。阿泰尔自己则认为加尼耶是一个施虐狂,他的死将会终结这些毫无人道可言的实验。<ref name="AC1" />事实即是如此,但医院骑士团在加尼耶去世之后仍留在这里,直到阿卡再次被攻陷为止。
   
===Cyprus===
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===塞浦路斯===
In 1192, in the aftermath of the Third Crusade, the Knights Templar purchased the island nation of [[Cyprus]] from King Richard the Lionheart, himself having acquired it after ousting its ruler [[Isaac Comnenus]]. Though the Templars were the official and sovereign rulers of the island, establishing it as their new base, the detachments of the Knights Hospitalier accompanied the Templars in the efforts to consolidate control. [[Cypriot Resistance|Local resistance]] was fierce and the arrival of Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad, now the new leader of the [[Levantine Brotherhood of Assassins]], accelerated the rapid decay in Crusader power over the country. By the end of the year, the Templars, alongside their Hospitaller allies, had been utterly ousted from Cyprus.<ref name="ACBL">''[[Assassin's Creed: Bloodlines]]''</ref>
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1192年,在第三次十字军东征结束而影响尚未结束的时候,圣殿骑士罢黜了[[塞浦路斯]]原本的统治者[[Isaac Comnenus|艾萨克·科穆尼努斯]],将塞浦路斯占为己有的狮心王理查处购得了岛国塞浦路斯。圣殿骑士成为了塞浦路斯正式的统治者,将塞浦路斯建设为自己新的根据地,在圣殿骑士巩固控制的过程中,医院骑士团的共同努力也不可缺少。但塞浦路斯当地的[[塞浦路斯抵抗组织|抵抗组织]]来势汹汹,已成为[[黎凡特刺客兄弟会]]新任领袖的阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德到达塞浦路斯,更是让十字军对塞浦路斯的统治雪上加霜。到了年底,圣殿骑士以及作为他们盟友的医院骑士团已经被彻底地赶出了塞浦路斯。<ref name="ACBL">[[刺客信条:血统]]</ref>
   
===Modern era===
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===到现代为止的经历===
After the loss of Acre, the Hospitalier base relocated to [[Rhodes]]. In the early 16th century, the knightly order was responsible for capturing a number of Assassins and imprisoning them in the [[Palace of the Grand Master]]. In response, the [[Mentor]] [[Ezio Auditore da Firenze]] sent a team of [[Ottoman Brotherhood of Assassins|Ottoman Assassins]] to rescue their allies. Despite their success, the Hospitallers soon afterwards killed the [[Master Assassin]] [[Castor]], an act that provoked an Assassin assault on the Hospitalier stronghold. Their compound was burned to the ground, and the Assassins seized control of the island, establishing [[Assassin Dens|Dens]] there thereafter.<ref name="ACR">''[[Assassin's Creed: Revelations]]''</ref>
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在失去阿卡之后,医院骑士团将自己的根据地转移到了[[罗德|罗德岛]]。<ref name="ACR" />后来,[[奥斯曼帝国]]的王子[[杰姆]]决定将[[6号伊甸苹果|一枚伊甸苹果]]交给西方的圣殿骑士,因为他们对这神器的力量有着更多研究。然而他害怕[[博吉亚家族]]在得到苹果后就会疏远他们,因为他是近期才皈依圣殿骑士的。因此,他决定先将苹果藏好,直到他能信任博吉亚。在杰姆前往[[罗德]]和圣殿骑士会面之前,他将苹果藏在塞浦路斯的[[圣殿骑士档案馆]]中。而到了罗德之后,医院骑士团的人就逮捕了杰姆并将他带到“欧洲的大师”面前。<ref name="ACRC">[[刺客信条:回忆]]</ref>
   
In 1522, the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] Sultan [[Suleiman]], an ally of the Assassins, succeeded in expelling the Hospitallers from Rhodes. He failed, however, to eradicate the Order, as they reorganized themselves on {{Wiki|en:Malta|Malta}} and prevented the Ottoman forces from {{Wiki|en:Great Siege of Malta|conquering the island}} in 1565. This event sparked a longtime grudge between the Hospitalier and the Ottoman Empire.<ref name="ACRG War Letters">''[[Assassin's Creed: Rogue]]'' – [[War letters|War Letters]]</ref>
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在1489年,英勇且备受爱戴的医院骑士团成员[[奥拉西欧·德埃雷迪亚]]的家族成员在[[西班牙异端审判庭|西班牙异端审判]]期间因为拒绝支持[[圣殿骑士组织西班牙分册]]的[[圣殿骑士大师]][[托马斯·德·托尔克马达]]而被处决,这让奥拉西欧极为难过且愤怒,奥拉西欧因此决定离开医院骑士团,返乡为家人复仇。在刺客们的帮助下,他消灭了诸如[[佩德罗莎]]和[[督兰]]等与这次处决有关的人。他之后加入了刺客组织。<ref name="ACRb Horacio's Retribution">[[刺客信条:燎原]]》-《[[奥拉西欧的报应]]</ref>
   
After 1675, the Hospitalier in Malta had been severely damaged by a plague and lacked for resources and defences. During the [[Seven Years' War]], the Templar [[Shay Cormac]] used his fleet to send some troops to the island.<ref name="ACRG Naval Campaign">''Assassin's Creed: Rogue'' – Naval Campaign</ref>
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在16世纪初,医院骑士团曾逮捕了一部分刺客,将他们囚禁在[[Palace of the Grand Master|最高大师之宫]]。作为回应,意大利刺客[[导师]][[埃齐奥·奥迪托雷|埃齐奥·奥迪托雷·达·佛罗伦萨]]派了一支[[奥斯曼刺客兄弟会|奥斯曼刺客]]小队前去解救他们的盟友。尽管他们取得了成功,但医院骑士团还是在不久之后杀害了[[刺客大师]][[卡斯托]],使得刺客对医院骑士团的据点发动了进攻。他们的房子被烧成了一片废墟,刺客们夺得了罗德岛的控制权,随后在岛上建立了自己的[[刺客据点|据点]]。<ref name="ACR" />
   
In 1747, Grand Master [[Manuel Pinto da Fonseca]] wrote a letter to [[Grand Master of the Templar Order|Grand Master]] [[Reginald Birch]] of the [[British Rite of the Templar Order]] beseeching him for the aid of Templar agents in the Hospitallers' struggle against the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of France, and the Assassins.<ref name="ACRG War Letters" />
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1522年,身为刺客盟友的奥斯曼苏丹[[苏莱曼一世|苏莱曼]]顺利地将医院骑士团逐出了罗德岛。但是他没能消灭医院骑士团,医院骑士团的残党在{{Wiki|马耳他}}岛重建了组织,阻止了奥斯曼军队1565年{{Wiki|马耳他之围 (1565年)|征服马耳他}}的行动。因此,医院骑士团与奥斯曼帝国在从此往后的岁月里彼此仇恨、敌视。<ref name="ACRG War Letters">《[[刺客信条:叛变]]》- [[战时书信]]</ref>
   
In 2011, the [[Animi Training Program]] of [[Abstergo Industries]] featured a simulated location of the Knights Hospitalier [[forts|fortress]] of Rhodes in the 16th century, when the Hospitallers held sovereignty over the island.
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在1675年之后,位于马耳他的医院骑士团遭受瘟疫打击,资源短缺,无力自保。因此,在1747年,医院骑士团最高大师[[曼努埃尔·平托·达丰塞卡]][[圣殿骑士组织不列颠分册]][[最高大师]][[雷金纳德·伯奇]]写了一封信,恳求伯奇派遣圣殿骑士特务协助医院骑士团对抗奥斯曼帝国、[[法兰西王国]]以及刺客。<ref name="ACRG War Letters" />在[[七年战争]]时期,圣殿骑士[[谢伊·科马克]]利用他麾下的[[Shay Cormac's fleet|舰队]]向马耳他输送了援军。<ref name="ACRG Naval Campaign">《刺客信条:叛变》- 海军战役</ref>
   
To this day, the Hospitalier Order still exists as the Catholic {{Wiki|en:Sovereign Military Order of Malta|Sovereign Military Order of Malta}} and as the four Protestant orders of the {{Wiki|en:Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem|Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem}}.
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2012年,[[阿布斯泰戈工业公司]]的[[虚拟战斗训练计划]]将其中一个模拟训练场景设置在了16世纪罗德岛上的医院骑士团[[Knight's Hospital|要塞]]。那时,医院骑士团还享有对罗德岛的统治权。<ref name="ACR" />
   
==Emblem and attire==
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时至今日,医院骑士团仍旧作为信仰天主教的{{Wiki|马耳他骑士团}},是{{Wiki|en:Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem|耶路撒冷圣若翰骑士团的盟友}}中四大新教骑士团之一。
Like the Knights Templar, the emblem of the Knights Hospitalier consisted of a cross, only the colors differed, with a white cross on a black background as opposed to a red cross on a white background. Alternatively, they also utilized a white cross on a red background, which eventually became the design of their flag of Malta.
 
   
The standard armor and uniform of the Knights Hospitalier during the Crusades was nearly identical to that of other Christian military orders, such as the Knights Templar and the Teutonic Knights, bearing their emblem at the center. Regular soldiers typically donned black gambesons with a white cross over their chainmail while sergeants wore surcoats of the same design instead. The highest-ranking soldiers, such as the captains, exclusively equipped themselves with plate armor, a great helm, and in solidarity with the others soldiers, a black surcoat with a white cross over the armor.<ref name="AC1" /> Other Hospitallers instead donned red surcoats with white crosses instead, favoring the order's alternative emblem, with the garrison of Hospitallers on Cyprus being notable examples of this practice.<ref name="ACBL" />
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==徽记与服装==
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和圣殿骑士的徽记一样,医院骑士团的徽记也有十字,但颜色与圣殿骑士的白底红十字不同,为白色十字,黑色背景。不过同时他们还使用红底白十字,这个徽记最后成为了他们在马耳他所用旗帜的设计来源。
   
==Trivia==
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医院骑士团在十字军东征时期的标准制服以及盔甲与圣殿骑士团及条顿骑士团等其他基督教军事骑士团十分相似,在制服与盔甲的胸口印有他们自己的徽记。医院骑士团的普通士兵会在链甲外披上一件印有白色十字的黑色软甲,而军士则身穿同样相同设计的外衣。卫兵队长等高级别的士兵则拥有专属的板甲、巨盔以及与其他士兵一样的穿在盔甲外面的印有白十字的黑色外套。<ref name="AC1" />其他时候,医院骑士团成员则身穿穿印有白十字的红色外套,更为喜好组织的这个徽记。医院骑士团在塞浦路斯驻扎时期便是一大例证。<ref name="ACBL" />
*The French-inspired "Knights Hospitalier" has generally been preferred in the [[Assassin's Creed (series)|''Assassin's Creed'' series]] over the English "Hospitaller", being the exclusive variant used in ''[[Assassin's Creed]]'' and ''[[Assassin's Creed: The Secret Crusade]]''. However, the order is instead referred to as "Knights Hospitaller" in the [[Mediterranean Defense]] minigame of ''[[Assassin's Creed: Revelations]].''
 
*In the story trailer of ''Assassin's Creed'', the Hospitalier overseeing the execution of an individual who was killed by Altair wears an armor with a cape with the Hospitalier insignia similar to Robert de Sable but no such guard could be fought in the game's final version.
 
*The Knights Hospitalier in ''[[Assassin's Creed: Bloodlines]]'' wear the white cross over red color alternative color scheme instead of the original white cross over black design of Hospitallers in ''[[Assassin's Creed]]''. This is anachronistic since this color scheme was not adopted before the fall of Acre in 1291.
 
*In the Captain's Cabin minigame of ''[[Assassin's Creed: Rogue]]'', several ships feature the alternative emblem of the Knights Hospitaliers: a white cross on a red background. Flags and banners inside the cabin instead feature the original emblem of the Hospitaliers: a white cross and a black background.
 
   
==Gallery==
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==琐闻趣事==
  +
*在[[刺客信条(系列)|刺客信条系列]]中,更具法式风范的“医院骑士团”(Knights Hospitalier)这个名字比英语里的“医院牧师”(Hospitaller)更为常见,是《[[刺客信条]]》与《[[刺客信条:秘密圣战]]》中常用的专有名词。但是,这个组织到了《[[刺客信条:启示录]]》的[[地中海防御]]这一小游戏中,就被称为“Knights Hospitaller”了。
  +
*在《刺客信条》的剧情预告片中,医院骑士团的一名成员在监督处刑现场时被阿泰尔所杀。他身披一件与罗贝尔·德·萨布莱十分相似的印有医院骑士团徽记的斗篷,但在最后发行的游戏里,并没有出现过这样的卫兵。
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*《[[刺客信条:血统]]》中的医院骑士团成员身穿的服装为红底白十字,而不是和《刺客信条》里一样的黑底白十字配色。根据时间而言,这里出现了错误——医院骑士团直到1291年阿卡陷落之后才开始采用红底白十字。
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*在《[[刺客信条:叛变]]》的船长室小游戏中,有好几艘船都带有医院骑士团的徽记:红底白十字。旗帜和船舱内的横幅则是医院骑士团原来的徽记:黑底白十字。
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==画廊==
 
<gallery captionalign="center" position="center" spacing="small" widths="180">
 
<gallery captionalign="center" position="center" spacing="small" widths="180">
AC1 Hospitalier Soldier.png|A Hospitalier soldier
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AC1 Hospitalier Soldier.png|医院骑士团士兵
AC1 Hospitalier Sergeant.png|A Hospitalier sergeant
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AC1 Hospitalier Sergeant.png|医院骑士团军士
AC1 Hospitalier Captain.png|A Hospitalier captain
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AC1 Hospitalier Captain.png|医院骑士团队长
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
   
==Appearances==
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==登场作品==
*''[[Assassin's Creed: Altaïr's Chronicles]]''
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*[[刺客信条]]》{{1st}}
*''[[Assassin's Creed]]'' {{1st}}
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*[[刺客信条:阿泰尔编年史]]
*''[[Assassin's Creed: Bloodlines]]''
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*[[刺客信条:血统]]
*''[[Assassin's Creed: The Secret Crusade]]''
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*[[刺客信条:秘密圣战]]
*''[[Assassin's Creed: Revelations]]'' &ndash; [[Mediterranean Defense]]
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*[[刺客信条:启示录]]》{{Mo}}
*''[[Assassin's Creed: Rogue]]'' &ndash; Naval Campaign
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*[[刺客信条:叛变]]》{{Mo}}
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*《[[刺客信条:燎原]]》-《[[奥拉西欧的报应]]》{{Mo}}
   
==Sources==
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==来源==
*''[[Assassin's Creed: Official Game Guide]]''
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*[[Assassin's Creed: Official Game Guide|刺客信条:官方游戏指南]]
   
==References==
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==参考==
 
{{Reflist}}
 
{{Reflist}}
 
{{Templars nav}}
 
{{Templars nav}}
 
{{AC}}
 
{{AC}}
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{{ACAC}}
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{{DEFAULTSORT:YiYuanQiShiTuan}}
 
[[en:Knights Hospitalier]]
 
[[en:Knights Hospitalier]]
 
[[Category:所有页面]]
 
[[Category:所有页面]]
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[[Category:圣殿骑士盟友]]
 
[[Category:圣殿骑士盟友]]
 
[[Category:刺客信条派系]]
 
[[Category:刺客信条派系]]
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[[Category:刺客信条:阿泰尔编年史派系]]
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[[Category:刺客信条:血统派系]]
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[[Category:刺客信条:秘密圣战派系]]
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[[Category:刺客信条:启示录派系]]
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[[Category:刺客信条:叛变派系]]

2020年3月22日 (星期日) 09:49的最后版本

Eraicon-Organizations

Smallwikipedialogo

医院骑士团(Knights Hospitalier),正式名称为耶路撒冷、罗得岛及马耳他圣约翰主权军事医院骑士团(Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta),简称即为“Knights Hospitaller”(医院骑士团),[1]又称圣若翰骑士团(Order of St. John)、马耳他骑士团(the Knights of Malta)及马耳他骑士(Chevaliers of Malta),是当年组成十字军的天主教骑士团之一。医院骑士团的标志为置于黑色或红色背景上的白色十字。

医院骑士团在1099年前后建立于耶路撒冷,目标是护送贫困、病弱以及受伤的朝圣者抵达圣地,但随着十字军东征的爆发而成为了更具有军队性质的组织。尽管分别是两个组织,医院骑士团却是圣殿骑士团自创立以来的亲密盟友,同为十字军中的重要组成部分彼此合作,后来还从大名鼎鼎的罗德岛等数个位于地中海地区的基地为圣殿骑士提供了协助。

历史编辑

第三次十字军东征编辑

第三次十字军东征爆发之前,医院骑士团曾与十字军其他的下属军队于1187年抵抗埃及叙利亚阿尤布苏丹萨拉丁所率领的撒拉森军队,这场战役史称“哈丁战役”。十字军在这场战役中遭受了沉重的打击,最终战败,将耶路撒冷以及几乎整个黎凡特地区丢给了撒拉森人。撒拉森人重新入主耶路撒冷则成为了第三次十字军东征的导火索。随着1189年展开的阿卡围城战,第三次十字军东征正式爆发,这场围城战则持续了几乎整场第三次东征战争。

追踪圣杯编辑

尽管医院骑士团与圣殿骑士团主要的军队都驻扎在阿卡一带,另一部分军队还是登船参与了夺取圣杯的战役。据传言所说,圣杯是一件神秘神器,拥有将战争中所有参战方都团结一致的力量。他们加入了圣殿骑士领袖巴西利斯克麾下的部队,一同进行此次行动,为了寻找有关圣杯的重要线索而追踪着一名刺客探子来到了阿勒颇刺客基地的门前。随后,他们立刻对阿勒颇周边的一个村庄展开了突袭,杀害了绝大多数的村民,但随后遭到了刺客们的反击。[2]

医院骑士团随后在寻找传说中的沙之神殿的三把钥匙时与圣殿骑士合作。根据圣殿骑士的猜想,沙之神殿便是圣杯的所在之地。但是寻找钥匙的时候,他们却步步都遭到刺客大师阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德的阻挠与挫败。尽管阿泰尔从他们手里夺走了三把钥匙以及指明神殿位置的地图,十字军还是找到了神殿,抢在刺客之前向神殿展开了远征,却发现圣杯实际是一个名叫阿德哈的女子,而不是某样安放在神殿内的物品。最后,尽管医院骑士团提供了最大限度的帮助,圣殿骑士最后也抓住了阿德哈,却没能看到这件“神器”发挥力量实现他们的目标。他们发现阿德哈对他们毫无用处之后便处决了她。阿德哈的死激怒了与她相爱的阿泰尔,阿泰尔随后踏上了复仇之路,杀死了所有导致阿德哈去世的十字军成员与这次行动的指挥者。[2][3]

阿卡的人体实验编辑

1191年,暗中身为圣殿骑士九名领袖之一的法国最高大师加尼耶·德·纳布卢斯担任着医院骑士团的领袖。加尼耶对人体实验的喜好使得他被驱逐出了法国,随后又因这一丑行被驱逐出了苏尔,但即便如此他还是保持着自己在医院骑士团以及圣殿骑士组织中的位置。他得到了英格兰国王理查一世的资助与保护,得以在1191年阿卡落入十字军控制之后统治阿卡。[4][5]

加尼耶同他的圣殿骑士同僚合谋取得位于所罗门圣殿约柜内的伊甸苹果。利用这件伊述古代神器控制全人类心智,以此实现他们的新世界秩序便是他们的梦想。但是,因为马利克·阿塞夫所做出的巨大牺牲,这个苹果落到了刺客手里,圣殿骑士的合谋者之一——刺客导师阿尔莫林则背弃了他的秘密协定,要将苹果的力量归为己用。失去苹果之后,加尼耶又回归了他人体实验的老行当,希望能够利用草药、手术以及各种药物复制伊甸苹果的能力,并且取得了一定的成功。[5][6]

为了支持实验进行下去,加尼耶从另一名暗中身为圣殿骑士领袖的人——撒拉森奴隶主塔拉勒处接来了为数众多的囚犯。尽管这些人其实是被人从街上或家中绑架而来沦为奴隶的无辜之人,加尼耶却因这些人大多不是无家可归,就是吸毒成瘾,患麻风病,出卖身体,而他的实验可以治愈他们,得以让他们成为自己的合法病人。但在1191年,他在医院骑士团堡垒中被受阿尔莫林命令前来的阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德所刺杀。但阿尔莫林的真正目的是借阿泰尔之手,除掉这些昔日曾是他盟友的圣殿骑士,以免他们在自己通往权力的道路上制造阻碍。阿泰尔自己则认为加尼耶是一个施虐狂,他的死将会终结这些毫无人道可言的实验。[6]事实即是如此,但医院骑士团在加尼耶去世之后仍留在这里,直到阿卡再次被攻陷为止。

塞浦路斯编辑

1192年,在第三次十字军东征结束而影响尚未结束的时候,圣殿骑士罢黜了塞浦路斯原本的统治者艾萨克·科穆尼努斯,将塞浦路斯占为己有的狮心王理查处购得了岛国塞浦路斯。圣殿骑士成为了塞浦路斯正式的统治者,将塞浦路斯建设为自己新的根据地,在圣殿骑士巩固控制的过程中,医院骑士团的共同努力也不可缺少。但塞浦路斯当地的抵抗组织来势汹汹,已成为黎凡特刺客兄弟会新任领袖的阿泰尔·伊本-拉阿哈德到达塞浦路斯,更是让十字军对塞浦路斯的统治雪上加霜。到了年底,圣殿骑士以及作为他们盟友的医院骑士团已经被彻底地赶出了塞浦路斯。[7]

到现代为止的经历编辑

在失去阿卡之后,医院骑士团将自己的根据地转移到了罗德岛[1]后来,奥斯曼帝国的王子杰姆决定将一枚伊甸苹果交给西方的圣殿骑士,因为他们对这神器的力量有着更多研究。然而他害怕博吉亚家族在得到苹果后就会疏远他们,因为他是近期才皈依圣殿骑士的。因此,他决定先将苹果藏好,直到他能信任博吉亚。在杰姆前往罗德和圣殿骑士会面之前,他将苹果藏在塞浦路斯的圣殿骑士档案馆中。而到了罗德之后,医院骑士团的人就逮捕了杰姆并将他带到“欧洲的大师”面前。[8]

在1489年,英勇且备受爱戴的医院骑士团成员奥拉西欧·德埃雷迪亚的家族成员在西班牙异端审判期间因为拒绝支持圣殿骑士组织西班牙分册圣殿骑士大师托马斯·德·托尔克马达而被处决,这让奥拉西欧极为难过且愤怒,奥拉西欧因此决定离开医院骑士团,返乡为家人复仇。在刺客们的帮助下,他消灭了诸如佩德罗莎督兰等与这次处决有关的人。他之后加入了刺客组织。[9]

在16世纪初,医院骑士团曾逮捕了一部分刺客,将他们囚禁在最高大师之宫。作为回应,意大利刺客导师埃齐奥·奥迪托雷·达·佛罗伦萨派了一支奥斯曼刺客小队前去解救他们的盟友。尽管他们取得了成功,但医院骑士团还是在不久之后杀害了刺客大师卡斯托,使得刺客对医院骑士团的据点发动了进攻。他们的房子被烧成了一片废墟,刺客们夺得了罗德岛的控制权,随后在岛上建立了自己的据点[1]

1522年,身为刺客盟友的奥斯曼苏丹苏莱曼顺利地将医院骑士团逐出了罗德岛。但是他没能消灭医院骑士团,医院骑士团的残党在马耳他岛重建了组织,阻止了奥斯曼军队1565年征服马耳他的行动。因此,医院骑士团与奥斯曼帝国在从此往后的岁月里彼此仇恨、敌视。[10]

在1675年之后,位于马耳他的医院骑士团遭受瘟疫打击,资源短缺,无力自保。因此,在1747年,医院骑士团最高大师曼努埃尔·平托·达丰塞卡圣殿骑士组织不列颠分册最高大师雷金纳德·伯奇写了一封信,恳求伯奇派遣圣殿骑士特务协助医院骑士团对抗奥斯曼帝国、法兰西王国以及刺客。[10]七年战争时期,圣殿骑士谢伊·科马克利用他麾下的舰队向马耳他输送了援军。[11]

2012年,阿布斯泰戈工业公司虚拟战斗训练计划将其中一个模拟训练场景设置在了16世纪罗德岛上的医院骑士团要塞。那时,医院骑士团还享有对罗德岛的统治权。[1]

时至今日,医院骑士团仍旧作为信仰天主教的马耳他骑士团,是耶路撒冷圣若翰骑士团的盟友中四大新教骑士团之一。

徽记与服装编辑

和圣殿骑士的徽记一样,医院骑士团的徽记也有十字,但颜色与圣殿骑士的白底红十字不同,为白色十字,黑色背景。不过同时他们还使用红底白十字,这个徽记最后成为了他们在马耳他所用旗帜的设计来源。

医院骑士团在十字军东征时期的标准制服以及盔甲与圣殿骑士团及条顿骑士团等其他基督教军事骑士团十分相似,在制服与盔甲的胸口印有他们自己的徽记。医院骑士团的普通士兵会在链甲外披上一件印有白色十字的黑色软甲,而军士则身穿同样相同设计的外衣。卫兵队长等高级别的士兵则拥有专属的板甲、巨盔以及与其他士兵一样的穿在盔甲外面的印有白十字的黑色外套。[6]其他时候,医院骑士团成员则身穿穿印有白十字的红色外套,更为喜好组织的这个徽记。医院骑士团在塞浦路斯驻扎时期便是一大例证。[7]

琐闻趣事编辑

  • 刺客信条系列中,更具法式风范的“医院骑士团”(Knights Hospitalier)这个名字比英语里的“医院牧师”(Hospitaller)更为常见,是《刺客信条》与《刺客信条:秘密圣战》中常用的专有名词。但是,这个组织到了《刺客信条:启示录》的地中海防御这一小游戏中,就被称为“Knights Hospitaller”了。
  • 在《刺客信条》的剧情预告片中,医院骑士团的一名成员在监督处刑现场时被阿泰尔所杀。他身披一件与罗贝尔·德·萨布莱十分相似的印有医院骑士团徽记的斗篷,但在最后发行的游戏里,并没有出现过这样的卫兵。
  • 刺客信条:血统》中的医院骑士团成员身穿的服装为红底白十字,而不是和《刺客信条》里一样的黑底白十字配色。根据时间而言,这里出现了错误——医院骑士团直到1291年阿卡陷落之后才开始采用红底白十字。
  • 在《刺客信条:叛变》的船长室小游戏中,有好几艘船都带有医院骑士团的徽记:红底白十字。旗帜和船舱内的横幅则是医院骑士团原来的徽记:黑底白十字。

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