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Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (3 June 1885 – 16 March 1919) was an administrator of the Bolshevik party and chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee during the Russian Revolution.

In July 1918, he ordered the execution of the deposed Tsar Nicholas II at Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg. From 1924 to 1991, the city was called "Sverdlovsk" in his honor.

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