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The War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714) was fought between European powers, including a divided Spain, over who had the right to succeed Charles II as King of Spain. During the conflict, nations on both sides openly exercised the use of privateers to raid merchant convoys.
The war ended with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714; which rendered thousands of privateers unemployed. Many of these, including Edward Kenway, Edward Thatch, Benjamin Hornigold, and Charles Vane, among others, resorted to piracy in order to survive. This started the third and final "Golden Age of Piracy".