- "Why do people need the validation? What should matter is what you – as an individual, believe. And why you believe it. What, are we so insecure that we have to find 18th century letters to validate our beliefs?"
- ―Shaun commenting on the state of political affairs to Desmond Miles, 2012.[src]
Shaun Hastings (born 1985) is a member of the Assassin Brotherhood who gives tactical guidance to numerous Assassin teams across the globe. His support is often targeted towards Assassins who are out in the field, occasionally offering assistance in the form of messages relayed from higher command.
Within his team, Shaun acted as both historian and analyst, assisting Desmond Miles during his time in the Animus. This help mostly came in the form of creating database entries on the varying people, places, and events Desmond encountered.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Personality and characteristics
- 3 Behind the scenes
- 4 Gallery
- 5 Appearances
- 6 References
- "Most Assassins, Desmond, are like you, yeah? They're "born" into the Brotherhood. Not me, though."
- ―Shaun to Desmond, 2012.[src]
Originating from England, Shaun was interested in conspiracy theories and the unexplained from a very early age. Though initially unaware of the existence of the modern-day Templars and Assassins, when Shaun was around 15, he did some investigations into a company known as Abstergo Industries, and discovered that they were "up to no good".
This eventually inspired him to prevent their wrongful activities in any way he could. While working as a junior professor, Shaun took the pseudonym "Guy Fawkes", after one of the co-conspirators of the 1605 Gunpowder Plot, and began spreading the word.
He published articles detailing Abstergo's inner workings to WikiLeaks and other news groups, searching for people with "stories to tell"; all the while remaining unaware that the Templars would try to silence him.
Rebecca Crane was the first to point out the danger he was putting himself in, and attempted to warn him that he was "messing with the wrong people." However, Shaun did not believe her, and was eventually discovered by Abstergo's CEO Alan Rikkin.
On 10 December 2010, Shaun was kidnapped by Abstergo. Fortunately, he was able to escape from the van that was taking him to the company, with Abstergo only discovering afterwards that the van's computer had been hacked, creating a false alert for a need to stop and refuel; this event was secretly brought about by Rebecca's intervention.
Rebecca then contacted Shaun once more, "rescued" him, and recruited him into the Brotherhood.
- Desmond: "What's all this stuff for?"
- Shaun: "This stuff, Desmond, oh this stuff is nothing special, really, this stuff is just the stuff that keeps our entire operation from falling apart, really."
- —Desmond and Shaun in the hideout, 2012.[src]
Two years later, after Lucy Stillman and Desmond Miles escaped the Animus Project laboratory and reached an undisclosed hideout in Rome, Shaun was the first to greet Desmond – introducing both himself and Rebecca – before promptly insisting that they all get straight to work.
Desmond then entered the Animus to relive the memories of one of his ancestors, Ezio Auditore da Firenze. While Desmond was inside the Animus, Shaun supplied Desmond with information in the form of database entries, as well as the occasional piece of advice on glyph puzzles.
In his role as historian and analyst of the group, Shaun was constantly working on his computer, and rarely had the opportunity to speak with Desmond – often telling him bluntly to "go away" if ever Desmond tried to bother him while he was busy.
During the assault on the hideout by Warren Vidic and several Abstergo guards, Shaun assisted Rebecca in packing up the Assassins' equipment, and later drove the group to their next hideout in Switzerland.
Escape to the Sanctuary
- "Did you miss me? No? Anyone? Hello, am I speaking out loud? Hello? Workaholics."
- ―Shaun returning to the Sanctuary, 2012.[src]
Upon leaving the hideout, Shaun and the others drove north in an attempt to reach a cabin located in the Swiss Alps, where they would continue searching through Desmond's genetic memories. However, Abstergo set up a roadblock in Grosseto, Italy to intercept the group of Assassins. The following day, looking at a map for a different place to hide, Shaun suggested that the team should take a detour that would lead them to Monteriggioni.
After arriving in Monteriggioni, the team set up camp in the Sanctuary, due to its thick walls blocking outside signals. Shaun then assisted the team by hiding the van and teaching Desmond how to reroute power into the underground chamber.
Once the preparation was complete, Shaun continued with his research, operating similarly to the way he had in the previous hideout. In contrast, though, he was much more respectful and tolerant towards Desmond than he had been previously – however, his attitude remained rude and impatient with Rebecca, which caused Lucy to give him a greater workload than the other Assassins.
During Desmond's breaks outside the Animus, Shaun told him about the history of the events he was experiencing, mentioning things such as the fate of Caterina Sforza and Cesare Borgia's explicit letter to his father the Pope about his wedding night.
Journey to the Colosseum
- Desmond: "I wonder if it will change things. Whether it can tip the scales in our favor."
- Shaun: "I'm sure it will. It has to."
- —Shaun and Desmond discussing the Apple at the Colosseum, 2012.[src]
After Desmond located the Apple of Eden through Ezio's memories, the modern-day Assassins were still left with the mystery of how to access the Apple's Vault. Although Rebecca knew it was opened via a spoken password, the group was unsure of what it could possibly be.
Desmond pointed out the numbers that he had earlier found written on the wall opposite the Sanctuary's bookshelf entrance, as well as the tetractys symbol, of which Shaun correctly deduced its relevance to God, and His 72 names. This number, Shaun also stated, was the same year that Rome's Colosseum was built. Following this, they all concluded that was where the Apple would be found, and began their long road trip.
Upon finding the Apple, Desmond used it to ask where the Temples were located, which resulted in it projecting a series of symbols and images. Shaun, upon identifying the Phrygian cap and the Eye of Providence, said that both objects came together in only "one place."
Lucy and Desmond collapsed to the floor after this, but both Shaun and Rebecca were still visibly conscious, and appeared unaffected by the Apple's power.
After Desmond's collapse
- Rebecca: "Shaun, you feeling okay?"
- Shaun: "Sure, yeah, yeah, I'm fine, yeah. We're Assassins after all, aren't we, eh? Why should we be surprised if one of us dies every now and again?"
- —Shaun, regarding Lucy's death, 2012.[src]
Following Lucy's death, Desmond fell unconscious and slipped into a comatose state. Rebecca and William Miles brought Desmond to New York City in an effort to reawaken him, with Shaun staying behind to arrange and attend Lucy's funeral in a cemetery just outside of Rome.
Following a phone call with Rebecca and William, during which Shaun expressed his suspicion that Desmond may be a sleeper agent similar to another former Assassin, which William vehemently denied, Shaun boarded a plane to join them in New York.
Eventually, the four of them took a van to the coordinates found by Ezio in the Pythagorean Vault, taking the Apple recovered from the Colosseum Vault with them. As they arrived, Desmond awoke from the coma which had taken hold of him, and stated that he knew what they needed to do.
The Grand Temple
- "In another moment down went Alice after it, never once considering how in the world she was to get out again."
- ―Shaun, reciting a line from Alice in Wonderland upon the team entering the Grand Temple.[src]
After exiting the van at the entrance of the Grand Temple, Shaun assisted in carrying the supplies inside, as well as setting up his computer network and the Animus. From there, he spent the majority of his time monitoring Desmond and working on the new Database. Eventually, he realized that the team would need power sources to open the door, and began work on locating them.
The first he found was in an office building around New York, for which he had Desmond go to collect it. With Rebecca's input, Shaun provided access to communication for the operations via an earpiece. He also drove the van to the drop-off and pick-up points.
The second source, located in Brazil, belonged to a business tycoon's wife who was watching a mixed martial arts match at the time. Sending Desmond, Shaun helped navigate him through the area so that he could reach the power source. He also assisted Rebecca in keeping the train open for Desmond to escape.
The third source, located when the team returned to the Grand Temple, was held at the Cairo Museum in Egypt. This time, Shaun gave support to William, who went to retrieve it in Desmond's stead. After William was captured, Shaun helped Desmond with the transport to Rome in order for Desmond to infiltrate Abstergo's headquarters and rescue his father.
When the team returned and the Grand Temple Key was found, Shaun and the group accompanied Desmond through the door. After watching Minerva and Juno speak with Desmond, Shaun, William and Rebecca left upon Desmond's order as he activated the Eye, sacrificing himself to trigger global aurora borealis device the and save the world.
Undercover at Abstergo
- "All I'm saying is, I think we made the most of what little time we had, and we made a difference. The world lives to turn another day. Isn't that what we should hold on to?"
- ―Shaun to Rebecca, reflecting on the brief time they spent with Desmond, 2013.[src]
Six months later in May 2013, Shaun and Rebecca met with William's second-in-command Gavin Banks in Peru, informing him that William had left the Order, leaving behind a letter and a codex for Gavin. Shaun was bitter that William left without saying goodbye, but Gavin reminded him that William was mourning for his son.
On 29 May, after sailing north on the Altaïr II—a trip that often left Shaun nauseous—Gavin dropped Shaun and Rebecca in California to spy for the Assassins in America. On 10 June, Shaun and Rebecca stopped in Texas where Shaun got very drunk while Rebecca took photos of him. Eventually, while in Oklahoma City in August, they decided to honor William by finding what happened to Desmond's body, which was being used for Abstergo's Sample 17 Project to create entertainment products from his ancestors' memories.
As they traveled through South Dakota, Shaun and Rebecca visited the ruins of the Farm where Desmond grew up on 6 September. Rebecca remarked that they barely knew Desmond, to which Shaun responded that despite that, they had experienced a lot together and made a difference, comforting her.
By 24 October, Rebecca and Shaun infiltrated the Abstergo Entertainment facility in Montreal. Shaun took a job as the lobby's barista in order to facilitate communication with Rebecca, who was acting as a courier, collecting a number of data files that had been obtained by an Abstergo researcher at the behest of John Standish from the IT department.
When John was killed by Abstergo, Shaun and Rebecca contacted the researcher, apologizing for getting them into trouble and promising to make up for it. Using the information recovered by the analyst, Shaun and Rebecca helped William move on from Desmond's death and rejoin the Order.
Discovering the Initiates
- "With you on our side, we can hope to rebuild the Brotherhood. Otherwise, the Assassins will die, along with our ideals. The Templars will win, and the world will lose."
- ―Shaun appealing for the Initiates to join the Assassins.[src]
On 1 May 2014, Shaun and Rebecca had reunited with William in a bunker in Norway, and then with the crew of the Altaïr II. Gavin was angry William had not contacted him since his return, but they soon had more important matters to attend to when Rebecca discovered that the ship was bugged. From 7-13 May, William interrogated each of Gavin's crewmates to determine who the spy was, Shaun and Rebecca worked to ascertain where the spy's reports were being sent to.
Eventually by 23 May, William decided who the spy was and declared that, in accordance with the Creed, he was going to have them executed. Shaun objected, preparing to cite moments of leniency from the Order's history, but William responded for him to be silent, and ordered Galina Voronina to kill Dr. Stephanie Chiu, prompting protests from Eric Cooper, who claimed to be the spy.
Shaun expressed surprise that a Scot could be the spy, prompting Chiu to explain she uploaded Cooper's reports to the Initiates. Satisfied with the truth, William and Gavin explained it had been a ruse to flush them out, to which Shaun had William confirm that none of them would be dying that day.
Days later, while Cooper and Chiu were explaining to the Assassins their goals and organization, Shaun protested against the Initiates' neutral stance, arguing they could have helped if they were observing what the Assassins had endured. Subsequently, William appointed Shaun and Rebecca with the task of recruiting the Initiates. On 16 June, Shaun sent out a recruitment message to the Initiates.
In October, Shaun, alongside Galina, infiltrated an Abstergo laboratory operating in Paris by orders of Gavin Banks. Once inside, Shaun found Álvaro Gramática experimenting with a Shroud of Eden, failing to recognize the importance of the artifact as he did not believe in the existence of such an object. Shaun instead made fun of Álvaro before Galina threw a grenade at him, fatally wounding him. Unfortunately for the pair, Álvaro was wearing the Shroud, healing him after the Assassins were gone, though the Shroud was ultimately destroyed after this. Shaun and Galina fled from the facility to La Rochelle, where Gavin and Eric Cooper were waiting for them, but not before facing Sigma Team agent Sorkin, who was severely injured by Galina. Both Assassins ultimately made it to the ships and escaped Paris.
Shaun was present and aided Bishop when guiding an Initiate through the memories of Arno Dorian in the hopes of learning the location of the corpse of a Sage by the name of François-Thomas Germain. In this time, he went by the handle of Deacon. However, in his revised Database entries he refers to himself by his real name.
Hunting the Shroud
- "I had this colleague. He was our boss's son. I didn't much care for him at the start. Everyone treated him like he was so bloody special. To me, he wasn't invested in anything that didn't affect him personally. But, I was wrong about him. He became my friend. Put himself through hell. And he saved us all in the end. So I reckon... Well, I can't apologize to him, but I can, I don't know. I can try and live up to his example."
- ―Shaun talking about Desmond Miles to Bishop, 2015.[src]
In October 2015, Shaun and Rebecca were dispatched by Bishop to infiltrate Isabelle Ardant's office in London to gain access to information regarding Pieces of Eden. However, the duo went off-book and decided to wait for Ardant to return to her office. They were intercepted by Juhani Otso Berg and Violet da Costa but managed to flee after Rebecca detonated their pre-planted explosives. Shaun's name also appeared in Abstergo's list of known British Assassins.
Later on, having survived the ambush, Shaun and Rebecca recuperated at a hideout, where they and Bishop agreed that another Shroud of Eden was in London and that Abstergo was looking for it. The two were reassured by Bishop that the Initiate was already looking for the Shroud through synchronizing the memories of Jacob and Evie Frye, twin Assassins who operated in Victorian London. However, Shaun stated that they could not take on Sigma Team alone, so Bishop promised to send backup.
After the Initiate managed to synchronize the memories of Jacob and Evie, the Assassins learned that the Shroud was located in a vault underneath Buckingham Palace. Aided by Galina Voronina, Shaun and Rebecca infiltrated the vault, only to find out that Otso Berg, Violet da Costa and Isabelle Ardant had beaten them to the Shroud. Just as the Templars were leaving, the Assassins launched an assault. A fight ensued, with Galina knocking out Otso Berg and Shaun killing Isabelle Ardant with his Shock Blade.
Rebecca was wounded after taking a bullet for Shaun from Violet, who managed to escape with the Shroud in hand. Sigma Team soon arrived and turned the tide of the fight. Holding a wounded Rebecca in his arms, Shaun ordered Galina to fall back. Galina single handedly took out all the members of Sigma Team, and offered an escape window for Shaun and Rebecca.
One year later, Shaun infiltrated the Abstergo facility in Madrid where he stole the processor and the blueprints of the Animus 4.3, which Rebecca later used to build a new upgraded Animus, though she had to disable its Parietal Suppressor.
By 2019, Shaun's personality and appearance had been adapted for the avatar of an artificial intelligence utilized by the Assassins. Gavin Banks and My'shell Lemair used the tech to aid Londoner Aliyah Khan in reliving her genetic memories of her ancestor Omar Khaled to counteract a Templar plot that threatened the world's economy. Shaun's expertise in British history uploaded into the AI was helpful.
Finding the Wolf-Kissed
In the subsequent 8 years since the 2012 coronal mass ejection, the Earth's magnetic field continued to increase in potency, resulting in massive electromagnetic disruptions all over the globe, and the creation of global aurora borealis. In May of 2020, Shaun and Rebecca were married, and both were assigned to a new Assassin cell with Layla Hassan, after she fell out with her previous team following the incident in Atlantis. The team received a strange message with a promising solution to the problem that faced the Earth, which led them to a Viking grave in North America, just outside of Concord, dating back to the ninth century. As Layla relived the memories of the warrior, Eivor Varinsdottir, Shaun was given orders by William Miles to place a mood stabilizer on Layla's neck, ensuring that she wouldn't succumb to the power of the Staff of Hermes Trismegistus. Shaun also left Layla an audio recording of a conversation he had with Desmond a few days before the 2012 coronal mass ejection on her laptop.
Personality and characteristics
- Shaun: "I keep trying to understand how men like Washington and Jefferson could dedicate their lives to the pursuit of liberty and equality, yet have no problem owning slaves. It's hypocritical in the extreme. And your history books make only passing mention of the subject. As if... as if it were of little consequence."
- Desmond: "They had a war to win. A country's future to secure. How could they deal with all these issues at the same time?"
- Shaun: "Spoken like a true apologist. We hear it today too. That matters of civil rights and equality must wait. There are conflicts to settle. Economies to salvage. What do any of these things matter if the people are not free and equal? All of them."
- —Shaun and Desmond discussing the political stance on slavery and equal rights throughout history, 2012.[src]
When Shaun and Desmond first met, Shaun would often have too little patience to talk with him, though their conversations grew longer over time. He also insulted Rebecca often, once insinuating that she was immature with the phrase, "the grown-ups are talking", neglectful of the fact that she had saved his life multiple times.
Shaun was desperate to enter the Animus, and even resorted to begging Lucy through her e-mail, which she declined by not replying. However, when confronted about it, he said that "the job behind the desk" was much better.
His cynical attitude is evident in many instances, such as when he pointed out that the Assassins were still killers whatever their motives, making them no more the "good guys" than the Templars. Shaun is also skeptical of most institutions, such as the church and government. He noted in one description of Venice that the city's past "followed the historical norm: the people got screwed."
Despite his attitude towards Rebecca, Shaun still holds her in higher regard than he cares to admit, most likely because of the numerous occasions on which she has saved his life. He also showed visible concern for her when she was injured by a bullet meant for him, that he prioritized her well-being over retrieving the Shroud of Eden. Only Lucy seemed to tolerate his snide remarks, even trusting him to a great extent, as he was the only one to whom she had revealed her feelings for Desmond.
Shaun's interest in history is shown through his extensive database entries, and also in an e-mail from William, who claimed that Shaun would enjoy the area in which the Assassin leadership was based, as it had "lots of history".
At first Shaun demonstrated little patience for Desmond, feeling that he didn't truly empathize with the Assassins' plight. However, by the time, they had discovered the Grand Temple, Shaun had come to respect Desmond and appreciate his contributions to the cause. After Desmond's death, Shaun commented on how he wished he had been nicer to Desmond in the end.
Shaun often teases Rebecca about everything, from her driving to her calculations on Desmond's jump commenting "I'm pretty sure she was high when she made the calculations". By 2020 Shaun and Rebecca are married and might have a child on the way. 
Shaun and Rebecca both seem to understand Layla's recent behavior, as their association with Desmond allowed them both to sympathize with her. Shaun provided Layla with electrolytes from time to time, and he even left an audio recording on her laptop of a conversation he had with Desmond while he was reliving Conner's memories in the Grand Temple.
Equipment and skills
Shaun is quite confident in his own abilities, once calling himself a "master at decryption". He also claims to have a gift for "seeing things and making connections", an ability he claimed was even more useful than Desmond's Eagle Vision. Despite his attitude, these claims are shown to have merit, such as when he was able to determine the password to Juno's temple by analyzing the symbol and numbers in the Monteriggioni sanctuary.
As a historian, Shaun possess valuable historical knowledge which at times has proved useful to the Brotherhood. After being trained personally by William Miles, Shaun has shown himself to be an able field agent versed in combat and capable of performing the Leap of faith. Though initially he did not wield weapons, by late 2015 Shaun had equipped himself with a Shock Blade attached to his right wrist, capable of electrocuting those it came in contact with.
Shaun dated a woman named Kate for a time, claiming to Desmond that he "charmed the pants right off her". However, Rebecca stated that the two of them "didn't even get to second-base", revealing that Kate had told her while they had lunch together, much to Shaun's embarrassment.
Behind the scenes
Shaun was named after Sean Hastings, a cult hero in the computer industry. Danny Wallace, the voice and model of Shaun, was contacted by Ubisoft when he attended the BAFTA video game awards with a friend. After the event, he was e-mailed and asked if he would like to be a character in an unknown video game, which he accepted. This game turned out to be Assassin's Creed II. In Wallace's autobiographical book Awkward Situations for Men, he reveals that the audition script notes described Shaun as "awkward, nerdy, lonely, intense, and contrary". Shaun also shares his birthday with Wallace.
In Assassin's Creed II, Shaun has what looks like a Wikipedia page of past Popes on his board.
In Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood, Shaun had several images of note near his desk, including a portrait of Cesare Borgia; pictures of famous landmarks in Rome, such as the Pantheon; and some of Leonardo da Vinci's designs, such as the crossbow. The password for Shaun's e-mail account was GuyFawkes23. It was hinted that Shaun was an altar boy at some stage in his childhood, due to his mention of his priest once saying "You know too much for your own good."
In Assassin's Creed III, Shaun wrote a database entry on himself, though he refused to provide his date of birth, merely commenting "nice try". His entry is largely self-praising and satirical, and he refers to himself as "the most intelligent person in the order". In Assassin's Creed: Syndicate, Shaun once again refused to reveal his date of birth in his own database entry, but Rebecca added it in hers after Shaun jokingly described her as annoying.
In Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag, shortly after eliminating John, Abstergo Entertainment posted images of Shaun and Rebecca on electric displays, naming them as hacker suspects. However, Shaun can still be seen at the coffee counter in the lobby.
Shaun was mentioned in Ezio Auditore da Firenze's backstory in Soulcalibur V as the one who noticed the irregularities in the Animus readings that resulted from Ezio's jump to the latter half of the 16th century, the time period of Soulcalibur V. When looking at the readings of the Animus, Shaun commented that it appeared like a readout from the Richter scale, which is used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake.
- Assassin's Creed II (first appearance)
- Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood
- Assassin's Creed: Revelations
- Assassin's Creed III
- Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag
- Assassin's Creed: Rogue (mentioned only)
- Assassin's Creed: Unity
- Assassin's Creed: Syndicate
- Assassin's Creed: Last Descendants – Tomb of the Khan (mentioned only)
- Assassin's Creed: The Official Collection
- Assassin's Creed: Gold (artificial intelligence)
- Assassin’s Creed: Valhalla
- Assassin's Creed II - Modern day
- Abstergo.com - Subject header: "RE: Guy Fawkes"
- Abstergo.com - Subject header: "Shaun Hastings"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - The Desmond Files: "Roadblock"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - The Desmond Files: "The Sanctuary"
- Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood - Modern day
- Assassin's Creed: Revelations - Modern day
- Assassin's Creed III - Modern day
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Reconnecting"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Closing In"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Transfer of Power"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "To Work"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Drop Off Point"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Shaun <3 Texas!"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Body of Evidence"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "The Old Farm"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Bienvenue À Montréal"
- Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag - Modern day
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "À la Prochaine"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Here We Are"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Venting Anger"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Tree-Hugger"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Double Major"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Dishonorable Discharge"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "First Mate"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "The Make-Believe Mentor"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Abstergo's Lost Genius"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Komusubi"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "Your Humbled Spy"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "The Outernet"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates - Surveillance: "A Message from Shaun"
- Assassin's Creed: Rogue - The Phoenix Project: "Paris"
- Assassin's Creed: Syndicate - Database: Reconstructed Data 007
- Assassin's Creed: Unity - Modern day
- Assassin's Creed: Unity - Database: Welcome to the Database
- Assassin's Creed: Rogue - Modern day
- Assassin's Creed: Syndicate – Modern day
- Assassin's Creed: Last Descendants - Tomb of the Khan
- Assassin's Creed: Gold – Chapter 3
- Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood – Subject header: "Animus"
- Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood – Subject header: "Status"
- Arnott, Jack (30-10-2009). Interview: Danny Wallace - Assassin's Creed II. The Guardian. Retrieved on September 5, 2014.