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Scotland is a constituent country of the United Kingdom located north of England and Wales on the island of Great Britain. Scotland was the birthplace of several notable people, including the pirate William Kidd, the Assassin Rhona Dinsmore, inventor Alexander Graham Bell, and the Templars Edward Braddock and John Pitcairn.[1][2][3]


Early history

The area of what is now southern Scotland was inhabited by the Picts, a group of Celtic peoples that immigrated from continental Europe.[4] Dubbed as "Pictland" during the medieval period, the Picts occupied the areas that was originally part of the Roman province of Britannia together with the rest of what is now England and Wales. The Romans never fully conquered the areas of Scotland and a line of wall was built during the reign of Emperor Hadrian to defend against the Picts.[5]

Following the departure of Roman legions, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria in northern England occupied the southeastern region of Scotland, fighting for control over the region against the Picts and the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. However, by the 9th century, much of Scotland was united under the Kingdom of Alba, consisting largely of a Pictish and Gaelic culture. Further immigrations of Normans in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries eventually led to the development of a distinct and modern Scottish culture.[4]

Wars with England

Scotland's close proximity to the Kingdom of England often result in conflicts between both kingdoms. Following Alexander III's sudden death in 1286,[4] King Edward I of England invaded Scotland, taking advantage of the chaos in Scotland's succession line for the throne to subjugate the kingdom.[6]