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"Ramiro d'Orco, Cesare's sadist. He sent nearly a sixth of his subjects to the gallows."
Leonardo da Vinci about Ramiro.[src]

Ramiro d'Orco (1452 – 1500) was an Spanish condottiero and one of Cesare Borgia's generals, alongside Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli.


While in Cesare's service, the three generals conquered Romagna for their Borgia master. However, in order to keep the confidence of the citizens, Cesare shifted the blame of the tyrannical act onto his generals, and butchered Ramiro as a "gift" to them.[1]

His death alarmed both Oliverotto and Vitellozzo, who eventually rebelled against Cesare and took some of his land for themselves.[1]



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