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Ramesses II (c. 1303 BCE – 1213 BCE), also known as Ramesses the Great and Ozymandias, whose throne name was Ousirmaatre Setepenre, was a pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is generally considered one of the greatest and best-known pharaohs, reigning unchallenged for 66 years.[1]

Biography

Ramesses' rule was aided by the High Priests of Amun, who, several generations prior, had been made guardians of the Aten by Tutankhamun. During his reign, Ramesses conducted several campaigns into the Levant in an attempt to expand his empire. To this end, Ramesses engaged the Hittite Empire in Kadesh and laid siege to Dapur in Syria.[2]

During his lifetime, Ramesses long reign was celebrated by an unprecedented number of Sed festivals, numbering 13 or 14 by the time of his death.[2]

Legacy

In 38 BCE Ramesses' spirit, alongside those of his predecessors, Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Tutankhamun, were seemingly returned to the world of the living by the God's Wife of Amun, Isidora, who had possession of the Aten. In addition, one of Ramesses living descendants, Sutekh, was kidnapped by Isidora in her ritual to restore 'balance' to Ma'at.[2]

In 2012, he was included in a mnemonic set in Abstergo Industries' Project Legacy.[3]

Trivia

  • Ramesses II throne name, Ousirmaatre Setepenre translates as ""The justice of Ra is powerful – chosen of Ra." In the 1st century BCE, a light bow was named after the pharaoh's throne name.[1]
  • Ramesses II is included in the "Obelisks" mnemonic set from the first chapter of the "Rome" pack as he was the original builder of four of the Obelisks in Rome, most notably the Flaminio Obelisk. It was moved from Heliopolis to the Circus Maximus in Rome on order of Emperor Augustus in 10 BCE. It was found and restored in 1587 by Pope Sixtus V, and re-erected in Piazza del Popolo.

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