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The Ptolemaic Kingdom (305 – 30 BCE) was a Greek kingdom which ruled Egypt. Historiographically named after the Ptolemaic dynasty which governed it, it was the offspring of the fragmentation of Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire and was also the last pharaonic regime of Egypt. Its fall to the Roman Republic in 30 BCE with the death of the last pharaoh, Cleopatra VII, ended more than three thousands years of traditional Egyptian civilization although indigenous rule had already ceased upon the second Persian conquest in 343 BCE.

Socially, the kingdom was rife with perpetual ethnic conflict between the native Egyptians and the Greek elites. Although the country initially saw great cultural and intellectual prosperity in its early years, establishing the Great Library and erecting the Lighthouse of Alexandria, it suffered a precipitous decline in stability and fortunes from the late 3rd century BCE onward. By the 1st century BCE, it held an unsavoury reputation as a failed state that gradually subsumed under the rising power of the Romans. This predicament was not helped by the conspiracies of the Order of the Ancients, a predecessor of the Templar Order founded by the pharaoh Smenkhkare of the Eighteenth Dynasty. In 30 BCE, it was consumed by the Roman Republic entirely when Octavian defeated his rival Marcus Antonius and his lover, Pharaoh Cleopatra.[1]

One of the greatest legacies of the Ptolemaic period is the birth of the Assassin Brotherhood, which sprang from the efforts of the last Medjay, Bayek of Siwa and Aya of Alexandria, to combat the Order of the Ancients and save their country.[1]