In 524 BCE, Cambyses II of Persia sent an army of 50,000 men to destroy the Oracle, but they were all buried in a sandstorm and were thought to be lost. In 332 BCE, King Alexander the Great of Makedonia conquered Egypt and was hailed as the son of Amun and pharaoh of Egypt by the Oracle at Siwa.
By 49 BCE, Medunamun, a member of the Order of the Ancients, had been appointed as the Oracle by Ptolemy XIII. His true purpose was to consolidate Ptolemy's rule over the remote village, while also seeking to unlock the Isu vault beneath the Temple of Amun. Determined to gain the powers of the ancient race in the vault, Medunamun had his soldiers brutalize the villagers with extortion and detention, from which not even the priests of Amun were spared, while entire neighborhoods were razed in response to any defiance. A year later, in 48 BCE, Siwa's Medjay Bayek assassinated Medunamun for his oppression and complicity in the murder of his son, Khemu.