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The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain which emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 10th century. It was the most powerful realm on that island for all of its history.


From the 12th to 13th centuries, English territory extended into continental Europe under the House of Plantagenet, whence came a centuries-long rivalry with the Kingdom of France. In the meantime, England contributed to the Crusades with its own army; King Richard the Lionheart even served as the highest commander of the combined Crusader forces during the Third Crusade.[1] In the 14th century, the contest between England and France climaxed into the Hundred Years' War over the French throne which ultimately ended in a French victory in 1453,[2] resulting in England losing all of its continental possessions save Calais. [citation needed]

This defeat was followed by a civil war at home between two cadet branches of the Plantagenets. Known as the War of the Roses, it led to the Plantagenet dynasty being supplanted by the Tudors. Although England eased into a relative era of stability under Henry VII of the Tudors, Templar conspiracies to depose him and infiltrate the court brewed, and the Assassins were forced to intervene to save him.[3] Nonetheless, this only forestalled the Templar battle for the throne, and they succeeded in the form of Queen Mary I, who was remembered for her violent, though brief, reign.

Her death in 1558 allowed her sister Elizabeth to become queen with Assassin support.[4] While Queen Elizabeth was a vigorous ruler, her power was assisted by an Apple of Eden.[5] Her chartering of the East India Company also laid the foundations for the English—later British—colonial empire.[6]

In the mid-17th century, England was embroiled in another series of civil wars. King Charles II was ousted from the throne and then restored.[7] In 1707, the Act of Union was passed whereby England was united with Scotland under one monarch and henceforth both kingdoms were merged into the Kingdom of Great Britain. [citation needed]