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"Any worthwhile mercenary will know the value of a reliable, trained horse. Riding an animal that startles on the battlefield or loses speed quickly is a risk we will not take."
―Mario Auditore, while inspecting the horses in his army, 1454.[src]

Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad on a horse outside of Masyaf

Horses are a species of hoofed quadruped mammals, which have been used as a means of transport throughout most of recorded human history.

Their presence and use was widespread throughout the Middle Ages, the Renaissance era, and the American Revolution for several purposes, resulting in a variety of breeds to match their use.


"The stable keeper gives me a short tour. He presents the different breeds - some bred stocky for labor, some wiry for travel, and of course, the unflinching steeds we will ride into combat."
―Mario Auditore surveying the horses of Monteriggioni.[src]

Three breeds of horse in particular were common to Italy in the early 16th century and differed in both appearance and characteristics.[1]

Ezio assassinating a guard mounted on a Rouncey

The common horse, or Rouncey,[2] which was heavily laden with saddle bags, could usually be found in the Antico and Campagna Districts, with the guards riding them (possibly messengers) always pushing them into a quick gallop.[1]

The Jennet,[2] was mostly found in the Centro and Vaticano Districts, and they were usually ridden by civilians. Coincidentally, this horse was the fastest of the three breeds, despite being the weakest for combat.[1]

The rarest type, the armored warhorse or Destrier,[2] could be found in any of Rome's districts still occupied by the Borgia, or at stables after all of them had been renovated. Despite being the slowest type of horse, this armored breed was able to withstand more damage from enemy attacks without falling.[1]

Other slightly uncommon breeds used at the time were the Percheron, which Lucrezia Borgia used for her carriages, and two sub-varieties of warhorse.[3]


Bayek on his steed Meri Amun

The horses has evolved to be a grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America. By about 15,000 years ago, horse bones from this time period are found in Europe, Asia, and North America. Yet between 10,000 and 7,600 years ago, the horse became extinct in North America. The reasons for this extinction are not fully known. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BCE, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BCE.

During the Ptolemaic Kingdom, the Greeks brought horse and chariot racing to the country which were commonly held in hippodromes, such as the one near Lageion in the Kanopos Nome.[4]

The horse and carriage were equally common modes of transportation, and indispensable for the Assassin Order from the Third Crusade until the Renaissance.[5][6]

Altaïr fighting on horseback against a Templar knight

During the Third Crusade, stables were located directly outside the Assassin-controlled village of Masyaf, and horses residing there were often used by the Assassins to traverse the expanse of the Kingdom, allowing them to reach other cities for missions or assassinations.[5]

A variety of horses could be found throughout the Kingdom as well, either in corrals or stables, or standing alone on the path with their rider nearby. During the height of the Crusades, horse-drawn carriages and warhorses were also common sights on the battlefield.[5]

As such, guards stationed along the paths of the Kingdom were always wary of horsemen, particularly if they were riding hard, or acted as if they were being pursued. With this in mind, most Assassins made it a point to ride slowly when in the presence of alert guards.[5]

The stables of Monteriggioni

By the Renaissance, though ridden horses still held their importance, horse-drawn carriages had grown significantly in popularity. Travel stations could also be found just outside of major cities, and offered citizens safe and easy carriage rides for a fee.[6]

In the large city of Rome, horses were often used to travel between districts, and were ridden by citizens, guards, and Assassins alike, with the latter able to hijack horses from the former two.[1]

Horses also remained essential for warfare. Mario Auditore, as ruler and protector of Monteriggioni, always held horses in high regard, noting that "some of them will die alongside us; others will actually be key to keeping us alive."[3] As such, each of the Monteriggioni mercenaries was made to get to know his horse before riding out into battle.[3]

Monteriggioni, like Masyaf before it, had stables conveniently located just outside the main gate. On one occasion, Mario's nephew Ezio had to chase down his uncle's favorite horse after it escaped from these stables and returned it to its keeper.[1]

European colonizers, unknowingly, reintroduced the horse in North America. During the 18th century, horses were used to drive wagons or carriages for transporting shipments and people. In revolutionary America, peddlers also equipped horse-driven wagons to sell goods in the Frontier.[7] By the mid-18th century, horse-driven carriages were used as a mobile transport system for people, especially for nobles.[8]


Peloponnesian War (5th century BCE)

Image Name Description Availability
Abraxas Kill Exekias the Legend
Acheilos Purchase Shark Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Aegean Atoll Obtain Aegean Pirate Pack, purchase through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Black Unicorn Purchased through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Brown Horse Available from Blacksmiths
Cerberus's Offspring Purchase Underworld Mythical Pack through the Helix Store or the Oikos of the Olympians
Daedalus Purchase Ikaros Pack
Egyptian Horse Available from Blacksmiths
Entry Not Found (Equine Enforcer) Purchase Abstergo Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Fangs Available from Blacksmiths
Ghost Purchase Celestial Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Great Rhetra Purchase Lawgiver Pack
Hourglass Purchase Kronos Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Melaina Purchase through the Helix Store
Mycenaean Steed Ubisoft Club reward
Nemea Purchase Nemean Lion Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Orphnaeus Complete Dark Horse
Pale Horse Available from Blacksmiths
Pegasos Purchase Pegasos Mythical Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians

Choose one during So It Begins. The other two variants can be obtained during New game +.

Princess Purchase Athena Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Pyrois Purchase Helios Pack
Racing Horse Available from Blacksmiths
Riddle Purchase Sphinx Pack through the Helix Store or the Oikos of the Olympians
Sacred Bull Purchase Dionysos Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Sacred Deer Purchase Oracle Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Spartan Renegade Purchase Spartan Renegade Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Tartaros Charger Purchase Herakles Pack
Traveler's Horse Available from Blacksmiths
Trojan Horse Purchase Odysseus Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians
Unicorn Available from Blacksmiths
Wild Boar Purchase Wild Boar Pack through the Helix Store or in the Oikos of the Olympians

Ptolemaic Egypt (1st Century BCE)

Image Name Description Availability
ACO Absyssal Steed.png
Abyssal Steed A mysterious horse wreathed in flames, spewing smoke and ashes, its eyes ablaze with reddish light. Purchase the Nightmare Pack DLC.
ACO Aa Nekhtou.png
Aa Nekhtou Named for her great strength, this horse is a veteran of many battles. Her unblemished coat is a testament to her martial skill. Available from stables for 5000 drachmae.
ACO Annapolis.png
Annapolis "Ah yes, the Greek mare. Good condition. Well bred. You have the air of a fine horseman. You would like her, yes?" Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
ACO Black Arrow.png
Black Arrow Steady, fast, and responsive to the lightest touch, this horse is an arrow in animal form. Complete the quest Wild Ride.
ACO Blazing Glory.png
Blazing Glory A fiery steed, her temper is well known throughout Egypt. No rider can remain astride her for long, but you seem capable. Care to try her paces? Available from stables for 1500 drachmae.
ACO The False Camel.png
The False Camel A hardy and powerful mount, known for long journeys through the desert. Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
ACO Egyptian Mare.png
Egyptian Mare An unremarkable horse. Loyal, though. Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
ACO Eternal Glory.png
Eternal Glory Many legendary warriors have ridden this mare in battle. She is unmatched by other horses in experience and in age. Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
Eternal Maw.jpg
Eternal Maw Carrier of souls. Your hooves trample the wheat, pound the sands, thunder through the halls of the Dead. Jackal-born, none can tame you but He. Mount used in the afterlife realms in The Curse of the Pharaohs DLC. Available for purchase for use in Egypt from the stable in Set-Ma'at after visiting any of the afterlifes.
ACO Fangs.png
Fangs Outfitted with snakeskin saddle and tack, this tusk-toting horse stirs fear into the hearts of your enemies. Purchase the Desert Cobra Pack DLC.
ACO Hammer of Ptah.png
Hammer of Ptah Able to withstand righteous fury. Complete The Killer Shadow.
ACO Kaa.png
Kaa Originating from the ancient kingdom of Nubia, this stallion has a calm temperament, making him a solid ally in the face of danger. Available from stables for 1500 drachmae.
ACO Kku.png
Kku Found covered in soot among the ruins of a burnt village. Washing him caused no change in the color of his coat. Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
ACO Lucius.png
Lucius The seventh stallion foaled by a mare of magnificent pedigree. Rumor has it that Julius Caesar declined this gift horse after looking it in the mouth. Purchase the Roman Centurion Pack DLC.
ACO Menes.png
Menes He who endures. Snatches you from the fire when things get dangerous. Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
ACO Meri Amun.png
Meri Amun His name translates to "Beloved of Amun." Some believe this stallion was gifted with exceptional endurance and stamina by the god himself. Available from stables for 5000 drachmae.
ACO Midnight Sun.png
Midnight Sun The ineffable beauty of an animal such as this offers the feeling of a waking dream. Purchase the First Civilisation Pack DLC.
ACO Morning Mist.png
Morning Mist This stallion comes from the mountains. They say that on the morning he was born, a white mist descended from nowhere to enshroud his stable. I don't believe a word of it. Complete the quest My Brother for a Horse.
ACO Mut Herti.png
Mut Herti Many claim this mare is blessed by the goddess Mut. Her riders have never fallen in battle. Obtained through the Tribal Pack DLC.
ACO Partner.png
Partner Popular and always entertaining, Partner can teach other horses a thing or two. Sometimes gets moddy #PJSalt Twitch Prime Pack DLC.
ACO Pharaoh's Horse.png
Pharaoh's Horse Horse of kings and king among horses, this beast is considered one of the finest in all of Egypt. Win all four tournaments at the hippodrome.
ACO Roman Warhorse.png
Roman Warhorse Tall Andalusian horse with great stamina. Complete all four elite tournaments at the Hippodrome.
ACO Rusty.png
Rusty Found abandoned in a rickety cage on the bank of the Nile. He might have been imprisoned there for too long, as his legs are prone to cramping. Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
ACO Soft Breeze.png
Soft Breeze Mostly used for desert travel, she's a solid mount, albeit lacking in combat experience. Available from stables for 300 drachmae
ACO Stranger.png
Stranger He wandered into town a few weeks back. No one knows where he came from. Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
ACO Thunder.png
Thunder When Thunder gallops, people scatter. Her hoofbeats evoke the din of an entire herd. Available from stables for 300 drachmae.
ACO True Friend.png
True Friend After his owner sickened and fell limp from the saddle, this stallion stood by for two days until a passing farmer stopped to help. Available from stables for 1500 drachmae.
ACO Unicorn.png
Unicorn Unicorns are said to originate from faraway lands, though we've never been able to determine which. What we do know is that they are fabulous. Purchased through the Helix Store or the Nomad's Bazaar.

Viking expansion (9th century)

Image Name Description Availability
Abelard Stable merchant
Alsvinder Fleet of hoof and stong of wing, this divine steed only carries selected heroes to battle. Reda's Shop or Valkyrie Pack
Arvakr It is hard to say if the "animal" is actually alive or some form of animated statue sent by the gods... Reda's Shop or Knight ISU Pack
Caballarii Bred for battle, this mighty steed will not balk when faced with fire and steel. Reda's Shop or Carolingian Dynasty Gear Pack
Celestial Unicorn This magnificent creature is the symbol of purity and grace. No doubt that it was a gift from Freya, for those living in midgard. Reda's Shop or High Elf Pack
Dart Stable merchant (Wrath of the Druids only)
Dubh Sainglend Stable merchant (Wrath of the Druids only)
Early Medieval Horse Complete "Into the West" in Discovery Tour: Viking Age
Fiendish Stable merchant
Fortitude Stable merchant
Gluttony Stable merchant
Gringolet Stable merchant
Gypsy Stable merchant (Wrath of the Druids only)
Helhest A gruesome-looking mount, rumored to bring pestilence and death in its wake. Reda's Shop or Draugr Pack
Hrimfaxi A symbol of night itself, this steed will never falter in darkness or lead its owner astray. Reda's Shop or Huldufolk Pack
Lebryt Stable merchant
Llamrei Stable merchant
Mechadilfari Reda's Shop or Modern Day Pack
Parsifal Stable merchant
Passelande Stable merchant
Pharaoh's Horse Ubisoft Connect
Pomers Given in Fornburg
Pride Stable merchant
Prudence Stable merchant
Spot Aptly named for its spotted coat. Some say it became this way after being bitten by several snakes at some point in the past. Reda's Shop or Jormungandr Pack
Svadilfari Reda's Shop or Einherjar Pack
Tencendur Stable merchant
Tribal Stallion Ubisoft Connect
Unicorn Ubisoft Connect
Warhorse Reda's Shop or Hearthweru Pack
Wrath Stable merchant

Combat and movement

Altaïr striking an enemy from horseback

During the Third Crusade, horses were somewhat rare off of the battlefield, and Assassins were able to use the strength and speed granted by their mounts in order to gain an advantage over their enemies. Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad, for instance, could wield his sword to combat opponents while on horseback, or flee from them if necessary.[5]

However, while an Assassin's horse could outrun any pursuer and leap over most obstacles, a single sword strike could trip it and send its rider into the ground.[5]

Though horses could easily plow through crowds, pulling the horse into a rear would normally startle nearby civilians, clearing a path in the process.[5]

Ezio Auditore da Firenze was also equally skilled at riding and combat, though he could use a horse directly before or after free-running. He was able to stand on the saddle at any time, and jump from horseback onto a wall or beam. Inversely, he could also jump directly onto horseback from a nearby building, or from a parachute.[1]

Unlike Altaïr, Ezio (as well as any opponent he faced) was able to use a variety of his weapons while on horseback, both long and short-ranged; however, this excluded any heavy or two-handed weapon, the Hidden Blade and daggers.[1]

Ezio jumping from his horse to air assassinate a Borgia soldier

Though Ezio could not remain on horseback while wielding his Hidden Blade, he could perform assassinations from horseback. To do this, he would leap from the saddle to assassinate either an enemy on the ground or a mounted horseman, wherein he would subsequently steal their mount in the case of the latter. Conversely, he could also drag the rider of a horse to the ground, before using his Hidden Blade to assassinate them where they lay.[1]

Upon dismounting a horse, depending on whether or not the steed had been stolen, it would either follow its rider or flee immediately. Additionally, if their rider was in battle next to them, horses would often kick out at attacking guards, causing them to fall.[1][5]


Assassin's Creed
  • In Assassin's Creed, horses taken from within the Kingdom have a tendency to abruptly change color when passing from one region to another.
  • Richard I of England, Robert de Sablé and Altaïr are the only characters in the game to be seen riding horses.
  • King Richard's horse resembles the destrier, albeit with less or no armor plates in it. While Robert's was a destrier, being equipped with some armor plates and chainmail.
  • Though Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood is the first to allow horses inside cities, early gameplay videos show that riding horses inside of a city was originally intended to be possible in Assassin's Creed.[9]
    • In Assassin's Creed, the only horses shown inside a city are during the cutscene of Richard I exiting on horseback with his caravan from the Acre Citadel.
Assassin's Creed II
  • Horses are only used by guards in Assassin's Creed II during one mission, "Romagna Holiday", wherein they attack Leonardo da Vinci's carriage.
  • In Assassin's Creed II, if Ezio's horse falls over after galloping through several groups of people, it is possible for him to lose health or even die.
Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood
  • Brotherhood is the first game where citizens are shown on horseback, though this leads to a minor anachronism: female citizens are depicted as straddling their horse rather than sitting side-saddle. This is historically inaccurate, as seeing a woman's legs spread apart would have been considered a most vulgar sight at the time.
  • The stables at the Tiber Island Headquarters always feature a white horse and a destrier.
  • For some reason, the amount of enemy guards riding destriers noticeably decrease if Ezio is riding that kind of horse.
  • Apprentices called by Ezio sometimes finds a nearby horse and ride off after having assassinated their targets.
  • Galloping is disabled throughout Rome, and is only possible in Viana, Monteriggioni, Colli Albani, and the Colosseo's Lair of Romulus.
    • The PC version of the game has the gallop option reintroduced within the city, though to enable it, the game has to be installed on a solid-state drive.
  • Jumping from a horse onto a beam 20 times is a requirement for the completion of the Roman Thieves Guild challenges.
  • The achievement "Grand Theft Dressage" can be unlocked by stealing five horses in a row, without touching the ground.
  • Destriers cannot be found in any color but white, despite their image in the in-game manual showing a black-haired coat.
  • A minor glitch may occur if Ezio is using his sword while on horseback. If he is knocked off while attacking, once he gets back to his feet, he still holds his sword with his arm raised above his head. It remains this way, even when supposedly attacking or countering, until the weapon is sheathed.
Assassin's Creed: Revelations
Assassin's Creed III
Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag and Assassin's Creed: Rogue
Assassin's Creed: Unity
  • In Assassin's Creed: Unity, horses can be seen hitched to carriages in Versailles in the beginning of the game and later in front of the Café Théâtre. Just like Revelations, they cannot be ridden.
Assassin's Creed: Syndicate
  • Assassin's Creed: Syndicate is the first game in which rideable horses can be killed, dying to three to six shots to the body, or one shot to the head.
  • The achievement "WHAT IS WRONG WITH YOU" can be earned by shooting five horses, causing the carriages they are pulling to flip over, potentially catapulting their drivers.
  • When riding a police or fire carriage, the bell can be ringed by pressing down the R thumbstick, this will cause other carriages to make way for you.

Assassin's Creed: Origins

  • The Pharaoh's Horse and Roman Warhorse, earned by completing tournaments at the Hippodrome, are not one-time-only rewards but can be earned repeatedly. Continuously racing at the Hippodrome and selling off horses for 1000 drachmae each offers a relatively swift method of earning money.