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Historical Locations is a map overlay feature of Layla Hassan's Animus HR 8.5. It provided extra context to some of the landmarks visited by the Spartan misthios Kassandra in Greece during the Peloponnesian War while Layla was reliving Kassandra's memories.

Locations

Achaia

Nestled in the mountains, Boura was either named for Ion's daughter or the centaur Dexamenos, who owned cattle there. A site nearby was used to learn about the future by throwing knucklebones.

As the most prominent city in the region, Patrai was used as a naval base during the Peloponnesian War. It was also known for having twice as many women as men in its population.

Pellene has the distinction of being the first city in Achaia to join Sparta in the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE.

Argolis

The abaton was the dormitory where, after a series of rites, the sick would receive visions from Asklepios in a dream. The visions were then interpreted by the sanctuary’s priest-physicians.

Agamemnon may have been king of Mycenae and commander of United Greek armies in the Trojan War, but he had a less-than-glorious homecoming. While at a banquet, he was killed by his own wife's lover.

The oldest sanctuaries in the city were built on two akropolises (sic) and housed the temples of Athena Polias, Zeus Larisaios, Hera Akraia, and Apollo Pythaios, which was connected to the Bloody Oracle.

Apollo Maleatas and Asklepios shared this sacred place on Mount Kynortion. Starting in the eighth century BCE, people worshipped Apollo as both a physician and as Asklepios's father.

Founded at the foot of two akropolises (sic), Argos has been occupied since prehistoric times. Praised for its heroes, it gained great fame in the fifth century BCE for its talented sculptors.

Asine was destroyed in the seventh century BCE by the Argives for helping Sparta in their war against Argos. After its demise, the Spartans gave Asine citizens compensatory land in Messenia.


This bandit from Epidauros attacked unsuspecting travelers with his bronze club. Luckily for them, Theseus killed him while on his return voyage to Attika.

It was said that Medusa's head, which was brought back by Perseus, was found in a mound of earth near the Argos agora.

Wrongly accused by his stepmother, Phaidra, Theseus's son died while driving his chariot by the sea. Desiring his son's death, Theseus called on Poseidon, who sent a sea monster.

It is said that when Herakles put down his wild olive-wood club in Argolis, it took root and began to sprout leaves.


Epidauros was strategically placed between Athens and Argos as an entry point for pilgrims. The would travel from all over Greece to the nearby healing sanctuary of Asklepios.

On a rocky hill in the Argive plains, "mighty-walled" Tiryns was the second most important site in the Mycenaean world. Linked with Herakles, it had a palace, Cyclopean walls, and tunnels.

Danaos' fifty daughters each received a dagger for their marriages to his brother Aigyptos' fifty sons. Though Danaos commanded his daughters kill their husbands, one chose to save her spouse.

Founded in the ninth century BCE on a hillside, the sanctuary of Hera houses many buildings. The oldest temple dedicated to this goddess, protector of the city, was burned in 423 BCE by Chrysis.

Despite the lake's calm look, it was known for draining its swimmers out the bottom. Just southwest from here, Herakles killed the Hydra, cauterizing its necks to prevent its heads from growing back.


The tomb of the Korinthian tyrant Periander's wife was located near Epidauros. Her husband killed her after a fit of jealousy.

Home of King Agamemnon, Mycenae was one of the oldest cities in Greece. Dating from the third millennium BCE, it's said its walls were the work of Cyclopes. It was abandoned in the fifth century BCE.

Nauplia, meaning "naval station," is the port of Argolis. The Spartans arrived by boat for the Battle of Sepeia after sacrifices yielded unfavorable omens advising them not to cross the Erasinos River.

The hide of this invincible creature could not be burned or pierced by any weapon. Herakles used his cunning to trap it in its den, then strangled it with his own hands. He wore the hide himself.

Herakles's club was made of wood from a wild olive tree near the Saronida sea.


Known for his gigantic size, Hippomedon's claim to fame was participating in the expedition of the seven against Thebes. The ruins of the palace he lived in are still visible.

Argos' King Pheidon was known for his arrogance. He allegedly took the organization of the Olympic Games from Elis, and he was wrongfully credited in helping invent weights and measures.

Polykleitos preferred to work with bronze and the lost-wax casting technique as a sculptor. His known work, titled Kanon, described the perfect system of proportions for each part of the body.

This place was famous in Greece for attracting sick pilgrims. After the sick performed various rituals - fast, bath, and sacrifice - Asklepios would come to them in a dream and bring healing.


In the face of the invading Persians, this Athenian decree saw the evacuation of old men, furniture, goods, women, and children. Then, they boarded two hundred triremes with all able Athenians to fight.

Located southwest of the city on one of the akropolises, this oracle site was dedicated to Apollo. Once a month, a prophetess would convey oracles in the dead of night, after drinking the blood of a lamb.

Tydeus was one of the seven leaders who organized an expedition against Thebes, helping Polynikes regain his city. In the heat of battle, Tydeus ate the brain of one of his enemies, Melanippos.

Arkadia

Here, frightening beings of invincible strength, the Giants, avenged the Titans who were ousted by the Olympians. In result, the Giants were struck by lightning and pierced with flying arrows.

Located at the border of Messenia and Arkadia, this statue is said to have been created by the famous Daidalos. This eclectic artist was known as a skilled inventor, architect, and sculptor.

This Arkadian native was half man, half goat, and protected shepherds and flocks. Since this god was associated with the wild countryside and mountainous settings, several caves were dedicated to him.

It was in this cave in the Aroanian mountains that the daughters of Proitos, king of the Tiryns, took refuge after Dionysos drove them mad.


The woman-shaped columns were inspired by either the punished women of Karyes who joined the Persians in war, or the young women of Karyes, who danced for Artemis Karyatis.

Phigaleia was the home of the famed pankratiast Arrachion, who won posthumously when his opponent suffocated him illegally during a bout. His corpse was named the winner at the 564 BCE Olympic Games.

Atalanta would marry only if her suitor could beat her in a footrace. One suitor, Hippomenes, cunningly put golden apples in her path. Curious, she stopped to gather them and was forced to marry him.

Furious at Poseidon's advances, Demeter turned into a mare to elude the sea god. It was in vain, however, because Poseidon also turned into a horse. Their union produced the legendary horse Areion.


Legendary man-eating birds lived near Stymphalos. As they increased in number, they became a menace, devastating crops and hurling their steel feathers. Herakles was the one to defeat them.

Tegea was one of the oldest and most powerful cities in Arkadia. Its first king was famous for killing one of Herakles' sons.

The source of the legendary underworld river was in Arkadia. Not only did the gods use water from the Styx to administer oaths, but it was famously harmful to humans, livestock, and objects.

Attika

The Agora was the civic heart of Athens. It served as the center of all political, commercial, administrative, social, and legal activity.

A symbol of Athens' grandeur, the Akropolis was built at the city's peak. After the Persian Wars, Perikles hired famous artists to erect this imposing sanctuary with the Delian League's wealth.

The altar speaks to the rivalry between Eros and Anteros, sitting in front of the entrance to the Academy and near the famous gymnasium.

A torch relay beginning at the foot of the altar—located near the Academy—was held in honor of Prometheus.


This altar dedicated to the twelve gods seems to have served as a place of refuge and a topographical point of reference. Herodotos used it to give sample distances.

Named for being Ares' rock, this hill sat next to the Akropolis. In mythology, it is where Ares was judged for killing Poseidon's son. The Areopagus was the court that decided homicide cases.

Athens achieved glory in the fifth century BCE under Perikles, who made it a great military power at the head of an alliance of cities. It was the birthplace of democracy.

The mint is the place where coins are struck into creation. Round metal disks were prepared and then struck between two matrices to make a coin. Athens' coinage was the most plentiful in Greece.

The state erected a burial mound at the heart of the plain for the 192 Athenians who fell during the Battle of Marathon. The tumulus of the Plataians was located three km north.


It was here that Demeter, disguised as an old woman, is said to have met the daughters of Eleusis' first king, Keleos. She took refuge in his home, teaching rituals of her famed cult in Eleusis.

This building housed a council of 500 members, who were in charge of the city laws.

In the early years of the war, the Spartans invaded Attika's countryside, destroying crops, and burning farms to starve the Athenians and force them to fight on land.

The Persian general Mardonius burned this temple during the Greco-Persian Wars. Although it was not rebuilt, the Athenians placed a new statue of the goddess on the spot.


Known for its boulders and stalagmites resembling a herd of goats, this grotto dedicated to Pan is located near Marathon, on the south coast.

Along the road leaving the city were state-funded collective burial mounds for soldiers who died in combat, as well as a number of noteworthy private tombs. Perikles was buried here in 429 BCE.

During the Peloponnesian War, Dekelia was used as a Spartan base at Alkibiades's recommendation. The location allowed the Spartans to be at the crossroads of supply routes.

Dedicated to Demeter and Persephone, the Telesterion was where people were inducted into the Eleusinian Mysteries. This secret initation offered the promise of a better life in the beyond.

Many entrances to the underworld were known in ancient Greece. This entrance is linked to where Demeter's daughter was abducted by Hades, who stole her away to the underworld, wanting to marry her.


Known for its caryatids, this temple was dedicated to Poseidon, Athena, and two legendary kings, Erechtheus and Kekrops. It was the most significant site of worship at the Akropolis.

This place owes its origins to the hero Didymos, who—wanting to make a sacrifice to the god of wine—was stopped by a white (argos) dog (kunos) who stole the animal he intended to sacrifice.

Also known as Poulytion's home, this was one of the most beautiful in Athens. It was dedicated to Dionysos after the host was sentenced for performing a parody of the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Brothels were located near the Kerameikos quarter, which was named for its numerous pottery workshops.


It was on the road from Eleusis to Megara that Kerkyon forced travelers to wrestle, killing those he defeated. In consequence, he was violently put to death by Theseus.

This hill was home to an altar shared by Poseidon and Athena, honored as protectors of horses, which were used for transport, war, racing, and hunting.

Ajax's father went with Jason on the quest for the golden fleece and the Kalydonian boar, and then to Salamis after killing his own brother. He watched the boat taking his sons to Troy from the port.

This place tells the story of Lykos, a priest and mythical seer who instituted the cult of Apollo Lykeios. The priest of this cult had a reserved place at the theater of Dionysos.


Marathon owes its name to the fennel thriving in its swamps. It was known for the great battle between 10,000 Greeks and 500,000 Persians in 490 BCE. 6,400 Persians died versus only 192 Athenians.

After the battle of Marathon, the Athenians and their allies erected a marble trophy to mark their victory and the 6,400 Persians killed.

One of the 170 trades in Athens was marble work. Having become a major hub for marble sculpture, Athens attracted artists from across the Greek world. Their protector was Athena Ergane.

The tomb of the Amazon Antiope was located near the temple of Zeus Olympian. Theseus mortall wounded her during the Amazonian invasion of Attika.


Official documents, including the list of military contingents, were posted on this monument dedicated to the eponymous heroes of Athens.

This cenotaph was erected of Theseus's son, with whom Phaidra, his father's wife, fell in love. When he rebuffed her, Phaidra accused him of violence, bringing about his death.

To reduce transport weight, the quarry provided a leveled product that was finished on-site. Blocks were then taken by land and boat for export.


East of Athens, Mt. Pentelikos was the source of the marble used in architectural construction of Perikles' grand project on the Akropolis.

The Odeon showed musical performances and was modeled after the Persian king Xerxes' tent, which was brought back as plunder. It was the largest building in Athens and the first theater to receive a roof.

The boat that was used during the Panathenaic processions was kept near the Areopagus. Equipped with wheels for the occasion, it was pulled like a parade float.

This wooded mountain range seperating Attika and Boeotia was famed for wild boar and bear hunting.

Built to the glory of Athens' protector, the Parthenon housed the gold and ivory statue of Athena, made by Phidias. Made of Pentelic marble, the structure held the city's and Delian League's riches.


Before Piraeus, the Phaleron port was used during the Greco-Persian Wars, but it was mainly known as the place where Athenians set out for the Trojan War.

Situated on a hill, this was where Athenians gathered for assemblies. Decrees were ratified budgets voted on, and administration members appointed. It was where citizens could have a voice.

The port was a socially and economically seperate world split into three areas: military ports, commercial ports, and a residential area. It played a critical role in Athens' impact as a naval power.

This gateway marked the entrance of the Akropolis sanctuary. Constructed of Pentellic marble, it had a central building with five gates and was the end of the Sacred Way. Two wings housed paintings.

The goal of this court was to judge objects that had commited murder. The attempt of these legal actions removed the stains of blood spilled in the crime.

Looking at the Salamis strait will always evoke the Greeks' victory over the Persians. Forced to fight in this narrow strait, the Persians couldnt make full use of their naval strength, and perished.


Located on a rich plain, the sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone was the important religious festivities. The large size of the Telesterion attests to the popularity of the initiatory cult.

On the edge of Attika, this sanctuary housed a temple of Poseidon. Sitting above the Aegean Sea, it enabled sailors to pray to Poseidon for safe passage on the seas.

The most famous statue of Artemis near this altar was brought back from Tauris by Iphigenia. Some say that it was stolen by the Persians, while others say that it was in Sparta or dedicated in Attika.


The statues of Demeter, goddess of the fruitful earth, and her daughter, Kore, stood near the sacred gate. They kept watch over the road connecting Athens and the Sanctuary of Eleusis.

This statue was carved by Phidias and erected on the Akropolis to commemorate the Battle of Marathon. The tip of Athena's spear and the rest of her helmet were visible from Cape Sounion.

Located southeast of Athens, Mount Hymettos was 1,026 m high and known for its marble, its honey - the only source of sugar in ancient Greece - and its altar to Zeus Ombrios, bringer of rain.

In Athens, there were numerous taverns, whose managers were often mocked in the plays of Aristophanes. The wine served in taverns could be red, or rosé, and up to 16% proof.


This was the sanctuary of the healing god whose cult was introduced to Athens in the 5th century BCE. Its construction was funded by a wealthy Athenian named Telemachos.

This temple was located on a headland on the island's north side, facing Atika. The shrine hosted a grand feast each year in honor of Athena, the protector of Salamis' farmers and sailors.

Erected on a hill, this Doric temple overlooking the agora is dedicated to Hephaistos, god of the forge, and to Athena Ergane, goddess of arts and crafts. A garden adjoined the temple.

On the slopes of the Akropolis was the temple of Themis, goddess of justice, law, and fairness. She succeeded her mother, Gaia, as the possessor of the Oracle of Delphi, later giving it to Apollo.


The Temple of Zeus at the foot of the Akropolis was a vast temple dedicated to Olympian Zeus. Construction began under the tyrant Peisistratos but was interrupted by the emergence of democracy.

This was built inside the god's sanctuary and introduced Greek theater to the heart of the city. The great works of Euripides, Aischylos, Sophokles, and Aristophanes were performed there.

Following Theseus' intervention, King Adrastos of Argos and Sikyon buried the ashes of the seven leaders killed during the expedition against Thebes here.

In the time of Perikles, the misanthrope Timon shut himself away on a farm, in a tower that served as both a refuge and granary.


The Vouliagmeni sinkhole, located near the Attika region, was nicknamed "the Devil's Hole."

Boeotia

The Battle of Plataia - the last land battle of the Greco-Persian Wars - took place here in 479 BCE. This decisive victory brought Xerxes' Persian invasion to a permanent end.

It is said that construction of the first bridge between Euboea and the continent began across the Euripos Strait during the Peloponnesian War. Theramenes the Athenian tried to stop its construction.

The temple of the Charites was the oldest in Orchomenos. The three goddesses, often called Graces, were worshipped as deities of the Kephissos River. Eteokles was the first to honor them.

As leader and seer, Amphiaraos took part in the expedition of the seven against Thebes. According to myth, Zeus threw a thunderbolt, causing the earth to swallow him and his chariot.


The former capital of the legendary Minyan race formed a district of Boeotia. The city's protector, Zeus, and Dionysos were honored there, but it's (sic) most famous sanctuary was to the Charites, also called the Graces.

This was the training ground for athletes, who coated their bodies in olive oil and sprinkled on sand for sun protection and body temperature regulation. After training, it was removed with a strigil.

Established as a hero and seer, Amphiaraos had an oracular sanctuary near Oropos. Patients were treated through dreams. After healing, a gold or silver coin was tossed into the sanctuary's spring.

The akropolis of Thebes was called Kadmeia after its legendary founder, Kadmos. He left in search of his sister Europa when she was kidnapped by Zeus, who had taken the form of a bull.

Lebadeia was mainly known for the Oracle of Trophonios, which was consulted by people everywhere. Neraby (sic) was also a sanctuary of Zeus Basileos, the city's protective deity.


Gla was already fortified in the Mycenaean period. A Cyclopean wall surrounded the city on an island in Lake Kopais. A drainage system emptied and filled the lake to irrigate the plain.

A flagship product of ancient Greece, oil was used in food, personal care, perfumery, and lighting. Physicians also attributed therapeutic properties to it.

Kreusis was a fortified port dependent on Thespiai, but also used by Thebes. Protected from violent winds by a mole, it was the main Boeotian naval port on the Gulf of Korinth.

The Sanctuary of the Muses was on the northeastern slopes of Mount Helikon. According to myth, the muses were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne and may have inspired Hesiod's Theogony.


To appease Artemis who had immobilized his fleet, Agamemnon thought to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. At the last minute, a goddess took pity, substituted a doe, and made Iphigenia a priestess.

Akteon, who was devoured by his dogs after seeing Artemis bathing naked, haunted this rock. An oracle ordered the hero's remains be buried and a statue be erected where annual sacrifices were made.

The statue personified divine retribution and punished excess. Sculpted by Phidias from the block of marble brought by the Persians, they intended to use it as a trophy pedestal after taking Athens.

Leitos was a Theban detachment polemarch during the Trojan War. He was the only Theban leader to return home after the war, but was injured by the Trojan hero Hektor.

This illustrious city shares a legendary past with Oedipous and his desperate descendants, the legends of Herakles, and the men who sprang forth from planted snake teeth.


Orion the giant, son of Poseidon, was supposedly born in Boeotia. Artemis wanted revenge on him for seducing her follower Opis and sent a scorpion to kill him; it turned into a constellation.

Chios

Chios was a major city. Its inhabitants were regarded as the richest Greeks. Besides mastic, Chios exported wine and figs and had one of the biggest fleets.

Chios was the primary source of mastic, a fragrant resin extracted from the mastic tree and used as a varnish and a flavoring. Some wines were mastic-flavored, too.

The city's protector had a temple on the akropolis. Pactyas, a Persian general who defected to Cyrus the Great, took refuge here. Many Chians would not dare to make sacrifices there after his capture.

Delos

Dedicated to the island's mythical founder, the archegetes Anios, this sanctuary was where he was honored as a hero.

Elais was one of the three daughters of Anios, who ruled Delos during the Trojan War. Dionysos gave her the ability to make oil spring from the ground.

This was the largest of the three temples dedicated to Apollo. Its construction began when the island became the seat of the Delian League between 475 - 450 BCE.

Banquets were held inside this building on feast days. They increased the population's feeling of religiosity and strengthened the ties between the public and divine spheres.

Settlements dating back to the third millennium were erected on Mount Kynthos and then abandoned. It was also famous for being the place where Leto gave birth to Artemis and Apollo.


This island served as the necropolis for Delos because, in 426 BCE, births and deaths were forbidden on the island of Apollo.

This round body of water is one of the main features of Delos' landscape. In antiquity, those who fished in it risked punishment.

Headquarters to the Delian League, the sanctuary held the League's treasury in the Temple of Apollo until its transfer to Athens. It was a prestigious site for pilgrimages, festivals, and games.

Named the Colossus of the Naxians, this statue representing Apollo was erected in front of the largest temple dedicated to him.

Datis was a Persian general who served the Persian empire under Darius I. On his return from the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, he stopped at Mykonos and Delos.


This temple was dedicated to Hera, who forbade the world from receiving the pregnant goddess, Leto. Only Delos welcomed her, where she gave birth to Artemis and Apollo.

Dating back to the seventh century BCE, the Terrace of the Lions facing the Sacred Lake originally consisted of at least nine marble statues, like the avenues of Egyptian sphinxes.

Brizo, whose name means "to slumber," was a goddess who spoke to men though (sic) prophetic dreams. People in Delos prayed particularly to her to protect boats.

Arranged in a semicircle, these five sacred buildings were mainly used to store offerings and holy materials.

Elis

This altar was made of sacrificed ashes mixed with Alpheios River water. On the third day of the Games, 100 oxen offered by the Eleians were killed, giving them sovereignty over the shrine.

Constructed by mortals, this resembled the cave on Ida where it was said that Zeus spent his youth. It was a grotto where Zeus was honored, located near the Kronion, the hill of Kronos.

This King of Pisa refused to let his daughter marry, as an oracle predicted his son-in-law would kill him. He had suitors go against him in a chariot race, where Pelops beat him with Poseidon's horses.

Elis was created by the merging of villages, forming one of the biggest cities in the Peloponnese. It was especially well known for its sanctuary of Olympia, which gave it prestige and wealth.

Herakles met the centaur Pholos here while hunting the Erymanthian boar. When Pholos opened a jar of wine, other armed centaurs arrived, and Herakles fought them, killing all - including Pholos.


Horse races were some of the most popular and spectacular event of the Olympic Games, featuring races of chariots pulled by two horses (biga) and four horses (quadriga), as well as mounted races.

Located on the coast, Kyllene was a base for the Eleian fleet. Aphrodite and Asklepios were worshipped there with statues made of ivory. The cult of Hermes was particularly popular.

The Leonidaion was a guesthouse with a number of rooms on all sides for important visitors to the sanctuary. Its name is derived from the name of its architect, Leonidas of Naxos.

This complex was made up of a central courtyard surrounded by rooms for changing, washing, and exercising. It had punching balls for boxers, and wrestling and pankration were practiced there.

This rectangular pool was equipped with a water supply and drainage system. The Greek baths were adjacent.

The Olympic Games drew many travelers, many of whom came by sea. Shipwrecks were frequent and a valid excuse for athletes' late arrivals.


The wild olive tree from which Olympic winners' crowns were made was called the olive tree of the "beautiful crown." Branches were cut with a golden sickle.

It was dedicated to Pelops, which inspired the name "Peloponnese." His cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, and a black ram was sacrificed in his honor every year.

Phidias was the greatest Greek sculptor. He created many masterpieces, including the Olympic sanctuary's gold and ivory statue of Zeus, which was considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The Prytaneion contained an altar in honor of Hestia, and was where the Olympic flame burned. Priests and game officials resided there, and it was also used for Olympic victory ceremonies.

Constructed in the heart of Elis was this important sanctuary. Olympic games were celebrated every four years to honor Zeus and Hera, and brought eternal glory to the winners.

The sixteen women tasked with organizing the Heraia - games for women - each came from an Eleian city. They sacrificed a pig and purified themselves in the spring of Piera before the ceremonies.


Various types of races and contests took place in the stadium. Embankments contained spectators on the 192 m track. This length became a unit of measure the Greeks called the "stadion."

There was a statue of Herakles at the edge of the road from Elis to Olympia, called the Sacred Way. The statue was dedicated by a citizen of Taranto, a Spartan colony in southern Italy.

Kronos, king of the Titans and Zeus's father, was honored in Elis. On the summit of the hill called the Kronion, priests called Basilai offered sacrifices to Kronos at the spring equinox.

Perched on a cliff, the temple was built by Iktinos, the Parthenon’s architect. The offerings of weapons suggest that the god played a role in the clashes between the Arkadians and the Spartans.

Hades, god of the underworld, was rarely honored. His temple in Elis opened just once a year, and only the priest could enter. It is said that this was because people could only go to Hades once.


The Heraia were games for women organized in honor of Hera, every four years, the sixteen Elis women in charge of organizing the Heraia wove a new veil for the goddess and placed it in her temple.

The temple housed one of the seven wonders of the ancient world: Phidias' statue of Zeus. To close the Olympic games, a procession led to the temple where victorious athletes were crowned.

Koroibos of Elis was the champion of the stadium race, the most prestigious Olympic event, in the first Games in 776 BCE. His tomb is located on the border with Arkadia, marking the border of Elis.

Cities erected small buildings shaped like temples at the foot of the hill of Kronos. They held valuable offerings that were placed under Zeus' protection, such as weapons, statues, and vases.


Dyspontion was on the mountainous route between Olympia and Elis. It was a community of perioikoi destroyed in 570 BCE by the Eleians due to inhabitants joining Pisa in a revolt against Elis.

Zanes were bronze statues of Zeus that were paid for with the fines of silver imposed on athletes who were found to have cheated. Their names were etched on the pedestals, which was a source of shame.

Euboea

Renowned for its metalworking and bronze weapon manufacturing, Chalkis was likely to fall away from Athens during the Peloponnesian War, and had to sign a treaty swearing loyalty to them.

The island was famous for its copper mines. The ore is one the ingredients in the alloy bronze, which was used to make sculptures, domestic items, small coins, and weapons.

This city on the island's west coast was known as the first target during the Persians' raid against Greece. Eretria was violently attacked or six days, with many residents taken to Persia.

Karystos was located at an important meeting point of shipping routes linking the Gulf of Euboea and the Aegean archipelago. It was also known for joining the Persian army in the Persian Wars.

Open-pit mines made ore extraction - done with wedges, pickaxes, and mallets - easier. Once a slab was freed, it could be moved with cranes, pulleys, levers, and rails.

When bought by cities, slaves were used for public services. When bought by private citizens, they did domestic tasks, built buildings, worked in mines and workshops, on farms, or as bankers.


The hollow cast-bronze statue of Zeus or Poseidon—known as the Artemision Bronze—was found off this cape.

This temple dedicated to the goddess was as large as Apollo's sanctuary on the island. Competitions, musical contests, sacrifices, and war dances were held there to honor Artemis.

TBA

Ithaka

This cave served as a shelter for the Naiads, young nymphs who spun the sea into a glistening purple cloth. Odysseus prayed here in joy upon his return.

Eumaios was Odysseus' loyal swineherd. He was the first to welcome him back to (sic) Troy and assisted him in the slaughter of Penelope's suitors.

Melanthios, Odysseus' goatherd, mistook him for a beggar upon his return and hit him. Sure his master had died in Troy, he betrayed him to impress Penelope's suitors.

Odysseus, the most illustrious of all Greek heroes, was among the chiefs who set out for Troy. He returned to Ithaka and reclaimed his palace twenty years later.


Named for the ancient sea god Phorkys, this bay was the first sight Odysseus saw upon his return. It provides a natural shelter for sailors from rough waters.

Odysseus planned the murder of his wife's suitors here upon his return.

Keos

The Akropolis of Karthaia housed sacred buildings, including the temples of Apollo and of Athena. Public laws were recorded inside the temple of Apollo, the divine protector of the island.

Close to Attika on the northwest side of the island, Koressia could be reached from Athens in 24 hours. Its economic history was tied to its silver mines and the miltos used to paint triremes.

Bacchylides, a great poet, of the fifth century BCE, was born on the island. His poems celebrated the gods, Athenian democracy, and Olympic winners such as the tyrant of Syrakousai.

Located on the west coast of the island and bordering a fertile valley, Poiessa was an important farming area. Its spot was advantage for coastal defense and monitoring maritime traffic to Athens.

Aphrodite had an important role in Keos—especially for magistrates who made offerings and dedications to her. It was thought she would watch over all civic matters and protect their positions.

Kephallonia

The largest on Kephallonia, the "Blue Cave" houses a small lake. It is part of a large cave system with more interconnected underground lakes.

The titan daughter of Uranus and Gaia, Tethys married her brother Okeanos and became the mother of Greece's rivers.

Prehistoric bones were found inside this cave which reaches depths of 95 meters.

The ancient Greek word "kleptes" lives on as the root word of kleptomania, which describes an impulse to steal—usually without an economic motive.

Located near the city of Pronnoi, Kephallonia's only lake is so deep that it was long believed to have no bottom.

The Lightning Zeus is depicted as such to mirror the geophysical phenomena of Mount Ainos, known for its spectacular thunderstorms.


The Melissani Cave is dedicated to the god Pan. Located 20 m below ground, it is 160 m long and 40 m deep. it contains stalactites that are over 20,000 years old.

Sami is the oldest city on Kephallonia, an island reputed for the wood of its abies cephalonica (sic) fir trees.

Here, atop the island's tallest mountain, two of Jason's argonauts prayed to Zeus of Ainos to give them the strength to defeat winged monsters called Harpies.

Early Greek temples were built out of clay and wood. Stone structures weren't adopted until the seventh century BCE.

Chthonios Zeus is the god of the earth credited with bountiful harvests.


This Mycenaean tomb notably housed the bones of seventy-two people. Among the remains were valuable offerings discovered near Pronnoi, believed to have belonged to ancient Ithakan nobility.

Kausos is the ancient Greek word for fever, a symptom of malaria noted by Hippokrates. The disease was a driving force behind the depopulation of rural areas.

Korinthia

Melikertes met a sad fate, ultimately ending when his mother threw both of them into the sea. Sisyphos found Melikertes' body and buried it. He founded a cult and the Isthmian Games in his honor.

Jason and the Argonauts' ship, Argo, was built by Argos and Athena. The goddess carved the bow from one of Dodona's sacred oaks. The ship was dedicated to Poseidon at Korinth after the expedition.

A Medusa's head allegedly shaped by the Cyclopean hands was set up in Argolis. Various monuments in the Peloponnese were attributed to Cyclopes "builders."

This seven km paved ramp had a track so boast could cross the Isthmus of Korinth without having to go around the Peloponnese. It was used by both military and commercial boats.


This racetrack in the Korinthian agora is one of the oldest, built in the sixth century BCE. Its layout seems to confirm knowledge and the use of pi.

This fountain was named after Jason's second wife, who threw herself in after wearing a poisoned cape given to her by Jason's first wife.

The fountain of Peirene was in the middle of the city—near the road leading to the port. it was made up many reservoirs, and, according to tradition, was connected with the spring on the Akrokorinth.

Sisyphos was the mythical founder of Korinth and the Isthmian Games. For defying Zeus, he was condemned to push a boulder to the top of a hill for eternity. His tomb is said to be in Korinthia.

Korinth was a major commercial city that controlled the Isthmus of Korinth through its two ports on the Aegean Sea and the Gulf of Korinth. Its position contributed to its prosperity in trades.

Prostitution establishments, called porneions, were general found in commercial areas—near ports, or agoras. The women who made this their trade could be either slaves or free women.


This port was ideally situated at the crossroads of eastern land and sea-trade routes. Aphrodite and Poseidon—whose bronze statues bordered the sea—were venerated there.

The port of Lechaion was artificially made in time of Periander on the Gulf of Korinth. The city was connected to the port by long walls and to the port of Kechries by the Diolkos trackway.

Ameinokles, the Korinthian shipbuilder, was the first Greek to build a trireme. This light, agile model with a rostrum for ramming became the main combat vessel of the fifth century BCE.

The port of Kechries also had a sanctuary of Aphrodite. She was honored there as a goddess of navigation and the sea—not as the goddess of love as on the Akrokorinth.


This ruthless bandit was in the habit of bending trees to tie people to them. When the trees were released, they pulled the unfortunate victims apart. Theseus killed him as punishment.

Legend has it that Bellerophon, son of Korinth's King Glaukos, captured the winged horse, Pegasos, when he came to drink at the spring of Peirene on the Akrokorinth.

The statue was made from the tree where Pentheus, who opposed the god's cult, spied on both his mother and the Maenads in full Dionysian frenzy. He was pulled from the tree and torn limb from limb.

|One of the most famous temples to the goddess of love towered over the city on the Akrokorinth. Numerous courtesans engaged in their trade inside, contributing greatly to the sanctuary's prosperity.


Because Korinth was desired by the gods, Helios got the Akrokorinth and Poseidon got the Isthmus. Korinthians built a temple on the Isthmus for the god of the sea and oceans.

Mermeros and Pheres were killed by their mother when their father, Jason, deserted her for Glauke, the Korinthian king's daughter. An oracle advised the Korinthians establish rituals in their honor.

Kos

Fishing has a crucial role in Greek society. It's a staple in their diet - especially for people of modest means. Greeks mastered line, net, and even harpoon fishing.

The Asklepiads - the most famous being Hippokrates - practiced at the medical school of Kos. They were said to be the descendants of Asklepios, passing knowledge down through the generations.

Astypalaia was the largest city on the island, acting as its political center. It was home to most of the island's population - its most celebrated citizen being the famous Hippokrates.

Kythera

The island's sailors and fishermen prayed to the goddess to watch over them in nearby waters, which were known to be difficult to navigate. The gilt-head bream was sacred to her.

Renowned for its purple dye and strategic position on the Aegean Sea, Kythera was coveted by many cities during the Peloponnesian War. Taking it was one of the Athenian army's challenges.

The purple dye for clothing came from shellfish. Captured alive, they exhaled their colored juices at death. Millions of snails were needed to get a small amount of the special substance.

Olive trees were grown both for their fruit - a staple in Greek diets - and their oil, used for medicine and perfumery. They were picked from the ground after shaking or beating the trees with poles.

The oldest sanctuary of Aphrodite drew just as many sailors while in port as it did pilgrims coming for celebrations honoring the goddess.


When Aphrodite emerged from the sea, Kythera was the first city to welcome her. Fleeing Troy, her son Aineias dedicated a shrine to her there. It is deemed the oldest in the Greek world.

This port on the island's east coast was in the only easily accessible bay. It had a strategic role in controlling maritime trade with states in the southern Aegean, especially with Egypt and Libya.

Lakonia

Sparta's male education system, the agoge, had a mainly military aim. It was the longest education system in the Greek world, with males age 7-29. Only heirs of royal families didn't participate.

The Perioikoi were a group of Spartan "subcitizens" who lived in the rural areas of Lakonia and Messenia. They had local autonomy, but seem to have been subject to a special tax.

Legend has it that Kastor and Polydeukes were born on Mount Taygetos, near Sparta. The two young heroes were central to the Spartan warrior ritual at the beginning of campaigns.

According to tradition, Amyklai was the home of Tyndareus and his two illustrious boys, Kastor and Polydeukes. It was known for its abundance of fruit trees.

Young Spartans performed ritual battles in the island-shaped area. Before combat they sacrificed a black puppy to the god of war Enyalios, and then organized wild boar fights.

The Dromos course was for footraces, but it was also the place where young people were integrated into the city. Young Spartans offered sacrifices at a statue of Herakles when they became adults.


Gorani was the best known marble quarry in Sparta. Very fine-grained, light gray marble was extracted there.

The Perioikoi may not have been equal to Spartan citizens, but they too were involved in the military affairs of the Lakedaimonian army, serving as hoplites.

Limnai was one of the original villages that formed Sparta. The temple of Artemis Orthia was nearby, whose worship was associated with the long process for future Spartan citizens.

This sanctuary sat on a rocky cliff overlooking the city and fertile plains. It was dedicated to the Spartan king Menelaus and his wife, Helen, over whom the Trojan War was fought for ten years.

Mesoa was one of the four villages that united in the eighth century BCE to form the Spartan city-state under the authority of two families of kings: the Eurypontids and the Agiads.

This underwater city, whose first traces of dwellings date back to 5000 BCE, was home to monuments and tombs. It is said to have been engulfed after a series of devastating earthquakes.

A stoa was raised on the agora using Persian spoils after the Greco-Persian Wars. Columns nearby featured defeated Persians such as Darius's general, Mardonios.


Like Mesoa, Pitana was one of the four original villages that formed Sparta. The Agiads, one of Sparta’s royal families, originated there.

With one of the largest territories, Sparta had a great land-based military power, governing all Lakedaimonians. They were divided into Spartan citizens, free residents, slaves, and mothax.

Tainaros was on the Peloponnese's middle peninsula. It had red and black marble quarries and was also presumed to be a gateway to the underworld. It was guarded by Cerberos and was used by Herakles

The temple of Artemis Orthia near the Eurotas River was one of Sparta's most important religious sites. It was associated with the education of young Spartans, and conducted their initiations.

The temple of Athena Chalkioikos on the akropolis was one of Sparta’s most important monuments. The bronze sheets that decorated its interior gave birth to the name Chalkioikos.


Generally a place of worship for women, this temple was set on a hill opposite the Spartan akropolis. During the god's annual feast, a footrace involving eleven girls was held.

Forty years after the battle of Thermopylai - around 440 BC - Leonidas's bones were brought to Sparta. A hero’s shrine was set up, and a stele inscribed with the name of the soldiers at Thermopylai.

Orestes's bones were returned to Sparta from Tegea on the Delphic Oracle's advice. The Spartans thus enabled eternal protection of the hero, who was associated with the city’s legendary past.

Sparta based its military power mainly on its land troops, preferring to use its allies' naval contributions. Despite this, they used Gytheion as a port.

Lemnos

Myrina was best known for its cults of Artemis, Athena Selene, and the Mother Goddess. One of its important goods was Lemnian soil, which was said to heal wounds and snake bites.

Hephaistos, god of fire, metallurgy, and volcanoes, was honored on the island of Lemnos. When Hera noticed his limp, she threw him off Olympos. He fell near the island, and was found by sea deities.

Lesbos

Mytilene was under Persian domination, but became a loyal ally of Athens after the Greco-Persian Wars. However, faced with the increase in tribute to Athens, it decided to revolt in 428 BCE.

This goddess of fertility and nature from Asia Minor was popular on the island. She was known for having initiated Dionysos into mysteries and ecstasy.

Orpheus was dismembered by Thrakian women, and his corpse was taken to the sea. His head and lyre reached Lesbos, where residents built a tomb for him. It's said lyre music could be heard from inside.

Surnamed the tenth muse, Sappho taught young girls the art of lyric poetry in Lesbos. Her poetry spoke of love and torment, marriage, and female beauty.

Lokris

Alponos, the first village founded in Lokris, was also famous for serving as the Greek naval base during the Persian Wars.

Opous was Lokris's main city and the hometown of the hero Patroklos. It was famed for aiding Leonidas during the Persian wars and for its pirates harassing fifth-centry BCE Athenian traders.

Aptly named "white gold," sea salt was vital for adding flavor to food, but also for conserving, dyeing, and perfumery. The harvesting and trading of sea salt was a strictly systemized business.

Megaris

Tripodiskos was born when an Argive brought a tripod from Delphi. They had orders from the Pythia that wherever it fell, he must live and build a temple to Apollo.

Mt. Geraneia, or "crane hill," was named for the flock of cranes that showed Megaros the way to its peak to escape a flood.

Pagai held strategic importance during the Persian War, and played a pivotal role during the Peloponnesian War.

Megara occupied a territory that held great military and commercial (importance) in mainland Greece.

Panormos was renowned for its harbor, an excellent site to drop anchor.

This Persian cliff was named after the nephew of Darius. He attempted to kill the Megarians by night, but ended up shooting arrows into the cliff face instead.

The Persians fought a losing battle at Salamis. The resulting shipwrecks littered the Greek coasts, souvenirs of their defeat.


This statue of the god of wine and fertility is located close to Megara. Only its face is visible—the rest of the body is hidden by foliage.

Apollo was one of the foremost gods in Megara, but this temple didn't necessarily reflect his importance. It was made of weak clay bricks, which eventually crumbled.

The Sanctuary of Athena was built on the Akropolis. Inside were three temples dedicated to worshipping her.

This stone pyramid was built at the city limit in tribute to Apollo Karinos.


Megarians believe the corpse of Ino washed up on the coast after she threw herself into the sea with her son. There is a sacrifice each year in her honor.

This diamond-shaped tomb depicts an Amazonian shield. It's dedicated to the Queen of the Amazons, Hyppolyta, who was defeated by Theseus and died of grief.

Melos

Founded by Spartan settlers on a volcanic island, Melos's main city goes by the same name. It was known for its resources such as sulfur and obsidian, which were exported across the Mediterranean.

Messenia

Before Epimelides of Thebes renamed the area Korone, it was known as Aipeia until the liberation of Messenia. The area had a sanctuary to Apollo Korythos, who was celebrated for his healing powers.

Located near the future Messene, Andania was home to king Aristomenes, the general who rose up in the second Messinian War against the Spartans. They say his ghost haunted Spartans after his death.

The forge was the place where metal was worked to make weapons, swords, shields, and spears. Blacksmiths revered Hephaistos, the blazing god of metallurgy and fire.

Keadas was a chasm that had seen many death. People sentenced to die and Sparta's captured enemies were thrown into its depths. Aristomenes was thrown twice, but managed to make a legendary escape.

King of Pylos and ruler of Messenia, Nestor traveled Greece with Menelaus to form an army, leading an expedition against the city of Troy. He was the oldest and wisest hero in the Trojan War.

Mykonos

The cult of Artemis was widespread over the Kyklades. She was worshipped notably under the name Artemis Hekaerge, meaning "striking from a distance."

According to a late tradition, the Lokrian Ajax, the ancient hero of Troy, was buried in Mykonos.

In the guise of a young girl and hunter, Artemis guided the various life stages just as she helped in combat. Before battle, Greeks offered a sacrifice to her under the name Agrotera (huntress).

Most of the island was composed of granite - a material like marble - that was used in architectural construction and sculpture in antiquity.

Taverns sold wine and vinegar. Divided in three different types - dry, sweet, and sweet mix, wine could also be flavored with honey, resin, spices, herbs, and even sea water.


Apollo's twin sister enjoyed hunting and as always armed with a bow she used against deer and men. Her arrows were said to bring about sudden death.

Naxos

Ares was punished on Naxos for the murder of Adonis, Aphrodite's beloved. The Aloadai, Poseidon's sons, imprisoned Ares in a large bronze jar for thirteen long months.

Being in love with Poseidon, Iphimedeia often walked to the sea and collected its waters in her lap. There she became, by Poseidon, the mother of the Aloadai, Otos and Ephialtes.

Naxos Island is peppered with places that have been pinpointed as important in Zeus' youth. The god of men and gods had been everywhere, including the Cave of Mt. Zas on Naxos.

Ariadne, in love with Theseus, was abandoned by the hero on Naxos after he returned to Athens. She was killed by the wrathful Artemis for defiling a sacred place dedicated to the goddess.


Poseidon's two sons, the Aloadai, were buried on the island. The strong, bold giants threatened the gods by piling up mountains to reach Olympos.

As the largest of the Kyklades, Naxos was known for its marble and emery. It was also the birthplace of Dionysos, and where Ariadne was abandoned by her beloved Theseus.

The sanctuary of Zeus was located on the island's highest point. It was built where Zeus hid from his father, Kronos, until he was old enough to fight the Titans.

Taking revenge on pirates who kidnapped him for money, Dionysos immobilized their ship in ivy vines. Driven mad, the pirates dove into the water and were turned into dolphins.


The Naxians dedicated a temple to Dionysos to ensure the fertility of their vines and first-rate wine production on the island. Several times a year, festivities were held to honor the god.

Paros

Paros' marble was the most famous in ancient history. With an exquisite white color and a ghostly transparency, it was used throughout the world for the most prestigious sculptures and buildings.

Thanks to its marble quarries, Paros was considered the richest of the Kyklades, and therefore paid the highest tribute (to) the Delian League. It was often in rivalry with the neighboring city of Naxos.

Phokis

This bronze statue of Apollo was dedicated to recall the naval victory of the Athenians and the oracle received by Themistokles.

This building was constructed against the polygonal wall that supported the terrace of the temple of Apollo and was used for setting up ex-votos, mostly spoils of war.

The Athenians dedicated this treasury to Apollo as the first fruits from the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.

The Bouleuterion was the seat of a small local council which had judicial and financial powers. They met there every six months.


This statue was dedicated by the Tyrant of Gela to commemorate his victory at the chariot race during the Pythian Games of 478 or 474 BCE.

Since the city of Delphi operated a Panhellenic sanctuary, the surrounding area enjoyed the special status associated with the oracle's property.

The Liparians dedicated a group of Apollo statues to commemorate a naval victory over the Etruscans. Twenty statues for the twenty ships seized by the enemy.

When he went to consult the Oracle of Delphi, Laios, the father of Oedipous, was killed by his son without either knowing who the other was.


While making sacrifices for a bountiful harvest the king of Kalydon forgot the altars of Artemis. To retaliate, Artemis sent a wild boar to ravage the country.

Pilgrims, the Pythia, and priests alike were required to perform ablutions here before consulting the oracle.

Personified as a man with bull horns, the Kephisos River was worshipped as a god. It fed into the plain of Phokis and Boeotia and ended in Lake Kopais.

This bull was offered by the people of Korkyra after a miraculous day of tuna fishing.


After their victory over the Sybarites, the Krotoniates dedicated to Apollo a tripod that was also the emblem of the coinage of Kroton, an Achaian colony in southern Italy.

The city was named for the nymph Lalaia, daughter of the river god Kephisos. It was built near the springs the nymph was believed to protect.

This building was a meeting and dining place that was decorated with paintings commemorating the fall of Troy and the return of the victorious Greek heroes.

After their victory over the Spartans, this monument was erected by the Argives and represents the seven leaders of the legendary expedition against Thebes.


This monument was dedicated in 465 BCE to cemmorate the battle of Marathon, which took place 30 years prior.

Naxos, a rich island in the Kyklades renowned for its artistic tradition, consecrated this votive in remembrance of its privilege to consult with the Pythia before others.

This palm was erected by the Athenians following their victory over the Persians at the Battle of Eurymedon. The victory put an end to the threat of another Persian invasion of Greece.

The Panhellenic Sanctuary of Delphi was renowned for the Oracle of Apollo, and considered the center of the world in ancient Greece.


This treasury celebrates the victories of the tyrant of Sikyon, Kleisthenes, during the First Sacred War. The monument was decorated with mythological legends, like the Argonauts' expedition.

Apollo used arrows to kill the monstrous serpent Pytho (sic), who originally guarded the oracle. For Greeks, the victory represented the triumph over chaos.

According to the Delphians, this rock was where a woman bearing the nickname Sibyl settled to sing her prophesies. It was said her inspiration came from within.

These two tripods weighed 400 kg each and were dedicated by the Tyrant of Syracuse after his victory in the battle of Himera to his brother to recall his victory at the battle of Kume.

The 31 Greek cities that took part in the Battle of Plataia dedicated to Apollo a massive golden tripod made from the tithe of the Persian booty.

Samos

The Heraion of Samos and the Heraion of Argos were the largest sanctuaries dedicated to Hera in the Greek world. Samos' sanctuary was one of the very first temples made of stone.

Skyros

The city of Skyros, which shares the island's name, was famed for its goats and marble quarries. It had a fortified akropolis, a port, and sanctuaries dedicated to Achilles and Athena.

When Theseus returned to Athens, other factions had seized power. He decided to leave the city and return to Skyros, but he was betrayed by King Lykomedes, who tossed him off a cliff.

In Greek mythology, Achilles was hidden in childhood on Skyros and disguised as one of King Lykomedes's daughters. It was an attempt to elude the fatal destiny he met during the Trojan War.

Thasos

The quarries of Aliki supplied the most beautiful marble on the island. The deposit's proximity to the sea made extraction and exportation easier. The site was mined continuously throughout antiquity.

The gymnasium was the training venue for Thasian athletes, the most famous of whom was Theagenes. His strength was legendary, and he was victorious in boxing and pankration at every Panhellenic Game.

The modest sanctuary of the god Pan is held within a cave cut into the rock on the akropolis. He was honored by shepherds as the protector of flocks but also by soldiers as the god of panic.

The akropolis mine supplied silver lead. Used to produce pure silver, one of the elements used to mint coins, it contributed greatly to the city's wealth.

As the protector of the city, Herakles was the most important god in Thasos. He was called Herakles Soter - the savior. As such, he had his own sanctuary and was featured on Thasian coins.

The agora is the heart of the city. Both a commercial and political hub, it's a gathering place for citizens. The agora houses numerous administrative, commercial, and religious buildings.

Mountainous Thasos was the most prosperous island in the region. Rich from its mines and forests, its marble deposits and wine were also lucrative. Its territory encompassed the entire island.

The akropolis of Thasos overlooks the ancient city. It housed the theater and the sanctuaries of Athena, Pan, and Apollo. The city walls extended onto the summit to encircle the town.

The theater was built in a natural dip on the akropolis and offered a beautiful view of th esea. Erected in the fifth century BCE, it was where the writer Hegemon invented a form of parody.

Thasian wine was well known in antiquity. It was one of the best and was exported throughout the Mediterranean basin.Amphoras of Thasian wine have been found in Magna Grecia, Egypt, and as far away as the Black Sea.

Trivia

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References

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