Saint-Domingue had been a part of France's colonial territories in the New World since 1625, where France shared the island of Hispaniola with the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo. By the middle of the 18th century, the Assassins had established a permanent presence in the colony. Under the leadership of their Mentor François Mackandal, a revolutionary Houngan, the Assassins consisted primarily of African slaves opposing the white colonists of Saint Domingue.
Sometime prior to 1735, a Maroon movement in Saint-Domingue was established, led principally by Augustin Dieufort and supported by Bastienne Josèphe. On the years following 1735, the rebellion grew in strength and power aided by Adéwalé, a member of the West Indies Assassins. Liberated slaves from both the slave ships and those sugar plantations attacked by the Assassin joined the rebellion, though a confrontation with the Governor of Port-au-Prince, Pierre de Fayet, would put an end to this alliance, with Adéwalé leaving Port-au-Prince after assassinating de Fayet in 1737. An attempt at freeing the slaves in Saint-Domingue by poisoning the white colonists led to François Mackandal's execution in 1758. Mackandal's students Agaté and Baptiste both individually fled Saint-Domingue and ended up in the French colony of Louisiana.
The Maroons and their Assassin allies in Saint-Domingue ultimately managed a successful slave uprising, the only one to result in the founding of a free state after a century of effort and more than one attempt. Starting in 1791, with the Vodou ceremony at Bois Caïman led by Dutty Boukman and calling for a major rebellion. By early 1801, Maroon Toussaint Louverture declared himself absolute ruler of the island and freed all slaves. Though interference by French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, by way of his brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, deposed him, Louverture's lieutenant Jean-Jacques Dessalines ousted the French from the island, bringing the Revolution to a successful conclusion.
In 1957, Templar-affiliate François Duvalier was elected President of Haiti, and became responsible for more than ten years of corrupt and murderous leadership. On 21 April 1971, Duvalier was killed by the Assassins.
Behind the scenes
The names of the French colony Saint-Domingue, and the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo, which between themselves divided the island of Hispaniola, both translate to Saint Dominic, a Spanish friar of the Dominican Order.
- Assassin's Creed II (mentioned only)
- Assassin's Creed III: Liberation (mentioned only)
- Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag – Freedom Cry (first appearance)
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates
- Assassin's Creed III: Liberation
- Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag – Freedom Cry – A Common Enemy
- Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag – Freedom Cry – Laying the First Brick
- Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag – Freedom Cry – De Fayet's Last Stand
- Assassin's Creed III: Liberation – Database: Agaté
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates – Eseosa's Codex – Entry #5: "Ceremony at Bois Caïman: Bois Caïman, Saint-Domingue, 1791-08-14"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates – Eseosa's Codex – Entry #9: "Absolute Ruler of Saint-Domingue: Cap Français, Saint-Domingue, 1801-07-08"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates – Eseosa's Codex – Entry #10: "Leclerc's Expedition: Cap Français, Saint-Domingue, 1802"
- Assassin's Creed: Initiates – Eseosa's Codex – Entry #12: "What Price Freedom: Davenport Manor, British America, 1804-03-01"
- Assassin's Creed II – Glyph #15: "Guardians"