The hôtel was built between 1625 and 1630. Accompanied by a small garden, the site for the building was chosen to allow for easy access to the Place Royal - known today as the Place des Vosges. In 1634, it was purchased by the Duc de Sully, functioning as an expansion to his townhouse.
On 22 February 1680, the Marquise de Sévigné and her friends watched from the terrace of the hôtel as the poisoner known as "La Voisin" was carted away to be burnt at the stake. In 1725, the already popular Voltaire was attacked by servants of the Chevalier de Rohan while leaving the hôtel, having fought with Rohan over an actress.
During the French Revolution, a theatrical performance was hosted at the hôtel by the influential Duc de Barrois, who was celebrating his success in having his rivals executed and taking their properties. The Assassin Council took note of this, and had the Assassin Arno Dorian kill the Duc Barrois during the performance.