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The Greco-Persian Wars, also often called the Persian Wars, were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BCE and lasted until 449 BCE.[1]

First invasion of Greece (492–490 BCE)

Battle of Marathon

Main article: Battle of Marathon

The battle, fought on the Marathon Beach, was the culmination of the first attempt by King Darius I of Persia in his attempts to subjugate Greece.

After the battle was won by the Greek armies, the Athenians dedicated a treasury in the Sanctuary of Delphi to the Greek god Apollo to commemorate their victory. In addition, a group of statues was also erected in the sanctuary, located near the southeastern entrance.[2]

Second invasion of Greece (480–479 BCE)

Battle of Thermopylae

Main article: Battle of Thermopylae

Following Darius I of Persia's defeat during the Persian's first invasion at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, Darius' son and successor, Xerxes I actively began planning a second attempt, backed by the Cult of Kosmos, who previously supported Darius. Upon ascending to the throne, he spent the next several years building up his military and naval forces in preperation. Finally, in 480 BCE the Persian emperor considered himself ready and crossed the Hellespont and invaded Greece. [citation needed]

They quickly overran Makedonia and Malis and had made it as far as the Hot Gates of Thermopylae before encountering significant resistance. This resistance took the form of a united Greek army under the command of King Leonidas I of Sparta. [citation needed]

After a long battle, the Greek and Spartan armies were gaining the upper-hand after forcing the Persians to fight in a narrow pass. Until the sudden betrayal of one of their own, who showed the Persians a way around the pass. The Persians then quickly overran the Spartan forces and killed them all.[3]

Battle of Salamis

Main article: Battle of Salamis

After their defeat at Thermopylae, the Greeks drew the Persians into naval combat. The Greeks would prove victorious and forced most of the Persian army to retreat into Asia.[2]

Battle of Plataia

Main article: Battle of Plataia

In 479 BCE, the Persian army and the allied Greek poleis fought their last land battle at Plataia. The battle marked a tremendous victory for the Greeks and effectively ended the Persian invasion of the country.[2]

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