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"In the end, it is impossible not to become what others believe you are."
―Julius Caesar's final words, 44 BCE.[src]-[m]

Gaius Julius Caesar (100 BCE – 44 BCE) was a prominent Roman statesman and general who expanded the territories of the Roman Republic across Europe, before declaring himself dictator for life. Today, Caesar is remembered as one of the greatest minds in history and is often credited with laying the foundation for the Roman Empire.

In addition to his exploits as a Roman general and senator, Caesar secretly became affiliated with a cabal known as the Order of the Ancients, an antecedent to the Order of the Knights Templar, and near the end of his life, became the leader of the Order and began to spread its influence throughout the Republic.


Civil Wars

Around 59 BCE, Caesar founded the city of Florentia, later known as Florence.[1] He rose to prominence for his success in the Gallic Wars, in which he defeated the chieftain Vercingetorix and allowed the Roman Republic to annex Gaul.[2]

In 48 BCE, he and his forces entered Rome in the midst of civil war, and Caesar took power as the dictator of the Republic, while secretly being supported by the Order of the Ancients.[3] He then began a series of campaigns throughout Roman territories to secure his grasp. That same year, Caesar learned of Pompey's escape to Egypt to seek refuge with Cleopatra and pursued him across the Mediterranean Sea.[4]

Alliance with Cleopatra

"Great lady. Your audacity is equaled only by your beauty. Flavius, please."
―Caesar upon meeting Cleopatra, 48 BCE.[src]-[m]
ACO Aya Blade of the Goddess 21

Caesar being greeted by Cleopatra

Arriving in the city of Alexandria, Caesar was greeted by Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII, Cleopatra's younger brother and co-ruler of Egypt. Ptolemy presented Pompey's severed head to Caesar in hopes of gaining his favor to aid him against his older sister. Their meeting was interrupted by the arrival of Cleopatra and her followers, who infiltrated the palace. Cleopatra proved to be more successful than her brother in gaining favor, offering Caesar marriage, which he accepted.[5]

Caesar later became acquainted with Aya and Bayek, followers of Cleopatra who helped both him and the pharaoh to gain access to the Tomb of Alexander the Great. While reminiscing the glory of Alexander the Great, Caesar and Cleopatra were interrupted by the former's lieutenant Flavius Metellus, who reported that their emissaries had been captured and brought to the Akra Garrison. Aya and Bayek subsequently rescued the emissaries from the garrison and discovered that Ptolemy, with the backing of the Order of the Ancients, was planning to besiege Alexandria in retaliation for Caesar and Cleopatra's alliance.[5]

After Aya and Bayek reported their findings, Caesar decided to signal his fleet to let them know to prepare for battle. He tasked Bayek to light the signal at the top of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, but the Medjay decided to entrust this mission to Aya instead while he escorted Caesar out of Alexandria.[5] Riding a chariot together, the two were chased by Ptolemy's soldiers and were nearly crushed by a war elephant, but ultimately managed to escape to safety.[6]

ACO The Battle of the Nile 21

Caesar with Flavius during the Battle of the Nile

Having successfully gathered his forces, Caesar confronted Ptolemy's army in the Nile Delta in February 47 BCE, and defeated his forces with the help of Flavius, Aya and Bayek. While Aya went to deal with a fleeing Ptolemy, Bayek dealt with the Ancients Pothinus and Lucius Septimius, Ptolemy's regent and Pompey's killer, respectively. While Pothinus was killed, Septimius was spared by Caesar, much to Bayek's anger, as the Medjay blamed Septimius for the murder of his son Khemu.[6]

Following Ptolemy's defeat, Caesar installed Cleopatra as Egypt's sole pharaoh with the Order of the Ancients' aid. These actions caused Aya and Bayek to relinquish their loyalty to both rulers and form the Hidden Ones to protect the people's free will.[7] Returning to Rome, Caesar moved his attention away from the Senate and scoffed at their concerns, instead placing his trust in foreign rulers and his own circle of Senators, while also adopting Cleopatra's lavish and self-centered lifestyle.[8] Their relationship also led to the birth of Caesarion, who was expected to become Caesar's heir.[4]


Aya: "So Caesar is the King of the Order now?"
Septimius: "Caesar is the Father of Understanding."
Aya: "You and Caesar will die."
—Aya confronting Lucius Septimius, 44 BCE.[src]-[m]
ACO Fall of an Empire, Rise of Another 23

Caesar's assassination

Over the course the civil war, most of Caesar's opposition had been crushed and defeated, allowing him to become dictator and assume sole authority in Rome. His actions caught the attention of the Hidden Ones, who recruited Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus into the organization. Brutus and Cassius in turn recruited other Roman senators and began plotting to assassinate Caesar.[4][8]

On 15 March 44 BCE, Caesar appeared at a session of the Senate in the Theatre of Pompey, where he was accompanied by Lucius Septimius. While Aya dealt with Septimius, Brutus and Cassius went to the meeting to set their plan in motion. Aya managed to defeat Septimius and arrived at the meeting as well, stabbing Caesar in the back. The rest of the senators followed suit and stabbed the dictator twenty-three times, killing him.[9]


"Caesar built a strong order before he was stabbed in the back by your cowardly wife."
Gaius Julius Rufio berating Bayek's efforts, 38 BCE.[src]-[m]

Despite Caesar's death, the Order of the Ancients in the Roman Republic rapidly grew in power, influence and conviction due to Caesar's efforts prior to his demise.[10] Meanwhile, the civil war in Rome continued for another thirteen years, as the armies of Brutus and Longinus clashed with those of Marcus Antonius and Octavian, Caesar's adopted son who succeeded him as head of the Order.[11] Octavian eventually rose as the sole victor, renaming himself Augustus and establishing the Roman Empire in 27 BCE.[12]

In the early 1500s, the Assassin Ezio Auditore da Firenze learned the details of Caesar's assassination by the Hidden Ones after finding and reading the remnants of Brutus' journal.[8] In 2012, Caesar was included in a mnemonic set in Abstergo Industries' Project Legacy.[2]

Personality and traits

"Caesar moves away from the Senate, placing his trust in foreign rulers, adopting the ego and pomp of his Egyptian whore. [...] [He] refuses to rise when he addresses us and scoffs at our concerns. He has created his own private senate, filled with deceivers, manipulators, people who have no business in Roman affairs."
―Marcus Junius Brutus on Caesar, c. 44 BCE.[src]-[m]

Caesar addressing the Roman Senate

Caesar was a figure who often displayed an arrogant and headstrong exterior, clamoring for greatness and glory in battle.[4] He had a great degree of self-importance, as he greatly disliked the poet Catullus for irreverently disregarding him in his works as well as likening himself to a deity at the end of his life because of his popularity among the Roman people.[5]

Befitting his pride, Caesar had a level of insecurity due to greatly admiring Alexander the Great and wishing to attain the same legendary reputation, but lamented that he had not been as reputable in his five decades of life. His pride convinced him to wed Cleopatra simply because he wanted his legacy to be greater than his idol's.[5]

Caesar was also a man of great patriotism, as seen when he stopped Bayek from killing Lucius Septimius because he was a Roman and wanted Septimius to be charged under Roman laws.[6] He gladly accepted his status as "dictator for life" that he felt was entrusted to him by the people of Rome and tried to unite the Roman Republic into an empire with himself as the ruling head.[9] He also greatly valued those he considered friends as he lamented Pompey's death when he was presented his former ally's decapitated head by Ptolemy XIII, although he still viewed Pompey's demise as necessary for his goals.[5]

ACO Fall of an Empire, Rise of Another 6

Caesar with Lucius Septimius

Beneath his prideful and patriotic exterior, Caesar was a ruthless and determined politician and martial strategist willing to manipulate others to remove threats to his reputation. He was willing to ally with the Order of Ancients to secure his authority in Rome and allow Septimius to kill any opponents in the Senate that threatened his path to full control.[9]

Caesar also had a spiteful view of women, viewing them as the inferior sex, and initially disliked how Bayek had trusted his wife to fulfill a crucial part of his plan against Ptolemy. He developed a grudging respect for Aya's skill as a warrior but otherwise thought little of her.[5]

Behind the scenes

Gaius Julius Caesar is a historical character first mentioned in the 2010 games Assassin's Creed: Project Legacy and Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood, before appearing as one of the main antagonists and the final assassination target in 2017's Assassin's Creed: Origins, where he was voiced by the Scottish actor Michael Nardone,

Historically, the person who initiated Caesar's assassination was a senator named Servilius Casca, whose attack Caesar managed to block at first before questioning why he was trying to kill him. Casca called for help from his fellow senators, including Brutus and Cassius, upon which those who opposed Caesar joined him in killing the dictator. Additionally, a story persists that Caesar's third wife Calpurnia tried to prevent him from going to a meeting when an oracle reputedly told her that he would die that same day, which he rebuked.[13]


  • There is an unlockable trophy for the PlayStation 3 version of Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood named after Julius Caesar. It is earned by acquiring all other trophies, fifty in total.[8]
  • The popular Caesar cipher code format is widely attributed to have been designed by Caesar, hence its name. The code has often been used in the Assassin's Creed series, most commonly in the secret messages left behind by Clay Kaczmarek.
  • During his fight with Aya, Lucius Septimius referred to Caesar as the "Father of Understanding", a deity worshipped by the Order of the Ancients and, later, the Templars. This implies that, at the time, the Father of Understanding was also a title held by particularly high-ranking members of the Order and that it eventually fell out of use after Caesar's death.