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The Gabiniani were 2,000 Roman legionaries and 500 Roman auxiliary cavalry left in Egypt by the general Aulus Gabinius after his military restoration of Ptolemy XII Auletes on the Egyptian throne in 55 BCE. The soldiers were left to protect the king, but they soon adopted the mannerisms and customs of their new country and became completely alienated from the Roman Republic, despite maintaining a Roman identity and citizenship.
After the death of Ptolemy XII in 51 BCE, they helped his son Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator in the power struggle against his sister Cleopatra VII and even involved Julius Caesar, the powerful supporter of Cleopatra, in the Alexandrine Civil War in violent battles.