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Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Situated at the heart of the Attika peninsula, it is considered the birthplace of democracy, and in the 5th century BCE, was the preeminent city-state in the region, wielding hegemony over the Hellenic civilization.

After a period of cultural flourishing during which the origin of much of Western intellectual thought was established, Athens was engulfed in the Peloponnesian War against its militaristic rival, Sparta. Centuries later with the fall of the Byzantine Empire, Athens came under the control of the Ottoman Empire where Assassin influence was firmly established.



Athens has been inhabited as early as the Neolithic period, and by 1412 BCE, the settlement had become an important center of the Mycenaean civilization and the Akropolis was the site of a major Mycenaean fortress. From the 7th century, more stone buildings were being made, though many of these structures were not built to last. According to the myth, the half-man half-reptile Kekrops founded the city and became its first king.[1] As the gods Poseidon and Athena fighted for patronage of the city, they gave gift to the city. Depending on the version, on the Akropolis, Poseidon gave a horse or a salty spring, while Athena offered an olive tree.[2] Eventually Athena won and the city was named after her.[3] The olive tree became a sacred tree for the city [4] and the owl of Athena, which symbolized the goddess's wisdom and protection, was often used in Athens' iconography.[5] In the meantime, Poseidon was seen as a vengeful ruffian.[2]

According to mythology, during the reign of Aegeus, Athens must paid a tribut to Krete, sending young people to feed the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. His son Theseus promised that he would kill the monster and bring back the Athenian youth on a ship flying white sails, symbolizing victory and joy. Successful, Theseus forget to replace his ship's dark mourning sails. Assuming his son had died, the king threw himself off the steep bastion of the Akropolis, meeting his death on the ground below. The Aegean Sea was named after him.[6]

Classical Athens[]

From Oligarchy to Democracy[]

At some point, the Kingdom of Athens became an oligarchy, controlled by aristocrat families. Every year, Athens held the Panathenian festival, including a day procession of Athenian citizens and resident aliens, athletic games, music and rhapsodic contests, a night procession with a torch relay race, great sacrifices, and communal feasting. In 566, Peisistratos expanded the festival to the Great Panathenaia, holding them every four years to serve as Athens's own version of the Olympic Games.[7]

In 561 BCE, Peisistratos seized complete power in the city with the help of a private army, and his family ruled as tyrants.[8] Circa 535 BCE, he ordered the construction of the Temple of Apollo Patroos.[9] He also likely built the Brauroneion, a Temple to Artemis near the Propylaia.[10]

Between 536 and 533 BCE, the responsibility of organizing tragedies was entrusted to the archon of the city. Theater grew rapidly in popularity, and soon a permanent space for performing and watching plays was built on the slope of the Akropolis. During the 5th century BCE, theater became intertwined with Athens's democracy. It often functioned as an echo chamber for political ideas, and in some cases, it could even influence public opinion.[11]

In 530 BCE, Athens began to produce its coinage.[12]

In 528 BCE, Peisistratos' son Hippias became the new tyrant of Athens, ruling with absolute power, and brutally disposing of his enemies. Despite this, Athens was surprisingly peaceful and prosperous under his rule.[13] In 525 BCE, Peisistratos' sons built the Altar of Athena on the Akropolis for sacrifices to the goddess.[14]

In 522 BCE, the Archon Peisistratos the Young, grandson of Peisistratos, dedicated the Altar of the Twelve Gods.[15]

In 510 BCE, Sparta invaded Attika, leading to Hippia's downfall. Exile by the Athenians, Hippias left for Asia Minor.[13] In 508 BCE, Athens became a democracy, the citizens as the ekklesia met at the Pnyx to decide of the city matters and led by elected magistrates.[16] Kleisthenes reorganized the political system dividing Athens into ten tribes. The heroes' tribes were chosen among the city's mythical figures by the Oracle at Delphi. The chosen figures were Erechtheus, Aigeus, Pandion, Leos, Akamas, Oeneus, Kekrops II, Hippothoon, Ajax, and Antiochos. A monument was built in their honor.[17]

At the end of the 6th century BCE, Athens started exploiting the Lavrio Silver Mine and used its metal to produce its currency.[12] The city leased out mining concessions to its citizens, who had their slaves to do most of the work, alongside poor day-laborers.[18]

Circa 500 BCE, the Sanctuary of Zeus Polieos was built on the Akropolis.[19]

Greco-Persian Wars[]

In 494 BCE, Athens aided the city of Miletos revolted against its Persian rulers. As they burned an important Persian temple, King Darius I of Persia was enraged by their sacrilege, and in 491 BCE, sent messengers to the Greek cities demanding their submission. As Athens and Sparta killed the messengers, the Persians invaded Greece.[20] On the advice of Hippias, the Persians landed in Marathon.[21] Athens sent the hemerodrome Philippides to ask Sparta for aid at Marathon but they refused.[22]

In 490 BCE, 10 000 Athenian hoplites led by the soldier-statesman Miltiades and 1 000 Plaiteians defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.[23] Philippides was sent to announce the result to Athens and died of exhaustion.[24] After the battle, the Athenians buried the soldiers in a monumental tumulus near the battle field.[25] The Athenians immortalized their prestige by erecting monuments in both their own city and in Delphi.[26] This victory repealed the Persians and Athens was perceived as a protector against Persian tyranny.[27]

Around 485 BCE, Laurion Mines' production exploded when an especially rich vein was discovered. The mines' abundant silver made Athens one of the wealthiest cities in Greece.[12] During this period, there were anywhere from 10,000 to 30,000 people toiling in the mines.[18]

In 480 BCE, the Persians returned under Darius's son Xerxes and backed by the Cult of Kosmos, a secret organization seeking to unify Greece.[28] When a small Greek force holding the pass of Thermopylae was defeated, the Persians proceeded to capture an evacuated Athens. The city of Athens got captured and sacked twice by the Persians within one year after Thermopylae.[29] During which, many of the archaic structures of the Akropolis were burnt down by the invading Persian armies. Most notably, was the Temple of Athena Polias,[3] and the Temple of Apollo Patroos.[9] The Olive tree was burned by the Persians but according to Herodotos and Pausanias, the tree grew again from its ashes on the very same day.[4]

Later, the Athenian navy led by Themistokles defeated the Persian fleet during the naval Battle of Salamis. After the battle the Athenians took Xerxes tent as a spoil of war.[30] In 479 BCE, the Athenians and Spartans, with their allies, defeated the Persian army at the Battle of Plataia.[31] After their victory on the sea over the Persians, the god Poseidon became more popular. Athens foundation's myth was rewritten to include a reconciliation between Athena and Poseidon and the Erechtheion was built in honor of both gods.[2] After the Battle of Plataia, the cult of Zeus Eleutherios was established and the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios was built.

Golden Age[]

In 478 BCE, to protect Greece from Persian oppression, Athens formed the Delian League, leading an alliance of 150 cities. The allies, whose number eventually grew to 300 as a consequence of numerous victories, contributed troops and money, the latter of which was stored in the sanctuary of Apollo at Delos. After the Persians were defeated, the allies started to resent Athens and its constant demand for troops and money.[32] Athens took advantage of the strength of its naval fleet to try to conquer and control Thrace's mines. In 465 BCE, they besieged the nearby island of Thasos and forced the city to surrender.[33] Athens ruthlessly quelled every revolt, and transferred the allied treasury to Athens' Akropolis in 454 BCE, gradually transforming the League into its own empire.[32]

Themistokles encouraged the development of the Port of Piraeus, which became Athens' naval headquarters, but also the mercantile center of the Mediterranean. Laid out by Hippodamos of Miletos, the Piraeus was divided into three districts: the Piraeus' agora, the militarian Munichia harbor and the economic emporion.[34] Many craftsmen, merchants, bankers, sailors, and ship-owners moved to the port in great numbers. The population was a mix of Greek citizens, foreign visitors, and immigrants known as metics, nearly 5000 to 6000.[35]

Themistokles also recommended that Athens fortify both the city and the port of Piraeus, beginning the Long Walls.[36] Later, Themistokles was exiled by the city and fled for Persia.[37]

From this position, Athens began to assert its hegemony over the other Greek city-states, often aggressively. Popularly known as the Golden Age of Athens, this period of Athenian ascendancy witnessed an explosion of cultural and intellectual developments, with philosophers such as Sokrates and his pupil Plato leaving a lasting legacy on the future European academic tradition. Major milestones regarded as the origins of European fields include the works of Herodotus and Hippokrates, called the "Fathers of History and Medicine" by Western scholars respectively.[38]

In 467 BCE, Athens defeated the Persians at the Battle of the Eurymedon.[39]

In 461 BCE, the Bouleuterion of Athens recalled the stateman Kimon from his ostracization.[40]

By 450 BCE, justice in the emporion was upheld by a group of magistrates known as the nautodikai. Their increased presence at trials runs parallel to the increasing financial and political power of Athens.[41] Circa 450 BCE, the Sanctuary of Pandion was built on the Akropolis dedicated to the eponymous king of Athens.[42]

From 450 BCE onwards, the city of Athens gave poor citizens free theater tickets, which were valued at two oboloi. This initiative was provided for by a public fund called "theorikon" ("money for spectacles"), and it consisted of the distribution of special tokens, or symbola. The purpose of theorikon may have been to make sure poor citizens weren't denied access to the theater. The service was later extended to all citizens, regardless of wealth.[43]

In 443 BCE, Perikles was elected magistrate, a position he held for 15 years.[44] Under his leadership, the Golden Age entered its final stage, with his partner Aspasia, a high society hetaera, hosting numerous social events for contemporary artists, philosophers, and politicians. In secret, Aspasia was the Ghost of Kosmos, leading the Cult to unify Greece.[45] At this time, there were approximately 30,000 citizens in Athens.[8]

With the silver of Laurion and the Delian League Treasure, Perikles planned to rebuild the Akropolis citadel. He enlisted the help of renowned artists like the sculptor Phidias, as well as the architects Iktinos and Kallikrates, erecting the Parthenon.[46] Built between 447 and 432 BCE, the Parthenon alone cost nearly 3 million drachmae, the equivalent of approximately 12 tons of silver. To justify the massive cost, Perikles cited the need to immortalize Athens' greatness but also called attention to the jobs the project would create for hundreds of stone cutters, carpenters, metal workers, painters, and unskilled laborers, all of whom were grateful for the opportunity to make more money.[3] In nine years, Phidias also built a ten-meter bronze Statue of Athena on the Akropolis.[47] The Altar of Athena Polias was remodeled to host sacrifices as large as the Panathenaia festival's hecatomb.[14] Between 437 and 432 BCE, the Propylea was built under the supervision of either Phidias or Mnesikles.[48]

Between the 440s and the 430 BCE, Perikles ordered the construction of an Odeon to be used in the Panathenaia festival. According to ancient sources, the building design was inspired by the tent of the Persian King Xerxes. The building's roof was made of timber from captured Persian ships. In this sense, the Odeon was both a triumphant symbol of Athens, and an insult to their Persian enemies.[30]

In 436 BCE, the Athenians founded the city of Amphipolis in Thrace, giving them a foothold in the resource-rich region.[33]

Perikles invited Kephalos of Syracuse to Athens, where he wished him to open a weapons workshop. Kephalos accepted and settled his workshop in the Piraeus, producing shields with as many as 120 slaves "working" there.[49]

Peloponnesian War[]

Those city-states under Athens' suzerainty, eventually started to resent its dominance, and in 431 BCE, a rivalry between Athens and the militaristic Sparta of the Peloponnesian League erupted into open warfare. As the conflict grew, the Cult of Kosmos infiltrated the two sides, the cultists of the Delian League were led by the Athenian statesman Kleon.[50] Aspasia began to loose control of the cult as the members followed the Hybrid Deimos and searched power through chaos.[45]

Wary of the Spartans' infamous reputation as the best warriors of Greece, Perikles refused to meet the enemy in battle, instead having his forces turtle within the city's walls, putting him at odds with Kleon. On the Akropolis, the Temple of Athena Nike was rebuilt, hoping that it would ensure victory for Athens.[6] With the war, the Propylaia's construction was suspended and was never resumed.[48] The Cult tried to diminish Perikles' influence to gain control of the city.[38] On her side, Aspasia tried to bring down the Cult.[45]

ACOD Perikles's Symposium Memory 03

Kassandra at Perikles' Symposium, 431 BCE.

In May of that year, the Spartan misthios Kassandra traveled to Athens on the suggestion of Herodotos, who suggested she meet Perikles. She wanted to fight the Cult who torn apart her family, abducting her brother Alexios who became Deimos. In Athens, Perikles requested Kassandra to help him with a number of errands in exchange for the information that she needs.[51] Completing the errands for Perikes; Kassandra rescued his friend Metiochos who was threatened by Kleon's followers.[52] She also escorted Phidias safely to the southern island of Seriphos,[53] as the cultist Brison planned to kill him. Kassandra killed Brison before he could do so.[50]. She later helped influence the ostracization vote of the philosopher Anaxagoras.[54] Afterwards, Kassandra was invited to a symposium hosted by Perikles. It was at this symposium Kassandra met with many influential individuals including: the statesmen Alkibiades; the playwrites Aristophanes and Hermippos; the sophists Protagoras and Thrasymachos; and even Aspasia. After speaking to several of them, Kassandra obtained the names of several people who may have encountered Myrrine at some point in the past. She set out from Athens to meet them.[55]

In Athens, other cultists were operating in the city among Kleon. Hermippos criticized Perikles and promoted Kleon through his plays while Nyx the Shadow led the Eyes of Kosmos, the Cult's main source of information throughout Greece. The two cultists were killed by Kassandra.[56]

ACOD Abandoned By the Gods

Kassandra returning to a plague struck Athens, 429 BCE

In Autumn two years later, Athens was hit by a deadly plague which left numerous thousands dead or a quarter of its population.[57] Perikles himself had also contracted the illness, talking with Aspasia she revealed that she sent Phoibe on an errand but she was yet to return. Kassandra left in search of her.[58] However, Kassandra was too late to save her young friend. She had been struck down by Cultist guards. In anger, Kassandra killed them all. She then headed to the Parthenon to find Aspasia, with Hippokrates and Sokrates following close behind.[59] Kassandra made her way up to the Parthenon, meeting Aspasia outside. Following a commotion inside the Partenon, the four of them entered only to find Deimos killing Perikles. After mourning her lover's death, Aspasia left Athens with Kassandra to find her mother and secretly help her destroyed the cult. Hippokrates and Sokrates agreed to stay behind and help the people. With the death of Perikles, Kleon was able to seize power of the polis.[60]

In 428 BCE, Athens' most powerful ally Mytilene revolted against them. Athens crushed the revolt and Kleon planned to vote for the extermination of the entire male population of the island.[61]

During the summer 425 BCE, the Athenian General Demosthenes defeated the Spartan Army led by Brasidas during the Battle of Pylos, Kassandra being captured by the Cult after a duel with Deimos.[62] With their troops trapped on the island of Sphacteria, Sparta sent ambassadors to Athens to hold the hostilities. Kleon refused and led an army, winning the Battle of Sphakteria.[61] The Spartan prisoners were sent to Athens to serve as hostages.[63]

ACOD The Resistance 2

Kassandra convening with the Periklean Circle, 424 BCE.

Held in an Athenian prison, Kassandra was approached by Deimos, and try reason with him. When the coast was clear, Sokrates and Barnabas arrived to help Kassandra break out. Although she was already ahead of them.[64] Convening with the Periklean Circle at least a month later, a gathering of Perikles' closest friends, Kassandra and the Circle hatched a plan to discredit Kleon.[65] The playwright Aristophanes suggested a play to mock Kleon, however, Aristophanes' actor Thespis had gone missing and so Kassandra helped locate him.[66] However, Thespis refused to act without his muse. Finding out that his muse, Aikaterine, was being threatened by the Cultist Rhexenor, Kassandra dealt with him and Aikaterine was free to resume being Thespis' muse.[67] Kassandra then met with Sokrates at the Pnyx and helped convince the public of Kleon's wrongdoings to eliminate Mytilene population.[68]

In 424 BCE, as Brasidas rallied Amphipolis and nearby cities without a fight, Athens dispatched the general Thucydides to take back the city but ultimately failed, leading to his exile.[69] The Athenian politician Nicias, as well as the city of Sparta, hoped that peace could be negotiated and established a truce in 423 BCE. But a year later, Kleon became one of Athens' strategists and led an army to Amphipolis.[70] Brasidas sought Kassandra aid for the upcoming Battle of Amphipolis, which she accepted and promptly travelled to.[71] During the battle, both army's leaders died, Kleon being killed by Kassandra and Brasidas by Deimos. Athens and Sparta were encouraged to push the peace. In 421 BCE, the Athenian politician Nicias led the peace delegation, bringing the so-called treaty of Fifty-Year Peace.[72] In the negotiations, Sparta requested that Athens free the prisoners of the Battle of Sphakteria.[63] Kassandra returned to Athens and joined the Periklean Circle to celebrate the peace and comemorated the deads.[73]

In 415 BCE, the Peloponnesian War resumed, Athens and Sparta fighting again for their hegemony on Greece.[72] When the Spartans occupied and fortified Dekelia, Athens was cut off from important roads. The slaves in Laurion took advantage of this opportunity, and 20,000 of them fled the mines. Because of this, silver extraction in Laurion ceased, having a significant impact on Athens's economy. Its treasury gradually emptied, and it was left with no funds to rebuild its fleet. Deprived of resources, Athens was forced to melt two gold statues of Athena Nike to strike gold coins. The city also produced bronze coins covered in a thin silver layer to imitate and replace its tetradrachms.[74]

In 406 BCE, during the Battle of Arginousai, Athens lost a lot of men and ships. The Athenians demanded punishment without due process for the generals involved in the battle. However, Sokrates, who was the epistates at the time, refused to vote on the matter, stating that he would never perform an action that wasn't in accordance with the law.[75]

Post Peloponnesian War[]

In 399 BCE, Sokrates was accused of impiety against the pantheon of Athens and corruption of the city's youth. Found guilty, the philosopher was forced to drink hemlock.[76]

In the 4th century BCE, the city introduced a special allowance called a misthos ekklesiastikos meant to encourage citizens' participation in the assembly. The Pnyx was also enlarged to include up to 8,500 citizens, and was later enlarged again to fit around 13,000 citizens.[77]

In 393 BCE, Piraeus' emporion was attacked in a daring raid by a Spartan fleet of twelve triremes led by Teleutias. Many merchant ships were captured by the Spartans. The raid ended up discouraging foreign traders from travelling to Piraeus, which put Athens' economy in jeopardy. Consequently, Athens was forced to negotitate peace with Sparta.[78]

At the beginning of the 4th century BCE, Antisthenes used the Garden of Kynosarges sanctuary as a teaching spot for his school of philosophy, the aptly called Cynicism.[79]

In 388 BCE, Plato founded his Academy outside the walls of Athens. Among his students were his nephew Speusippos, Archytas,Eudoxos of Knidos and Aristotle.[80]

In the 4th century BCE, the orator Lykourgos reorganized the Theater of Dionysos building it in stone.[81] He also implemented a decree that created a fixed canon for tragedies featuring final and definitive versions of the plays of Aiskhylos, Sophokles, and Euripides.[82] During this time, the philosopher Plato coined the term "theatrocracy" to describe his city's politics.[11]

In the 370s BCE, Athenian imperial ambitions were once again on the rise after recovering from their defeat in the Peloponnesian War.[83] In 370 BCE, entrepreneurs started leasing the Laurion mines again.[74]

Circa 350 BCE, the magistracy of the nautodikai was abolished.[41] In the 4th century BCE, a new Temple of Apollo Patroos was built, with a statue of the god made by Euphranor.[9]

Hellenistic Era[]

In the 330s BCE, Athens was under the control of Makedonia kings Philip II and his son Alexander the Great. In 335 BCE, Aristotle, who was Alexander tutor in Makedonia, returned to Athens to found his school, the Lykeion with a library. Among his disciples were Theophrastos of Eresos wrote on botany and stones, Eudemos of Cyprus composed a history of mathematics, and Aristoxenos of Tarentum wrote a book on harmonics. When Alexander died in 323 BCE, Aristotle was forced to leave the city for Euboea.[84]

During Alexander's conquest of Persia, the large amount of silver obtained by the Macedonians dropped the price of silver so much that the yields from the Laurion mines were no longer enough to cover their running costs.[74]

In 320 BCE, the city artillery and naval equipment were stored in the Chalkotheke.[83]

In 301 BCE, the philosopher Zeno of Kition chose the Stoa Poikilè as the location for his school of philosophy which was dubbed Stoicism.[85]

Under Foreign Rule[]

Roman Era[]

During the 2nd century BCE, like all Macedonian Greece, Athens was conquered by the Roman Republic and later been part of the Roman Empire. During Nero's reign, a new stage was built in the Theater of Dionysos, in honor of both the god and the emperor.[81]

During the late 3rd century CE, a Germanic tribe invaded Athens, destroying monuments on the Akropolis. Circa 280 CE, using the remains of the monuments, F. Septimius Marcellinus built a ceremonial entrance in front of the Propylaea.[46]

In the 6th century CE, the last philosophers of Athens were expelled by the edict of the emperor Justinian I.[79] As for the rest of the Roman Empire, the worship of the Greek gods faded away with the expansion of the Christianity. The Temple of Hephaistos was converted into a Christian church.[86] In 590 CE, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian Greek Church dedicated to Maria Parthenos. The church became the fourth most important pilgrimage destination in the Byzantine Empire, after Constantinople, Ephesus, and Thessalonica. With the Great Schism of the 11th century, the Parthenon became an Orthodox Church.[87]

Duchy of Athens[]

After the Fourth Crusade and the sack of Constantinople in 1204, with the scrumbling of the Byzantine Empire, the Crusaders established the Duchy of Athens. The Latin Duke built his palace on the Akropolis and the Parthenon became the Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady.[46]

Ottoman era[]

In 1458, the Ottoman Empire conquered the Duchy of Athens.[87] On the Akropolis, the Parthenon was converted into a mosque and the Ottomans built living quarters, and the harem of the local governor.[46]

Resentment against the new Turkish regime remained fresh as late as 1511, when the local Assassins struggled to maintain public faith given their transnational policies.[88] That year, with Ezio Auditore da Firenze, Mentor of the Italian Brotherhood taking over operations in Constantinople, Ottoman Assassins were sent to Athens to revitalize the Greek branch. These Turkish Assassins were instrumental in helping their Greek counterparts reestablish the Athenians' trust by convincing the common people that their cause transcended national sentiments, prioritizing humanity as a whole.[88]

Not long after, Templar agents began paying Ottoman soldiers for the goods of wealthy Athenians, thereby instigating them into open robbery of these citizens' homes. The explicit order of Sultan Bayezid II against such raiding could not dissuade these soldiers from the promise of handsome profits, leading to the intervention of the Ottoman Assassins. After these Assassins defended the Athenians from further robbery, they discovered the Templar background of the affair and assassinated the leaders behind it.[89][90]

Subsequently, remnants of Isu technology were uncovered beneath the acropolis. In response, further Turkish agents were sent by Ezio to guard the site while Assassin scholars conducted a thorough survey.[91] By the end of 1512, Athens was fully under the control of the Assassin Brotherhood as with the other major cities in the Mediterranean.[92]

In 1687, during the Morean War, the Republic of Venice besieged the Akropolis. The Parthenon, which became a gunpowder storage, was struck by a Venetian cannonball. The explosion blew apart the roof, severely damaged three walls, and several columns and metopes fell to the ground, as well as most of the sculptures on the pediments and the frieze.[87]

Modern times[]

In the early 19th century, Greece became independent and the state decided to revive the Akropolis' Classical ruins, removing the medieval and modern buildings.[46]

In 1896, Athens held the first modern Olympics games which were revived by the French nobleman Pierre de Coubertin.[93]

In 1952, members of the American School of Archaeology planted an olive tree on the Akropolis as a spiritual descendant of the sacred olive tree planted during the foundation of Athens.[4]


Characterized by a dry summer climate, the environment of Athens is the definition of the Greek atmosphere. The city is divided into thirty districts, including the Pottery District called Kerameikos.[38]


During the 5th century BCE, the Athenian economy was largely fueled by taxes paid by city-states it held suzerainty over as the head of the Delian League.[38]

Behind the scenes[]

The artwork used for Attika on Ubisoft's Assassin's Creed: Odyssey site is the concept art by Hugo Puzzuoli, albeit featuring Alexios.

The Animus Next, the Assassin's Creed series promotion website for the 15th anniversary, presents the native name as "Aθhna".[94] Not "Αθήνα" in Ancient Greek.




  1. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Akropolis of Athens: Erechtheion
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Contest Between Poseidon and Athena
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Akropolis of Athens: "Akropolis Origins"
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Olive Tree of Athena
  5. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Athenian Banner
  6. 6.0 6.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Akropolis of Athens: Temple of Athena Nike
  7. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: The Great Panathenaia
  8. 8.0 8.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Democracy in Athens: The Pnyx
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Agora of Athens: Apollo Patroos
  10. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Artemis Brauronia
  11. 11.0 11.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: School of Greece - Theater: The Greek Theater
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Laurion Silver Mines: Laurion Mines Overview
  13. 13.0 13.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Hippias
  14. 14.0 14.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Altar of Athena
  15. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Altar of the Twelve Gods
  16. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Democracy in Athens: Democracy as Heritage
  17. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Eponymous Heroes
  18. 18.0 18.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Laurion Silver Mines: An Antique Mine
  19. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Sanctuary of Zeus Polieos
  20. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Marathon: "Causes of the Conflict"
  21. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Marathon: Arrival of the Persian
  22. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Philippides
  23. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Marathon: "The Greek Reaction"
  24. Assassin's Creed: ValhallaMildberg the Miracle Legs
  25. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Marathon: The Aftermath
  26. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Marathon: Consequences
  27. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Marathon: Consequences
  28. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyBully the Bullies
  29. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Thermopylai: "The Greek Army's Retreat"
  30. 30.0 30.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: School of Greece - Music: The Odeon of Perikles
  31. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyHistorical Locations – Boeotia: Battleground of Plataia
  32. 32.0 32.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Akropolis of Athens: Parthenon Treasury
  33. 33.0 33.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Amphipolis: Amphipolis
  34. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Piraeus: Piraeus Overview
  35. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Piraeus: Population
  36. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Fortification
  37. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Ostracism
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 Assassin's Creed: Odyssey
  39. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Coins
  40. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Agora of Athens: Bouleuterion
  41. 41.0 41.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Piraeus: Pentekostologoi
  42. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Sanctuary of Pandion
  43. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: School of Greece - Theater: Festivals
  44. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Democracy in Athens: Magistrates
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 Assassin's Creed: OdysseyA Fresh Start
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Akropolis of Athens: Perikles' Akropolis
  47. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Akropolis of Athens: Athena Promachos
  48. 48.0 48.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Propylaia
  49. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Workshops in Piraeus
  50. 50.0 50.1 Assassin's Creed: OdysseyThe Delian League
  51. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyWelcome to Athens
  52. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyA Venomous Encounter
  53. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyEscape from Athens
  54. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyOstracized
  55. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyPerikles's Symposium
  56. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyThe Eyes of Kosmos
  57. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Plague
  58. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyAbandoned By the Gods
  59. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyAnd the Streets Run Red
  60. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyAthens's Last Hope
  61. 61.0 61.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Battles of Pylos and Sphakteria: Necotiations
  62. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyThe Battle of Pylos
  63. 63.0 63.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Battles of Pylos and Sphakteria: Consequence
  64. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyDoing Time
  65. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyThe Resistance
  66. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyAn Actor's Life for Me
  67. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyA-Musing Tale
  68. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyUnearthing the Truth
  69. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Amphipolis: The Shame of Thucydides
  70. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Amphipolis: Eion Port
  71. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyThe Knights
  72. 72.0 72.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Battle of Amphipolis: The Fifty-Year Peace
  73. Assassin's Creed: OdysseyWe Remember
  74. 74.0 74.1 74.2 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Laurion Silver Mines: Extracting Ore
  75. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Agora of Athens: Prytaneion
  76. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Agora of Athens: Judicial Court
  77. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Democracy in Athens: Participation
  78. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: Piraeus: Economic District
  79. 79.0 79.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: School of Greece - Philosophy: Kynosarges
  80. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: School of Greece - Philosophy: Importance of Philosophy
  81. 81.0 81.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: School of Greece - Theater: Sanctuary of Dionysos
  82. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: School of Greece - Theater: The Theatron
  83. 83.0 83.1 Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece – Discovery Sites: Chalkotheke
  84. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: School of Greece - Philosophy: Classical Philosophers
  85. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Agora of Athens: Painted Stoia
  86. Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Agora of Athens: The Hephaisteion
  87. 87.0 87.1 87.2 Discovery Tour: Ancient GreeceTours: The Akropolis of Athens: Parthenon Exterior
  88. 88.0 88.1 Assassin's Creed: RevelationsMediterranean Defense: "For The People, Part I"
  89. Assassin's Creed: RevelationsMediterranean Defense: "For The People, Part II"
  90. Assassin's Creed: RevelationsMediterranean Defense: "For The People, Part III"
  91. Assassin's Creed: RevelationsMediterranean Defense: "First Civ Problems"
  92. Assassin's Creed: RevelationsMediterranean Defense
  93. Discovery Tour: Ancient Greece - The Olympic Heritage
  94. Animus Next – 431 BCE, Ancient Greek during the Peloponnesian War: "Athens in the 5th century BC"