During the Peloponnesian War, many of the island nations throughout the Aegean Sea sided with either Sparta's Peloponnesian League, or Athens' Delian League. Because of this the navies of various nations regularly patrolled the sea, in addition to pirates. The Spartan misthios Kassandra also traversed the sea aboard her ship the Adrestia at the time. The Gods of the Aegean Sea, a branch of the Cult of Kosmos, sought to control all of the traffic on the Aegean, especially the trade routes, until the branch collapsed after the intervention of the Eagle Bearer.
Roman Civil War
In 48 BCE, Cleopatra of Egypt, dispatched Aya and Phoxidas to the Aegean in search of the Roman general Pompey, who she sought to secure alliance with in order to capture the throne from her brother Ptolemy XIII. Aya and Phoxidas destroyed a number of Ptolemy's triremes before meeting with Pompey's fleet, which then also came under attack from Ptolemy's fleet.