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Abdülmecid I (1823 – 1861) was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1839 until his death.


In 1853, French Emperor Napoleon III sent a warship into the Black Sea to "politely suggest" that Abdülmecid acknowledge French Catholicism as the authority over Christian sites in the Holy Land. This rather annoyed Tsar Nicholas I, since up till that point the Eastern Orthodox Church had controlled those sites, and he responded by sending two corps to the banks of the Danube. Diplomatic relations soured from there, and since the British and French were leery of Russian expansionism and already had troops in the area, they decided to ally with the Ottomans.[1]

The conflict, which became known as the Crimean War, ended in 1856 when the allies took the key Russian city of Sevastopol. Recognising the inevitability of defeat, Nicholas I sued for peace.[1]



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